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Boaii, Tarleton H. Description of a New Sparoid Fish, Sargus Holhroohii, from Savan- 

naliBaiik 198 

Ou the Occurrence of Stichceus punctatus (Fabr.) Kxo;5er, at St. Michael's, Ahiska 279 

Ou the Identity of Euchalarodus Futnami Gill, -with Pleuronectes glaber (Storer) Gill, 

with iSTotes on the Habits of the Species 345 

Description of a Species of Lycodes {L. Turneri) from Alaska, beUeved to be unde- 

scribed 463 

See also under Goode and Bean. 

Beldlng', ij. A Partial List of the Birds of Central Califox^ia : 388 

Cook, Caleb. The Manufacture of Porpoise-Oil •• ■ 16 

I>all, W. II. Descriptions of Now Forms of Mollusks from Alaska contained in the Collec- 
tions of the National Museum 1 

Postplioceue FossOs in the Coast Eange of California 3 

Fossil Mollusks from Later Tertiaries of California 10 

Note on Shells from Costa Eica Kitchenmiddcn, cojlected by Drs. Flint and Bransford . . 23 

— 1 Distribution of CaUfoiniau Tertiary FossUs 20 

Descriptions of New Species of ShcUs from California in the Collections of the Na- 
tional Museum 40 

»- Report on the Limpets and Chitons of the Alaskan and Arctic Regions, with Descrip- 
tions of Genera and Species believed to be new ^ 281 

Edwards, Viiial K, On the Occurrence of the Oceanic Bonito, Orcynus pelamys (Linn^) 

Poey, in Vineyard Sound, Mass 203 

Oill, Tlieodore. Synopsis of the Pediculate Fishes of the Eastern Coast of Extratropi- 

cal North America 215 

Note on the Antrnnariidce 221 

On the Proper Specilic Name of the Common Pelagic Antennariid Pterophryne 223 

Note on the Ceratiidai 227 

Note on the ATaltheidce 231 

CJoode, G. Brown. _ The Clupea tyrannus of Latrobe 5 

The Occurrence of Belone latimanus in Buzzard's Bay, Massachusetts 6 

The Voices of Cnistaoeans 7 

A Kevision of the American Species of the Genus Brevoortia, with a Description of a 

New Species from the Gulf of Mexico.. , 30 

The Occurrence of Hiiypocampus antiqiiorum, or an Allied Form, on Saint George's 

Banks 45 

The Occurrence of the Canada Porcupine in "West Virginia 2G4 

Ou Two Fishes from the Bermudas mistakenly described as new by Dr. Giiuther 402 

Goode, C Brown, and TarlctOM H. Bean. The Craig Flounder of Em-ope, Glyp- 

toeephaluji cynoylossus, ou the Coast of North America 19 

The Oceanic Bonito on the Coast of the United States "24 

Description of Ccmlolatilus 'inierops, a New Species of Fish from the Gulf Coast of 

Florida 42 

On a New Serranoid Fish, Epinephelus Drumviond-Hayi, from the Bermudas and 

Florida ■. 173 

Descriptions of Two New Species of Fishes, Lutjanus Blaclcfordii and Ltitjanns 

Stearnsii, from the Coast of Florida 17G 

A Note upon the Black Grouper (Epinephelus nigritus (Holbrook) Gill) of the Southern 

Coast ' 182 

Descriptions of Two Gadoid Fishes, Phycis Chestcri and Haloporphyi-us viola, from the 

Deep-Sea Fauna of the Northwestern Atlantic 2oG 

Description of Argentina syrtansium, a New Deep-Sea Fish from Sable Island Bank 201 

The Identity of lilanonenius caudacuta (Storer) Gill with Gadus eimbrius Linn " 348 

Note on Platcssa ferruginea D. H. Storer, and Platessa rostrata H. E. Storer OCl 

On the Identity of Brosmius americanus GiU, with Brosmius hrosme (MiiUer) "White ... 302 



Jackson, J. C S., 3TI. 1>. Arsenic Acid for protecting Anatomical Preparations ftom In- 
sects 24 

Jefferson, I^ieut. J. P.,X'. S. A. On tlie Mortality of Tislies in the Gulf of Mexico in 1878.. 363 
Jefferson, ]L,ieut. J. P., Dr. Joseph Y. Porter, and Thomas 3Ioore. On the 

DesiTuction of JTish in the Vicinity of the Tortugas during the months of September aud 
October, 1S78 244 

Jordan, David S., M. D. ISTotes on a Collection of Fishes from Clackamas Eiver, Oregon.. C9 
Joi'dan, David S., and Charles H. Gilbert. Kotes on the Fishes of Eeaufort Harbor, 

Korth Carolina 365 

I.awrence, George N. Catalogue of the Birds of Dominica, from Collections made for 
the Smithsonian Institution by Frederick A. Ober, together "with his Notes and Observa- 
tions 48 

Catalogue of the Birds of St. Vinfent, from Collections made by Mr. Fred. A. Ober, 

under the Directions of the Smithsonian Institution, "with his Xotes thereon 185 

Catalogue of the Birds of Antigua and Barbuda, from Collections made' for the Smith- 
sonian Institution, by Mr. Fred. A. Ober, ^yith his Observations 232 

Catalogue of the Birds of Grenada, from a Collection made by Mr. Fred. A. Ober for the 

Smithsonian Institution, iucluding others seen by him, but not obtained 205 

Catalog-ue of the Birds collected in Martinique by Mr. Fred. A. Ober for the Smithsonian 

Institution '. 349 

Catalogue of a Collection of Birds obtained in Guadeloupe for the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, by Mr. Fred. A. Ober 449 

A General Catalogue of the Birds noted from the Islands of the Lesser Antilles visited 

by Mr. Fred. A. Ober ; -with a Table showing their Distribution, and those fovmd in the ITnited 
States 486 

I/ni>ton, Prof. S. T. On the Breeding Habits of the Sea-Catfish (Ariopsis 21'dherti?) 278 

Merrill, Dr. James C, \J. S. A. Kotes on the Ornithology of Southern Texas, being a List 

of Buds observed iu the Viciuity of Fort Bro\vn, Texas, from February, 1876, to June, 1878.. 118 

Poey , Pelipe. Notes on the American Species of the Genus Cyhium 3 

Pratt, Capt. R. II., V. s. A. Catalogue of Casts taken by Clark Mills, Esq., of the Heads of 
Sixty-fourlndianPrisoucrsof Various Western Tribes, and held at Fort Marion, Saint Augus- 
tine, Fla., in Charge of Capt. E. H. Pratt, U.S. A 201 

Ridg"(vay, Robert. On a 'Sevi Humming Bird (Atthis Ellioti) from Guatemala 8 

A Review of the American Species of the Genus /Scops, Savigny ....: '. 85 

Descrijjtions of Several New Species and Geographical Eaces of Birds contained in the 

Collection of the United States National Museum 2i7 

Description of Two New Species of Birds from Costa Eica, and Notes on other Eare 

Species from that Country 253 

Descriptions of New Species and Eaces of American Birds, including a Synopsis of the 

Genus Tyrannua, Cuvier .' 400 

Stearns, Silas. A Note on the Gulf Menhaden, Brevoortia patronus, Goode 181 

Steindachner, Dr. Franz. Note on Perca flaveicens 243 

Wilmot, Samuel. Notes on the Western Gizzard Shad, Dorosoma cepedianum heterunivi 

(Eaf.) Jordan , 268 







By "W. H. UAL.L.. 

Genus AMICULA Gray. 

Type A, vestiia Sowerby. 

Subgenus Chlamydochiton Dall. 
Ch. t. ^Amiculce^ similiter sed branchiae ambientes. 

Type Chiton amiculatua Pallas. 
Amicula proper bas the branchiae median. 


Leptochiton Belknapi Dall, n. s. 

L. t. elongata,, valdeelevata,dorsualiter angulata; albidaplusminusve 
cinereo et nigro tincta; valvis elevatis, apicibus distinctis ; mucrone 
centrali couspicuo; sculptura ut in L. alveolo, sed granulis in areis dor- 
sualis sparsim et quincuucialiter dispositis; valva postica sub apice con- 
cava, postice sinuata; zona minima spiculis tenuibus versus marginem 
munita. Lou. 10, lat. 3™™. Div. 90°. 

^a&.— North Pacific Ocean, in lat. 53° 08' K, and Ion. 171° 19' W., 
at a depth of 1006 fathoms, black sand and shells. Brought up in the 
sounding-cup, on the sounding expedition of the United States ship 
Tuscarora, Capt. George E. Belknap, TJ. S. N., in 1874. 

This specimen comes from a greater depth than any specimen of the 
order hitherto collected. It is nearest to L. alveolus Sars, from the coast 
of Norway. 


Subgenus Traohyeadsia Cpr. (Ms.). 

Trachydermon, valvis centralibus bi- seu pluri-fissatis. 
Type Chiton fiilgeirum Reeve. 
Trachyradsia aleutica Dall, n. s. 
T. t.parva, rufo-cinereii, oblonga, fornicata; jugo .icutissimO; mucrone 
Proc. Nat. Mus. 78 1 I 


submediano, apicibus promineutibus; areis lateralis iuconspicuis ; tota 
superficie quiucuncialiter minute reticulata ; intus, valv. aut. 10-, post. 
11-, centr. 2-fissatis; deut. parvis, perspougiosis, late separatis; sub- 
grundis spongiosis, curtis; sinu parvo; zona squamulis minutis obsita. 
Lon. C, lat. S""™. 
Sab. — Western Aleutians, near low-water markj Dall. 

This bears no marked resemblance to any of the other Alaskan 


Type Chiton marmoreus Fabr. 

Tonicella saccharina Dall, n. s. 

T. t. parva, oblonga, tota superficie saccharina, rufo et albescente 
picta; mucrone submediano, inconspicuo; areis lateralis inconspicue ele- 
vatis, albescentis; areis dorsualissanguinosis, i&qne quiucuncialiter lente 
reticulatis; v. ant. 10-11-, v. post. 8-10-, v. centr. 1 fissatis ; dent, par- 
vis spongiosis, sinu parvo; subgrundis spongiosis, mediocris; zona 
coriacea ut in Tonicellw aliis : branchia? mediffi. Lon. C.5, lat. 4™"". 

j3a&.™^ Aleutian Islands, three to thirteen fathoms; Ball. 

This species has the lustre of rock-candy, and is well marked by the 
contrast of the white lateral with the red dorsal areas. 


Testa et zona Tonicellw simulans ; valvre centrales sulco jugali medi- 
ano, antico argute inciso) ; branchiaj subambieutes. 

Type Chiton Brandtii Midd. 

For this remarkable Alaskan form, distinguished from all other Chi- 
tons by its slit central valves, I propose to adopt a name suggested 
by Dr. Carpenter, who, on Middendort's figures, had intended to j^ropose 
it as a subgenus of Tonicella, The specimens- obtained by my party 
seem to be the first found since the original ones were obtained. A 
careful examination of the soft parts shows that in dentition and some 
other details sufficient basis for generic separation is found, confirming 
the testimony of the valve characters. The sulcus is usually filled by 
a horny or cartilaginous deposit. 

It may be added here that investigation of the characters of the 
radula in numerous species and genera of Chitons in the National Mu- 
seum shows a very remarkable uniformity of dentition. No larger 
groups than genera are indicated in the whole order, which, it appears, 
can hardly comprise more than one family; and it is doubtful if this can 
be divided into subfamilies by any characters yet elucidated. 

The dentition in all species examined has the formula G • 2 • 1 • 2 • 6, or 

- — . . Of the te«th, the rhachidian appears always simply cusped; 


the two laterals present varied characters; the third uDciuus, counting 
outward, is usually spatulate ; while the remainder are mere bosses, or 
scales. The wide differences found in the few figures of the dentition 
of Chitons extant appear to be due to erroneous interpretation of the 
objects represented. The figures of Loven are the most satisfactory. 


By "W, II. DAL,L. 

The National Museum has received from Mr. G. F. Merriam, of San 
Luis Eey,Cal., specimens of Donax cali/ornicus, Chione succincta, Olivella 
biplicata,au(l Cerithidea sacrata, in a semi-fossilized condition. The first 
mentioned retained a considerable part of its pinkish interior coloration. 
These fossils (probably with other species) are stated by Mr. Merriam 
to be found in great abundance at the head of a cahon in that vicinity, 
in the heart of the Coast Range, twelve miles from the sea in a direct 
line, and six hundred feet above tide-water. All the species are found 
living in abundance on the present sea-coast. This indicates a very 
recent elevation for this part of the coast, if the facts are correctly 
interpreted, and further specimens and details will be awaited with 



[Translated by G. Brown Goode, from MS. memorandum of Professor Felipe Poey.J 
Cybium caballa, Cuv. & Val. 

Cybium cahalla, Cuvier & Valenciennes, Histoire Natnrelle des Poiesons, 
viii, 18:51, p. 187. — Guntiier, Catalogue of tbe Acantboi)terygian Fishes in 
the Collectiou of the British Museum, ii, 1860, p. 373. — Poey, Repertorio 
Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba, i, 1867, p. 322 ; ii, p. 13 ; aud in Synopsia 
Piscium Cubensiuiu, op. cit., ii, p. 362. 

CyUum acervum, Cuvier & Valenciennes, Ioc. cit., p. 186 {nee ti/puii). 

Vulgo : — Sierra. 

Differential Characters. — First dorsal with fourteen spines, without a 
blaclc spot anteriorly. Body immaculate in the adult, spotted with yel- 
lowish in the young fish. 

The number of teeth increases with the age ; in large specimens, it is 
If. The larger teeth are placed upon the middle of the jaw, those in 
the lower jaw being a trifle the longer. Tbe lateral line is very sinuous 
upon the posterior portion of the body. The eye is larger than in Cy- 
bium regale. 

Bluish upon the back, whitish under the belly. First dorsal white; 
second dorsal and caudal dusky-bluish {hlen-noiratre) ; pectorals bluish, 
as is also the anal, which, however, becomes white at its extremity ; 
ventrals whitish. 


Id the young fish, under the length of two or three feet, the sides are 
covered with round, irregular spots, of rather dirty yellow {jaune un peu 

Cuvier described a specimen which weighed twenty-two pounds; at 
that size, the fish is still young, and retains its yellow spots. 

Those ordinarily taken range in weight from twelve to twenty-five 
pounds, though they reach the weight of one hundred iiounds. I have 
seen one which measured 285"^™. 

Cybium regale, (Bloch) Cuvier. 

Scomber regalis, Bloch, Naturgeschichte der ausliindischen Fische, taf. 333. 
Cybium regale, Cuvier & Valenciennes, op. cit., p. 184. — Gunther, op.cil., p. 

372.— PoEY, op. cit., i, p. 322 ; ii, p. 362. 
Vnlgo : — Pintada. 

Differential Characters. — The first dorsal has seventeen spines and the 
spot upon its anterior portion. The lateral bands and spots are persistent 
through life. 

The teeth are f ^ in a specimen of moderate size. In the upper jaw, the 
median teeth are the larger; in the lower, their size is more nearly equal. 

The back is bluish, as are also the top of the head, the second dorsal 
and its finlets, the caudal, and the pectorals. The first dorsal is white, 
having in front a spot of deep-blue, which is prolonged far back upon 
the upper edge of the tin. The anal and the ventrals are white. The 
sides are sky-blue, with silvery lustre ; the belly is white, with a bluish 
tinge. The sides are marked with broken longitudinal bands and round 
spots ; these bands and spots are yellow, more or less golden, and with 
a reddish tint. 

The ordinary size is about twelve pounds, though they sometimes 
reach the weight of twenty. 

Cybium acervum, Cuv. & Val. 

Cybium acervum, CuviER & Valenciennes, op. cit., p. 186. 

The specimens described by Cuvier were of five pounds weight. He 
claims to have received specimens from Martinique, from Santo Domingo, 
and from Cuba, those from the latter place sent by me. I can only say 
that I have not been able to find this species, and that I have not 
included it in. my manuscript " Ichthyologie". 

According to Cuvier, it has seventeen spines in the first dorsal, and 
also the black spot. The body is immaculate, even in the specimens of 
five pounds weight. 

Cybium maculatum, (Mitchill) Agassiz. 

Scomher maculatus, Mitchill, Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical 

Society of New York, i, 1815, p. 426, pi. vi, fig. 8. 
Cybium maculatum, Agassiz, in Spix, Selecta Genera et Species Piscium, 1829, 

p. 103, tab. Ix. — Cuvier & Valenciennes, op. cit., p. 181.— GtJNTHER, op. 

cit., p. 372. 

The Cyhium maculatum of the United States has the teeth somewhat 
conical and very pointed. It has seventeen dorsal spines and a black 
spot upon the first dorsal. 


Cybium immaculatum, Cuv. & Val. 

Cyhiinn immaculatum, CuviKR & Valknciennes, oj). cit, p. 191. — Gi'NTnER, op. 
clt., p. 370, uote 5. 

The Cijhium immaculatum of Cnvier has the body immaculate in spe- 
cimens only six or seven inches long. 

Acanthocybium peto, Poey. 

Acanthocijbium Petua, Poey, Memorias sobre la Historia Natural cle la Isla de 

Cuba, ii, 18G0, p. 234, pi. xvi, fig. 1 ; Report., ii, p. 363. 
Vulgo : — Peto. 

This genus differs from Cyhium by its numerous dorsal spines, twenty- 
five in number. The type taken by Professor Gill has the teeth com- 
pressed, triangular. The Cuban species has the points of the teeth 
rounded. The caudal is very small. The lower jaw has its sides 
deeply notched and its extremity lower than its lateral edges. In spe- 
cimens of less than three feet, the body is covered with vertical bands 
of a vitreous lustre {(/lacees). It grows very large, sometimes attaining 
the weight of one hundred pounds. 



Mr. Benjamin H. Latrobe, a surveyor of public lands, published, in 
1802, a description of a clupeoid fish the affinities of which have never 
been satisfactorily determined.* Dr. DeKay, misled by the name " ale- 
wife", applied the specific name tyrannus to the northern species known 
to him bj' that popular name {Pomolohus pseudo-hareyigus), a usftge 
which was concurred in by Dr. Storer and M. Valenciennes. In his 
earlier writings. Professor Gill referred the same name to the shad 
{Alosa sapidissinia). Latrobe's paper, and the name therein proposed, 
have lately been lost sight of; but there is little doubt that they refer 
to the menhaden, or mossbunker {Clupea menhaden, Mitchill, and Bre- 
voortia menhaden., Gill). The laws of priority demand that this species 
shall hsnceforth be designated Brevoortia tyrannus. 

The fishes of the Chesapeake and its tributaries have been very little 
studied until within the past three years, and the habits of the men- 
haden are so different in these waters and in the north that it does not 
seem surprising for Northern ichthyologists to have made mistaken 
identification of Latrobe's specific name. 

A few years ago the Capes of Delaware were thought to define the 
southern range of the menhaden, while its peculiar parasite and its 
habit of ascending southern rivers were unknown. 

*A Drawing and Description of the Clupea tyrannus and Oniscus prwgusfator. By 
Benjamin H. Latrobe, F. A. P. S. <^ Transactions of the American Philosophical 
Society held at Philadelphia for promoting useful knowledge, vol. v, 1802, p. 77. 


I shall soou i^ublish a full discussion of this subject. At present, my 
conclusions may be stated as follows : — 

(1) The figure, while undeniably bad, resembles the menhaden very 
closely, while it cannot be intended to represent any allied species. 
The contour, were the missing dorsal fin supplied, is similar to that of 
the menhaden. The black spot upon the scapular region is constant in 
the menhaden only, though a similar one is occasionally seen upon the 
shad and alewife. 

(2) The name "bay alewife" is the same now given to the menhaden 
in the Chesapeake and its tributaries. This is a strong argument : for 
although seventy-five years have passed since Latrobe wrote, the per- 
sistence of popular names is very remarkable, as I have elsewhere 
pointed out.* Moreover, Latrobe was also acquainted with a "her- 
ring" and a "shad". These being eliminated, there is no other fish 
than the menhaden to which the description in question can refer. 

(3) The habits of the alewife, as described by Latrobe, are essentially 
the same as those of the menhaden at the present day. The alleged 
river-ascending habits of the " bay alewife" were thought to throw its 
identity with the menhaden out of the question. This is no longer an 

(4) The presence of the crustacean parasite is the strongest argu- 
ment of all. While this is found in the mouths of a large percentage 
of the southern menhaden, suggesting the local name of " bug fish", it 
has never once been found attached to any other species, although 
careful search has been made by several persons. The northern men- 
haden is free from this parasite. This is still another reason for the 
failure to identify on the part of northern writers. 

Latrobe's name has the priority over Mitchill's by thirteen years. It 
is to be regretted that it is necessary to replace by another a name so, 
appropriate and of such long standing. 

January 1, 1878, 

tbe; oc€IJICre:n€e: of beIiOive i^ATairiAivus iiv buzzard'.^ bait, 



A peculiar species of Belone was obtained at Wood's Holl, in 1875, 
by Professor Baird. It was caught in the weir on Great Neck, owned 
by the Wood's Holl Weir Company. On study, it proved to be the form 
described by Professor Poey under the name Belone latimanus, and 
hitherto known only from Cuba. A good water-color sketch (Cat. No. 
795) was made by Mr. Kichard, a photograph (Cat. No. 218) taken, and 
the specimen and a finely colored cast (Cat. No. 16121) are preserved in 
the National Museum. 

* Catalogue of tbe Fishes of the Bermudas, 1876, p. 15. 


It raay be distinguisbed from tbe commou species of our coast, Belonc 
longirostris, (Mitcbill) Gill, by many characters, tbe most salient of 
which are the more elongate form, the lesser proportionate length of 
the head, the much greater number of rays in the vertical fins {B. (ati- 
manus has D. 25: A. 23. B. longirostris has D. 13-1(3 : A, lG-19), tbe 
broader and proportionately shorter pectorals, and the forked caudal. 

The length of the specimen was 49 inches (1244.G millimetres), its 
weight 5J pounds (2381 grams). 

Color: — Back, top of bead, and snout dark green in dead specimen, 
probably beryl-green in life. Fin-rays greenish-brown. Fin membranes 
and protected parts, such as axils of pectoral fins, colorless. Sides light 
brownish, with silvery overwasb. Belly, cheeks, throat, and lower part 
of lower jaw silvery-white. Eye greenish-yellow. 

Badial /orwmZa.— Brancbiostegals XIV. D. 24: A. 25: C. 7-6+7-5: 
P. 12 : V. 6. 

January 15, 1878. 


By €i. BROIIVN «001>£. 

The observations of Mr. Saville Kent and Mr. J. Wood Mason (Na- 
TURE, vols, xvi, p. 565, and xvii, p. 11) recall to mind some similar 
facts recently noted by me in tbe Bermudas. 

Several species of Alpheus were observed to have the power of pro- 
ducing loud clicking sounds. Two or three of the larger species are 
accustomed to lurk under flat stones near low-water mark. Some of 
these are two inches long. When one of them is taken between tbe 
fingers by an inexperienced collector, tbe sudden, convulsive snap 
almost invariably causes him to drop it. Tbe effect is like that of a 
sharp blow across the knuckles. Some smaller species of the genus 
are found only in the cavities of a large aplysine sponge, abundant on 
tbe reefs. I have picked out seventy or eighty from a fragment of 
sponge not more than three inches in diameter. When the sponge is 
taken in the band, tbe quick succession of clickings reminds one of the 
sound of instruments in a large telegraph office. When one of these 
animals is put in an earthen or glass vessel, it makes a much louder 
noise, resembling a quick tap with the finger-nail or tbe back of a knife 
upon tbe edge of the same vessel. This noise is produced by a convul- 
sive snapping of tbe last joint of tbe large claw, by a movement resem- 
bling that of tbe spring beetles {E later idee) ^ and tbe sounds are quite 
similar. Possibly these movements may have a protective object, enab- 
ling tbe little decapods to escape from the grasp of enemies, or to work 
out from under the stones and loose sand in which they must often 
become buried. 

Another macrurous crustacean, Gonodactylus cJiiragra, known to the 


Bermudians as tbe "split-thumb", from its power of wounding by a 
sharp appendage of the larger claws, produces a viciously sharp, snap- 
ping noise, apparently in the same manner with Alpheus. 

The " Bermuda lobster" {PanuUrus americanus M. Edw.) makes a loud 
grating noise. Mr. Kent describes the voice of the allied species [Pa- 
Unurus quadricornis) as being produced by the rubbing together of the 
spinous abdominal segments. In the species observed by me, the sound 
was produced by means of certain modifications of tbe lower joints of 
tbe antennae. There is at the base of each antenna, upon the anterior 
part of the cephalo-thorax, a broad elevated ridge, parallel with the 
axis of the body, which in an adult of eighteen inches would be about 
two inches long. The rounded crests of these ridges are closely em- 
braced by processes from the sides of the basal antennal segments. The 
profile of each ridge describes the segment of a circle, the centre of 
which is the centre of articulation of its accompanying antenna. When 
the antennae are moved forward and backward, their tips waving over 
tbe back of tbe animal, the close contact of the hard, smooth, chitinous 
surfaces produces a shrill, harsh stridulation, like the sound of filing a 
saw. I have never heard the noise when the animals were under water, 
though I have seen them waving their antennjB. I have no doubt that 
they can thus produce vibrations perceptible to their mates at great 
distances, especially if their other senses are as acute as that of smell, 
which I have tested in a very curious manner. Both sexes are provided 
with the vocal organs. 

December 2.5. 1877. 

ON A NEW niJinjniivc; bird (atxhis x:i>i.ioti) froiti ouATEmALiA. 

Having had occasion, recently, to examine some specimens of Hum- 
ming Birds, I happened to notice certain striking differences between 
two examples labelled '•'■Atthis heloisw^^ — one from Guatemala, belonging 
to Mr. D. G.Elliot, the other a Mexican specimen, in my own collection, 
obtained from M. Boucard. The differences observed between these 
were so obvious that I immediately inspected the series contained in 
the collection of the National Museum, and on comparison found them 
repeated in the specimens contained therein, including two males from 
Jalapa and one from the Volcan de Fuego, Guatemala. Tbe former of 
course represent the true A. heloisw, being from the locality whence tbe 
types of that species were procured, and with them my Mexican ex- 
ample agrees in all essential particulars. Both the Guatemalan speci- 
mens, however, are very different from any of these, and undoubtedly 
represent a distinct species, which being, so far as I have been able to 
ascertain, hitherto unnamed, I propose to characterize as follows : — 



'' Selasphorus heloisce", Scl. & Salv., Ibis, i, 1859, 129 (Guatemala); ih. 1860, 195 
(Dueuae, Guatemala).— Salvin, ib. 2GG (Guatemala; Tieira Calieute, and 
slopes of Volcan de Fuego). 

"AttM8 heloisa", B. B. & R., Hist. N. Am. B. ii, 1874, 4C5 (part : Guatemala references). 

Specific Characters.— Adult male:— Outer primary broad, the end 
not attenuated. Gorget uniform reddish-purple (much as in Calyiite 
annw), without varying tints of violet, as in A. heloisce. Jugulum 
wholly white; middle of the abdomen white; sides light rufous, slightly 
glossed with golden-green ; crissum white, tinged with light rufous. 
Upper parts metaliic-green, decidedly less golden than in A. heloisce. 
Tail with the basal half (approximately) bright cinnamon-rufous, the 
subterminal portion black; three outer feathers (on each side) tipped 
with rusty-white; the middle pair with the black portion above glossed 
with metallic-green anteriorly. Wings uniform dusky, the smaller cov- 
erts metallic-green. Wing, 1.35; tail, 1.00-1.05; culmen, 0.38-0.40. 
[Type, No. 20494, <? ad., Coll. U. S. Nat. Mus., Volcan de Fuego, Guate- 

With a very close general resemblance to A heloisce, this species may 
be immediatelv distinguished by the very different form of the outer 
primary, the redder and more uniform color of the throat-gorget, and 
the shorter bill. The peculiar characters of the two may be contrasted 
as follows : — 

AlCkU Tieluisae.^. Jalapa. Dr. Ileermaan.. 

AUhia ellwii. ,<?. Guatemala. OJourdeE. 

A. ellioti. 

Outer primary broad, the end not attenuated. Gorget uniform pur- 
plish-red, without varying violaceous tints. Wing, 1.35 ; tail, 1.00-1.05 ; 
culmen, 0.38-0.40. 

Hah. — Guatemala. 

A. heloisae. 

Outer primary very narrow, the end abruptly attenuated. Gorget 
reddish-violet, showing decided violet tints in certain lights. Wing, 
1.30-1.50; tail, 0.95-1.10; culmen, 0.48-0.50. 

Hab. — Eastern Mexico. 

The principal synonymy and characters of A. heloiscc are as follows: — 


Ornismya lieloUcv, Less. &l Delattr., Eev. Zool. 1839, If) ( Jalapa and Quatepu, S. E. 

MelUsuga heloiscv, Gray, Geu. B. i, 1849, 113, sp. 62. 
Tryphwna heloisw, Bonap., Rev. et Mag. Zool. 1854, 257. 
Selnaphorus heloisw, Gould, Monog. Trochilid. iii, 1852, pi. 141. 
Althis hdo'mc, Eeichenb., J. f. O. 1853, App., 12. — Gould, lutrod. Trochilid. Bvo 

ed. 1861, 89.— Elliot, Illusfr. Am. B. i, 1869, pi. —.—Cooper, Orn. Cal. i, 

1870, 361 (El Paso, Texas; Mexico).— B. B. & R., Hist. N. Am. B. ii, 1»74, 465, 

pi. 47, fig. 6 (El Paso, Texas ; Mexico). 

Specific Characters. — Adult male : — Outer primary very narrow, the 
end abruptly attenuated. Gorget violet-purple, with changeable tints 
in varying lights. Jugulum wholly white; middle of the abdomen 
white; sides light ru ions, slightly glossed with golden-green; crissum 
white, tinged with light rufous. Upper parts metallic golden-green, 
more bronzy than in A.elUoti. Tail with the basal half (approximately) 
clear cinnamon-rufous, the subtcrmiual portion black, with the three 
outer feathers (on each side) tipped with rusty- white; middle pair of 
feathers glossed with golden-green on the upper surface to the extreme 
tip. Wings uniform dusky, the smaller coverts golden-green. Wing, 
1.30-1.5 J; tail, 0.95-0.10; culmen, 0.48-0.50. 

Of the three adult males of A. heloisw now before me, the two from 
Jalapa are much alike; but that in my own collection, which is evi- 
dently from another part of Mexico, although, unfortunately, the pre- 
cise locality is not stated on the label, differs in several very noticeable 
particulars. The bill is very m uch more slender, the wing shorter (about 
1.30, instead of 1.50), and the general size decidedly less. What is most 
conspicuous, however, is the fact that the lateral feathers of the gorget 
are not elongated as in the Jalapa specimens, in which they are 0.25 to 
0.30 of an inch longer than the longest feathers of the middle portion, 
while there is a mixture of bluish-violet in the gorget not observable in 
the other specimens. It is barely possible that the longer lateral plumes 
of the gorget have been lost from this specimen; but in any event, the 
differences are quite sufficient to characterize a well-marked local race. 

January 29, 1878. 


By W. II. DAL,L. 

The National Museum has recently received from Mr. Ueury Hemp- 
hill a series of fossil shells collected by him from the later Tertiary 
deposits of the Californian coast. Some of them are from the vicinity 
of Santa Barbara, but the majority are from San Diego, part of them 



(marked lo iu tbe list) from the material obtained in sinking a well* at 
a distance of from ninety to one bnndred and sixty feet below tbe 
surface of tbe earth, and not far from tbe present sea-level. Tbe matrix 
is usually rather soft, composed of loosely aggrt'g^ited grains of sand 
or fine sandy mud, occasionally hardened by intiltration of lime-bearing 

In tbe accompanying list, those species found living (li) at tbe present 
i\ay in tlie fauna of tbe Californian coast, between San Francisco and 
San Diego, are marked L, those at present making part of the northern 
or Oregouian fauna N, and those belonging to tbe fauna of Lower Cali- 
fornia, the Gulf of California, Mexico, and Central America are marked 
►S. The extinct species (F) form a very small proportion of tbe whole, 
as will be readily seen. 









Laqueits californicus (Koch) Dall . 

Fholadidca ovoidea Gld 

Corhula luieola Cpr 

Periploma arf/oiiaria Conr 

Soleciirtus cal>fo7-nianus Conr , 

Macoma stcta Coiir 

Alacoma indtntata Cpr 

Macoma nasuta Conr 

Macoma (like) s«t«/o8a Spengler . 

TeVina modesta Cpr 

TeUlna Bodegensis Hds 

Cumingia calif ornica Conr 

Donax Jlexuosus Gld 

Mactra caVifornica Cour 

Mactra falcata Gld 

CIcmentia stibdiaphana Cpr 

Chione simiUima Sby 

Cliione succincta Vtil 

Dosinia ponderosa Gray 

Tapes staminea Cour 

Saj idom us aratiis (j u u. ) Gld 

Pctricola i^lwJadiformis ? Lam 

Cnrdium prucerum Sby 

I'tiiericardia moiiUicosIa Gabb 

Venericardia monilicosta Gabb 

Liicina Xuftallii Conr 

Lucina aciitilineata Conr 

A rva microdonta Cour 

J.rinea profanda Dall, u. s 

Xiii'ida crigiia Sby 

Ltda calata Hds 

Peckn islandicus Mull 

Pccten hericeus Gld 

Pecten ventricosus Sby. (var. ?) 

Pecten expansus Dall, u. s 

Pecten Stearnsii Dall, n. s 

Pecten HcmphiUii Dall, n. s 

Pecten ? wquisulcatus Cpr. var 

Pecten ? paucicosto.tus Cpr. jun 

Jan ira dentatn Sby 

Ostrca lurida C\]v 

Ostrca Veatchii Gabb 

Atiomia rnnatula Dall, n, s 

Ehectaxis punctoccclata (Cpr.) Dall 

Tornatlna cerealis G\<S. 

Tornaiina eximia ? Baird 

San Dieffo. 


N, L 



N. L 






L, S 



L, S 









N, L 















L, S 






N, Lf 



N, L 



L, S 



L. S 






N, L 














Santa Barbara. 




















L, S 


















L, S 



L, S 




L, S 



N, L 










N. L 




* A list of species obtained from this well, with descriptions of new species, was 
published by me in the Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., v, pp. 296-299, 1874. 


Ct/lichna alba Brown 

Volvula cylinfirica Cpr 

Melampiis oJivaceus Cpr 

UevtaUum hexagonum Sby 

Cadulus fiislformis ? Phil 

Acma'a mitra Esch 

Anna'a inscssa Hds 

FissureUa volcano f Reeve 

FisfiinlUdea caUomarg'mata Cpr 

Ch lorostoma Pfeifferi Phil 

? VilriiieUasp. iud 

Crucihiihim sjyinosiim Sby 

CrepicJu la princcps Conr 

Crepidula adunca Sby 

Serpulorhis nquamigerus Cpr 

TurritcUa Cooperi Cpr. var 

Ceritheda sacrata Gld 

Bitlium quadrijUaium Cpr 

Biltiuni asperum Cpr 

Lilorina scutulata Gld 

Lacuna vincta Mont 

Lacuna solidula Loven 

Eissoina (like) TVoodwardi Cpr 

Mijurella simplex Cpr 

Drillia 2)enic>llataCpT 

DriUio, HcmpliiUH Stearns 

Snrcula Var pent eriana Gabb 

Mangelia angulata Cpr 

Conns californicus Hds 

Odostomia grarida Cpr 

Turbonilla stylina ? Cpr 

Turbonilla chocolataCpT 

Turhomlla virgo ?Cpr 

Turbonilla torquataf Cpr 

Eulima micans Cpr 

Scalaria indianorum Cpr 

Scalaria indianorum var 

Scalaria tincta Cpr 

Scalaria HemphillH Dall, n. 8 

Opulia anomala Stearns 

Opalia raricosiata Stearns 

Ccrithiopsis assimilata Cpr 



Keverita Recluziana Petit 

Neverita liecluziana var. alta Dall 

Mamma nana MiiUer (Fos. Japan Tert.) ■ 

lianella muriciformis Brod. var 

Mitra maura Swains 

OUvella biplicata Sby 

Olivella boetica Cpr 

Xassa fo(<sata Gld 

Nassa fosso.ta var 

JS'flssa 2>^>P'>'(l>iis Hds 

Kassa legula live 

Nassa mendica Gld 

Astgris gausapa.ta Gld. vars 

NitideUa Gouldii Cpr 

Amphissa t'crsicolor Dall 

Amphissa versicolor Dall 

Monoceros cngonatum Conr 

Cerostoma Kuttallii Conr 

Pteronotus festivus Hinds 

Trophon {orpheus jnn. "?) 

Purpura crispata Cbemu 

Fusus Harfordi Stearns 

Serpula sji. indet 

Fish-teeth, one species, indet 

San Diego, tv. 
























" tc. 






" IV. 




Santa Barbara. 




San Diego. 


Santa Barbara. 


San Diego. 


















" W. 
























" UK 

" W. 























" 10. 


Santa Barbara. 


San Diego. 




Santa Barbara. 


San Diego. 






Santa Barbara. 


San Diego. 









This, it will be observed, contains one hundred and seven well deter- 
mined species, omitting several doubtful ones, of which ten are extinct 
and ninety-seven still found recent. Of these recent or still existing 
forms, twenty ore found in the Californian fauna and northward at the 
present time. Eighteen more are found in the Californian fauna and 
southward, while forty-four are strictly Californian. Besides these, there 
are eight species belonging to the Oregonian or Arctic fauna, and no 
longer found living in the Californian region. Seven more are found 
on the west coast of Mexico, the Gulf of California, or Western Middle 
America, and, so far as known, no longer in the Californian region. 
One or two species are still found living in Atlantic seas, but not on the 
western shores of America. How far these peculiarities of distribu- 
tion may be explained by a restriction of their geographical range in 
modern times by some species, or by the association of fossils in one 
collection from beds of differing age, and consequently exhibiting the 
fluctuation of the northern and southern faunae based on varying 
temperatures of the sea, will be determined only by a most critical 
stratigraphical study of the localities. 

But in either case the problem is well worthy of solution. The very 
modern character of the beds is determined by the great majority of 
the species being still found living, and by the fact that some of them 
retain very evident traces of their original coloration. They are mostly 
in excellent preservation. The well fossils taken with those mentioned 
on p. 3 would give a vertical range of some six hundred feet for the 
Pliocene Tertiary beds of California. 

The species which appear to be new are as follows: — 

Axinea profunda, n. s. (7935). 

Shell subtri angular, ventral margin rounded, umbos erect, rather 
small. Area narrow, deep; marked by five or six lines meeting at an 
angle in the vertical of the umbo, one above another; anterior lines 
somewhat the shortest; exterior marked by twenty-five or thirty flat- 
tened ribs, separated by deep channels one-fourth as wide as the ribs, 
and by which the interior margin is crenulated. The ribs are crossed 
by thread-like close lines of growth, which may be elevated or obsolete 
on the ribs, but are sharply defined in the channels, which they partially 
fill up in some specimens. Toward the anterior and posterior margins? 
the sculpture is nearly obsolete. In eroded examples, this sculpture 
may be entirely altered, and such are hardly recognizable as the same 
thing. Interior smooth or lightly radiately striate, with a tendency to 
an elevated narrow ridge behind the anterior scar; hinge with teeth 
placed as if radiating from the centre of the valve, six to nine anteri- 
orly, and ten to fourteen posteriorly, with some ten or twelve small, 
crowded teeth between the two radiating sets, and placed perpendicu- 
larly and parallel with one another. Height, 32"'°^ ; length, 30""" ; thick- 
ness, 20"^'"; the last proportionally greater in the young. 


This species diflfers in its sculpture from any of the recent species 
ascribed to the coast, and from A. harharensis Conr. (Pliocene foss.) by 
its shorter, more elevated, and deeper form, as well as by details of 

Pecten expansus, u. s. (7941). 

Shell large, thin, with the upper valve flatter than the lower one, both 
with very slight convexity; outer surface of upper valves marked by 
sixteen to twenty sharp, radiating ridges, but slightly elevated, and 
whose sides shade off iusensibly into the broad interspaces, which are 
but slightly depressed; faint indications of ridges appear between the 
jirincipal ones. The entire surface is covered with fine, slightly raised, 
sharp lamellae, which are waved in some places so regularly as to pro- 
duce the appearance of a delicate reticulation, which, however, does 
not really exist; angle of the umbo about 120°; ears finely sculptured, 
like the rest of the surface, but with only faint indications of ridges, 
sharply differentiated from the rest of the shell, very short, broad ; 
supra-foraminal ear with a sigmoid carve to the lateral margin ; mar- 
gin of the other ear nearly straight; hinge-line straight; interior of the 
valve smooth, except for faint depressions corresponding to the ridges; 
peripheral margins not crenulated, even or nearly smooth. 

Lower valve with twenty-five or thirty dichotomous ribs, flattened 
above, but not sharply diflerentiated from the interspaces, sculptured 
with fine lines of growth or nearly smooth, with faint appearances of 
radiating strite. Peripheral margin somewhat crenulated by the ends 
of the ribs; interior marked by shallow channels corresponding to the 
ribs ; ears rather small and distinctly but not strongly marked off from 
the rest of the valve ; byssal notch rounded, moderately deep. Height 
of shell, 135™™; breadth of shell, 140™™; breadth of hinge-line, 65™™; 
thickness, 32™™; some specimens one-half larger. 

This shell is nearest P. iwopatulus Conr. {conrinus f of Gould) from 
the Miocene of Oregon, but differs in all its details when compared. 
The Miocene shell has a sharper umbonal angle, larger ears with straight 
lateral margins, and strong and different sculpture; the ribs are not 
dichotomous, and are much more sharply defined, while the morgins are 
strongly crenulated. It is possible that some of the indeterminate 
nominal species of Conrad may have been based on this species, but the 
wretched figures given by him seem to difler strongly so far as they 
show any characters, while his descriptions are quite worthless, as usual/ 

Pecten Stearnsii, n. a. (7942). 

Shell moderately large, thin, regular; elegantly radiately ribbed. 
Upper valve flattened or even a little concave, with about twenty four 
regularly rounded, vaulted, even ribs, separated by slightly wider chan- 
nelled interspaces ; the whole surface covered with fine, sharp, concen- 
tric, regular lamellae, a little looped backward over the top of the ribs, 
but showing no appearance of reticulation anywhere; ears small, nearly 


symmetrical, covered with more elevated, crowded, concentric lamella), 
especially near the margins; binge-margin straight, or even a little 
concave toward the umbo ; peripberal margins of the valves strongly 
and regularly crenulated and interlocking ; interior regularly deeply 
grooved, to correspond with the external ribs ; lower valve slightly con- 
vex, with about twenty-six regular even ribs, separated by channelled 
interspaces somewhat narrower than the ribs ; the top surface of each 
rib is flattened with abroad, shallow groove in the middle, with one or 
two faint riblets on each side of the groove ; the whole surface is cov- 
ered with concentric lamellae, like those of the upper valve, but less 
sharp, and about twice as crowded. Ears subequal, arched, covered 
with crowded, elevated lamelhe ; byssal notch very small. Ileigbt of 
shell, 90°""; breadth, lOO™""; breadth of hinge-line, 34"""; thickness, 

This very elegant species, while also showing some general resem- 
blance to P. caurinus Gld., forms a passage toward the section Jatiira, 
and differs in many details from any described west-coast species, recent 
or fossil, so far as figures and descriptions serve to indicate. 

Pecten Hempbillii, n. s. (7943). 

This species has a strong general resemblance to the last, and is best 
described by comparison with it. F. HemphiUii is smaller, with sixteen 
ribs, as against twenty-six in a P. Stearnsii of the same size, with which 
throughout it will be compared; the lateral margins of the ears are 
perpendicular and straight, instead of outwardly rounded ; the hinge- 
line is perfectly straight, not slightly concave; the ribs on the lower 
valve are flattened above, with symptoms of a groove on the top surface, 
instead of beautifidly roundly vaulted; the interspaces are of course 
wider; the raised concentric lamellte toward the periphery become long, 
coarse, and very crowded; on the lower valve, the shell is more vaulted, 
with hardly any traces of the raised lamella, and with larger, rude, 
hardly flattened, radiating ribs, which show no trace of grooving or 
riblets ; the ears and byssal notch are smaller and more coarsely sculp- 
tured. Height, oC"™; breadth, 63""'; breadth of hinge-line, 28"^"'; 
thickness, IS-"". 

This species seems to approach Janira even more closely than the 
last, but the value of these sections of Pcctinidw is very questionable. 

Anomia limatula, n. s. (7949). 

Shell large, thin, irregular, witn a rather thickened hinge line; exter- 
nal surface rough (when not worn), like the fresh fractured surface of a 
piece of china-ware; a few faint radiating lines with the lines of growth 
comprise the sculpture; shell originally yellowish, and still retaining 
some of its color and lustre. Normal form apparently that of a Pecten 
without ears. Breadth, 75""™; height, 70™°»; arch of valve, 10-15"'™. 

No lower valves were obtained. This large species is neither A. lampe 
Gray nor A. {Plac.) macroschisma Desh., which are the only recent spe- 


cies known to inhabit these coasts, while the only fossil one, A. subcostata 
Conrad, a species from the Colorado Desert, appears to be different, as 
the name would imply. For this reason, I have attached a name to the 
rather imperfect material received from Mr. Hemphill. 

Scalaria Hemphillii, n. s. (7991). 

Shell in general resembling a robust specimen of *S'. indianorum^ 
having from nine to twelve varices on the last whorl, coronated behind 
near the suture, wholly pure white; surface of the whorls beneath the 
varices longitudinally delicately sculptured, with alternate riblets and 
grooves. Length about an inch; apical angle about 30°. 

This species has the sculpture of 8. bellastriata, but the shape of S. 
indianorum, and is the only grooved species, except the former, which 
has yet been reported from this region. All the specimens are decol- 
late. The specimens were sent by Mr. Hemphill with the suggestion 
that they might prove to be new, and an examination has confirmed the 
suggestion. I take much pleasure in dedicating it to its discoverer. 

The two species of Cancellaria mentioned were obtained from the San 
Diego well some years since, but having been mislaid cannot at this 
moment be identified. Mamma nana Moller is now found living in 
Arctic seas and fossil in the Tertiary of Japan. 
Washington, February 3, 1878. 


By Capt. CALEB COOK, of Proviucetown, :nass. 

About the year 1816, sailors and fishermen having caught a porpoise 
on their voyage, would sometimes extract the oil from the jaw-bone and 
give it to carpenters and those who used oil-stones for sharpening their 
tools. Finding in this way that it did not gum nor glue, suggested the 
idea that it was just what was wanted for a nice lubricator. It was 
noticed that the weather at zero would not congeal it, neither would it 
corrode on brass. 

Watchmakers were then using olive-oil as the only fitting oil for 
watches; but by experimenring with the porpoise-jaw oil they found it 
superior to the olive or any other oil, consequently the sailors and fish- 
ermen found a ready market for all they were able to obtain. 

This state of things continued until the year 1829, when a shoal of 
blackfish, about forty in number, was taken at Proviucetown, Mass., 
being the first for many years. Solomon Cook, of that town, took from 
the jaws of those blackfish a few gallons of oil, and sent it to Ezra Kel- 
ley, of New Bedford, Mass., a skillful watchmaker, to be tested for 
watch-oil. Mr. Kelley soon found that this oil was superior to the 
porpoise-oil, as it had more substance and less chill. He contracted 
with Solomon Cook to supply him from year to year until 1840, when 
Solomon Cook died, and his oldest son sui)plied Mr. Kelley until the 

Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. I. 

Chitonidae. Plate I. 



e ^^ 



Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. I. 

Chitouidae. Plate II. 

Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. I. 

Chitonidae. Plate ITT. 










BuU. U. S. Nat. Mus. I. 

Chitonides. Plate IV. 

BuU. U. S. Nat. Mus. I. 

Chitonidae. Plate V. 



demand was so great that the jaws of the blackfish were not sufficient 
to supply the market. 

Porpoise-jaw oil can be refined a little by exposure to the cold at zero, 
and in that state, with the atmosphere at zero, it is strained through 
a cotton flannel strainer made in the shape of a cone, but when filtered 
through paper it is so limpid that it has no lubricating properties what- 
ever, and becomes useless. This oil is called porpoise-jaw oil, but is 
taken from the blackfish, belonging in the family of whales, by a method 
known only by myself. It is warranted not to congeal with cold at 
zero, though it will thicken and turn a little milky in appearance. It 
is warranted not to corrode on brass or rust on steel, and it will not 
glue on the finest watch. Ezra Kelley, of New Bedford, Mass., has 
made it a business for many years to put it up for watch use, and has 
led in the market, while B. 11. Tisdale, of Newport, R. I., and I. M,. 
Bachelder, of Boston, are getting quite popular in the European 

Caleb Cook, youngest son of Solomon, from scientific experiments 
did discover, about the year I8i2, that the melon-oil of the blackfish 
was far superior to the jaw-oil in every respect — so much so that Mr. 
Kelley, who had about this time become very popular in preparing this 
oil for the trade, would not buy it until he was told what it was pro- 
duced from; and from that time to the prcvsent, 1876, Caleb Cook's 
blackfish-melon (watch) oil has been refined by Kelley, of New Bedford, 
Bachelder, of Boston, Tisdale, of Newport, and many others on a smaller 
scale, for the world's use. Since the year 1842, Caleb Cook, of Province- 
town, Mass., claims to be the only person who understands the art of pro- 
ducing this oil free from all glutinous matter and fit for use. This, he 
says, is done by a process known only by himself — not by mixing other 
oils or liquids with it, but by extracting all the acid and gluten from it, 
and leaving the oil pure for the finest and most delicate machinery. 
This, he says, cannot be done by the chilling and straining process; for 
when it becomes perfectly transparent at zero, the lubricating properties 
are all gone, the oil runs off the pivots, spreads on the plates, dries up, 
the pivots cut, turn red, and the oil is worse than worthless, for the val- 
uable tiraekeepier is no longer what it was once for the want of oil with 
more substance and lubricating properties. 

Porpoise jaw oil and blackfish-melon oil are worth from $5 to $15 per 
gallon, according to supply. These oils are sold under the above trade- 
names, and also under the names "watch-oil" and "clock-oil". They 
are used largely by manufacturers of firearms, watches, and philosoph- 
ical apparatus. Smith & Wesson, of Springfield, Mass., the Ethan 
Allen factory, at Worcester, Bye «& '^Johnson, of Worcester, the Howard 
Watch Company, the Elgin Watch Company, the Waltham Watch 
Company, and the clock-factories in Connecticut, use them constantly. 
The philosophical-instrument makers use them for air-pumps, as they 
keep the leather always soft and pliable. Telegraph-instrument makers 
Proc. Nat. Mus. 78 2 PubiishcA juiy i, isrs. 


use them when they can get them. They are used in government light- 
houses for the clocks of revolving lights. The color of the oils is very 
light, and can be made very white by placing in the window, where 
they will bleach in a short time. One drop of water in one pint of the 
oil will injure it very much. 

It may be interesting to know how those fish or whales are taken. 
They make their appearance about the shores of Cape Cod and Barn- 
stable Bay from early in the summer until early in winter; and when it 
becomes known that a shoal of blackfish is in the bay, the boats are 
manned and proceed at once to get in their rear; and, as the fish are at 
the surface of the water the most of the time, it is easy to tell how to 
manage to keep them between the boats and the shore. While in this 
position the men in the boats will make all the noise with their oars 
they can, and that will cause them to go in the opposite direction from 
the boats and toward the shore; and when the fish find that they are 
in shoal water, by seeing the sandy bottom, they become alarmed, and 
go with all their might till they run fast aground on the sand. The 
boats then row in their midst; the men with lance in hand jump out of 
their boats into the water, and butcher them as a butcher would a hog, 
and it becomes one of the most exciting occasions that it is possible to 
imagine, for the water flies in every direction, and the blood flows freely 
until death puts an end to the great tragedy. When the water ebbs and 
leaves them dry, their blubber is taken off, cut in slices, and the oil 
tried out. About thirty gallons upon an average is what one fish will 
make, and the melons will average about six quarts. The melons are 
taken from the top of the head, reaching from the spout-hole to the end 
of the nose, and from the top of the head down to the upper jaw. When 
taken oflin one piece, they represent a half watermelon, weighing about 
twenty-five pounds. When the knife is put into the centre of this melon, 
the oil runs more freely than the water does from a very nice water- 
melon — hence the name melon -oil. 

About the same time that the blackfish made their appearance in our 
waters, another of the whale species made its appearance also, called 
by the fishermen "cowfish" and by the historian "grampus". These 
whales are very much in the shape of the blackfish, only smaller, not 
so fat, and not so dark-colored. The oil from the melon of this fish 
is thought to be superior to anything yet found in the blackfish or the 
porpoise. It is of a very yellow color, and when reduced by the chill- 
ing and straining process it appears to have all the body and lubricating 
properties that are wanted for the very best watch-oil; but as it will 
take one year to determine it by practical experiments, it is thought 
best to keep it out of the market for the present. 

This fish has made its appearance in our waters but three or four 
times in the last forty years, or about once in ten years. The method 
of taking it is the same as for the blackfish. 




An unfamiliar pleuronectoid fish was found in our waters, in 1877, by 
the United States Fish Commission (Prof. S. F. Baird, Commissioner). 
Numerous specimens were trawled in the deep water off Salem, Mass., 
on La Have Bank, and on the coast of Nova Scotia, off Halifax, in 
Halifax Harbor, and in Bedford Basin, Halifax. 

A careful study proves that they belong to a well-known European 
species, the Plcuronectes cynoglossus of Linn6, lately referred by Pro- 
fessor Gill to the genus Glyptocephalus of Gottsche. We also discover 
the identity of this species with Glij2>tocephalus acadianus, described by 
Gill, from a single specimen (No. 12685), taken by the Commission in 

1872, from the herring- weir on Treat's Island, Eastport, Me. 

Below are given detailed measurements of twenty-two individuals, 
including authentically named European specimens from the University 
of Christiauia, and the Bonaparte Collection, the type of G. acadianns, 
three specimens from Massachusetts Bay, five from La Have Bank, and 
eleven from the vicinity of Halifax. 

The genus of Gottsche was carefully redescribed by Professor Gill in 
1873,* and at the same time was published a full specific description of 
the Eastport specimen. Although this description is founded upon an 
individual which is among the mosc elongate of the series before us, it 
is thoroughly satisfactory for all, if the tendency to variation in the 
following particulars be uoted.t 

(1) Height of body. — This is stated to be about 2| of length exclusive 
of caudal, and 3^ in total length. In the series studied, the proportions 
of this element varied, stated in units of hundredths of total length 
(including caudal), from 0.245 to 0.375, No. 12685 having it 30. An 
equally wide variation in the European fish is recorded by Parnell.| 

The Fleuronectes elongatus of Yarrell is not nearly so elongated as 
No. 21061 a (the figure of Couch has height about 0.275); and since no 
other diagnostic characters have been described, we place it without 
hesitation in the synonymy of G. cynoglossus. 

(2) Height of caudal peduncle. — This element is subject to very slight 
variation, measuring usually 0.07 of total iu both European and Amer- 
ican specimens. The most elongate, slender forms have it slightly nar- 
rower. In No. 12685 it measures 0.06, and 0.065 in No. 21001 b. 

(3) Length of head.— This varies from 0.15 to 0.175. In No. 12685 the 

* Oa a new American species of Pleuronectoid {Glyptocephalus acadianus). By Theo- 
dore Gill, M. D. <^ Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 

1873, pp. 360-362. 

t Instead of having its radial formula D. 110 ; A. 100, as stated in the description, No. 
12685 has it D. 107; A. 96. 

t Fishes of the Frith of Forth, p. 210, pi. xxxviii, and in Memoirs of the Wernerian 
Society, vii, p. 370. 


length is 0.15, and in the European specimens 0.15 and 0.1575 (Christi- 
ania specimen). The smallest proportion is represented by specimens 
from Massachusetts Bay and Halifax. 

(4) Teetli. — In number these are extremely variable. No. 12685, ac- 
cording to Gill, had on the blind side 17 above and 20 below, on the eye 
side 6 above and 7 below. A Salem specimen, larger and older, had on 
the blind side, above 26, below 28, on the eye side, above 13, below 14. 
In young individuals, the teeth present the characters described by 
Gill, having the teeth on the eyed side conical and separated. This 
peculiarity disappears with age, all large specimens showing closely set 
incisorial teeth upon both sides of each jaw. 

(5) Length of pectoral. — This is extremely variable within limits of 
0.09 and 0.14. This measurement refers to the fin upon the colored side. 
Its shape is also variable; it is sometimes pointed, sometimes obtuse, 
owing to difference in comparative length of the upper rays. It is 
usually black, with a narrow whitish tip. The number of rays varies 
from 9 to 14. 

(6) Length of ventrals. — This is also extremely variable on both sides. 
The range on the blind side is 0.0475 to 0.07, and on the eyed side 0.056 
to 0.0775. The difference between the length of the two fins upon the 
same individual varies from 0.0025 to 0.0155. 

(7) Contour of lateral line. — In some individuals this is essentially 
straight, in others considerably arcuated above the pectoral. This 
appears to be an individual variation. The two European specimens 
show a ijerceptible difference in this respect. In his diagnosis of Pleu- 
ronectes cynoglossiis, Dr. Giinther states that the lateral line is straight, 
without curve. 

(8) Position of the eyes. — Dr. Giinther states that in P. elongaius the 
upper eye is in advance of the lower. This is doubtless quoted from 
Yarrell. Neither the figure of Yarrell nor that of Couch indicates any 
such character. 

(9) Scales in lateral line. — The number on the blind side ranges from 
109 to 150, on the eye side from 110 to 140, there being no relation be- 
tween the different sides of the same fish. 

(10) Radial formula. — In the dorsal this ranges from 102 to 120; in 
the anal, from 87 to 100. There is no apparent relation between the 
number of rays and the relative proportions of height and length of 
body. A large number of rays in the dorsal is usually accompanied by 
a relatively large number in the anal. 

(11) Transverse roics of scales. — Their number above and below the 
lateral line is nearly equal. The range is about from 40 to 50. There 
appears to be no relation of number of transverse rows to comparative 
height of body. 

The thermal range of the species appears to be defined nearly by the 
limits 340 and 45° F. 

The synonymy of the genus and species stands somewhat as follows : — 


Clyptoceplialus, Gottsche, Archiv fiir Naturg. i, 1835, p. 156. — Bleecker, Compt. 
Eend. Acad. Sci. Amsterdam, xiii. — Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
1873, p. 3G0. 


Giyptocephalua cynoglossus (Linn6) Gill. 

Fleuronectes oculis a dextris iotus glaber, Artedi, Gen. 14, N. 3; Mas. IchtL. No. 
39; Syuon. p. 31, N. 3. 

Fleuronectes cynoglossus, Linn:6, Syst. Nat. ed. x, i, 1758, p. 269; ed. xii, 17C6, i, 
p. 456.— GuNTHER, Cat. Fish, Brit. Mus. iv, 1862, p. 449. 

Glyptocephalus cynoglossus, Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1873, p. 301. 

Fleuronectes pol a, LACEPi:DE, Hist. Nat. Poiss. (Suites ilBuffon), 1819, iv, p. 401. 

Flatessa pola, Cuvier. — Parnell, Nat. Hist. Fish. Frith of Forth, 1838, p. 210, 
pi. xxxviii. — Yarrell, Hist. Brit. Fish. 1841, ii, p. 315.— Couch, Fishes 
British Islands, iii, 1864, p. 190. 

Fleuronectes saxicola, FiUjer, Isis, 1828, p. 877. 

Glyptocephalus saxicola, Gottsche, I. c. 

Fleuronectes nigromanus, Nilsson, Prodr. Ichth. Scand. 1832, p. 55. 

Flatessa elongata, Yarrell, op. cit. p. 318. — GCnther, o]). cit. p. 450.— CouCH, 
op. cit. p. 193. 

Glyptocephalus elongatus. Gill, ojj. cit. p. 362. 

Glyptocephalus acadianus. Gill, op. cit. p. 361, and in Baird's Report on Fish- 
eries of Soath Coast of New England, 1873, p. 794. 

Dr. GUather suggests that the fish first cited by Fabricius {Fauna 
Groenlandica, p. 163), under the name of Fleuronectes cynoglosstis, and 
subsequently named by him Fleuronectes p'mguis (Af handling. Kongel. 
Danske Videuskabernes Selskabs, Naturvid. og Math., Copenhagen, vol. 
i, 1824, p. 45), is probably identical with this species. The true rela- 
tions of the Greenland fish have already been pointed out by Professor 
Gill (Proc. Acad. Is'at. Sci. Phila. 1864, p. 218), as well as the curious 
misapprehension by which the synonymy of P. pinguis and the halibut 
has been confounded. 

The following tables give detailed measurements of twenty-three 
specimens, and a list of all the specimens in the National Museum : — 

Table I, — Catalogue of specimens in National Museum. 







Eh 'V 



Massachusetts Bay, off Salem.. 

La Have Bank 


27 luiles south by west from Che- 
bucto Head. 



Halifax (trawl 113 and 114) 

Massachusetts Bay 


Mas.sachusett8 Bay (trawl 32, 90 


Halifax (trawl 54) 

Halifax (trawl 44) 

27 miles off Chebncto (trawl 85).. 
Halifax (trawl 106, 111 fathoms) . . 
Bedford Basin (trawl 111, 37 


Eur ipe 

Christiania, Norway 

Eastport, Me , 

When col- 

Aug. — , 1877 



Sept. 6,1877 

Sept. 4,1877 
Sept. 11, 1877 
Sepi. 24,1877 
Aug. 6,1877 


Aug. 14, 1877 

Aug. 25, 1877 
Aug. 21, 1877 
Sept. 6,1877 
Sept. 20, 1877 
Sept. 21, 1877 

Aug. — , 1872 

From whom received. 

United States Fish Commis- 




.do , 










Bonaparte Collection 

Norwegian Government ... 
United States Fish Commis- 




Table II. — Measurements. 

Current number of specimen 
Locality < 









21,000 a 

setts Bay. 

21000 & 

setts Bay. 

21,000 c 

setts Bay. 



La Have 








Extreme length, in inches.. 
Body : 





(0. 19) 






0. 175 


0. 18 
0. 056 
















Least height of tail 






Length of maxillary 

Pectoral : 

Ventral : 

Length (blind side) 

(eye side) 


0. 051 








0. 052 










Pectnr '1 



Number of scales in lateral 



Table II. — Measurements — Continued. 

Current number of specimen 

La Have. 

La Have. 

21,001 d 
La Have. 

21,001 e 
La Have. 

21,005 a 



21,047 a 









Extreme length, in inches . . 


0. 295 





12. 25 

0. 325 






Least height of tail 

Greatest length 








Length of maxillary 

Length of mandible 

Pectoral : 
Distance from snoat 


Ventral : 

Length (blind side) 














0. 053 
0. 062 








0. 055 












Number of scales in lateral 




Current number of specimen 


21,019 a 


21,019 c 

21,019 d 

21,019 e 

21, 032 

21,061 a 









Extreme length, in inches . . 













0. 1,56 







0. 365 

114 mm. 












Pectoral : 



Ventral : 


Length (blind siile) 

(eye side) 





0. 005 
















0. 055 




Nnmber of scales in lateral 


liSCTED BV urs. fliivt anjd braivsfobd. 

By TV. H. DAL.L. 

In their arcliaeological explorations in Costa Rica, while examining 
the shell-mounds of Culebra near the western coast, a number of shells 
were obtained from the mounds to exhibit the species of which the 
shell-heaps were composed. They are, of course, in a semi-fossil condi- 


tion and usually broken, but the following species have been identified : — 
Phyllonotus nigritus Mensch., Stromhus gracilior Sby., Area grandis 
Brod., Chione dioncca Menke, Cardium iwocenim Sby., and Gardium con- 
sors B. & S. These species, which formed i)art of the food-sup|)ly of the 
former inhabitants, are abundant in the fauna of the Gulf of California 
at the present day. 
February 22, lb78. 


By J. B. S. JACKSON, M. D. 

Arsenic acid is most intensely strong, and comes in the form of a 
solid and of a liquid, and the two are of about equal strength. Half 
an ounce (avoirdupois) of the one, or one-half of a fluid-ounce of the 
other, is to be added to a pint (f s xvj) of soft water, and it is ready 
for use. Any membranous preparation that is to be distended and 
dried, as a portion of the alimentary canal, any of the hollow organs, 
an ovarian cyst, an aneurism, and many ^^reparations that are not to 
be distended, will be most thoroughly protected, I believe, by the arsen- 
ical solution. A solution of corrosive sublimate will probably prove 
an equal protection ; but the membrane, when dried, has a disagreeably 
opaque and ash-colored look, whereas, after the arsenical solution, it 
dries without any change. I cover the preparation fairly with the solu- 
tion, and leave it for about twenty minutes, then take it out, let it 
drain, then inflate or distend it, and, lastly, hang it up to dry. 

Boston, Mass., Februanj 19, 1878. 



A specimen of the Oceanic Bonito, Orcynus pelamys (Linne) Poey, 
was captured off Provincetown, Mass., in July or August, 1877, and 
taken to the Museum of Comparative Zoology by Mr. James H. Blake. 
The specimen was lent to the Fish Commission for study. Drawings 
have been made, and a table of measurements and description are here 

The specimen measures 447 millimetres (17.6 inches) to the end of 
the caudal carina. In form it closely resembles Orcynus alliteratus. The 
caudal rays are frayed, and their length cannot be exactly determined. 
The height of the body is a trifle more than one-fourth (0.26) of the 
length. The circumference of the body (0.71) is equal to the distance 
from snout to origin of anal (0.70). The length of the head (0.30) is 


contained 3^ times in length of body. The width of the interorbital 
region (0.075) is as much less than the length of snout (0.08) as it is 
greater than the length of the operculum (0.07). The length of the 
maxillary (0.11) is nearly equal to that of the ventral (0.115), and more 
than double the diameter of the orbit (0.05). The length of the man- 
dible (0.14) is double that of the operculum. 

The distance of the first dorsal fin from the snout (0.34) is slightly 
greater thau that of the pectoral (0.325), and less than that of the ven- 
tral (0.38) by a distance nearly equal to the diameter of the orbit; it is 
also a trifle less than half the distance from the snout to the origin of 
the anal (0.70). 

The length of the first dorsal spine (0.145) is double the length of the 
longest anal ray (0.0725). The distance from the origin of the first 
dorsal to the end of the base of the second dorsal (0.36) is four times 
the length of the anal base (0.09). 

The length of the pectoral (0.15) is less than half its distance from 
the snout (0.325), and exactly half the length of the head ; it is con- 
tained G§ times in the length of the body ; its origin is slightly in 
advance of the origin of the dorsal, while its extremity reaches to the 
vertical from the tenth dorsal ray. 

The length of the ventral (0.115) is about one-third that of the dis- 
tance of the first dorsal from the snout. 

The corslet is very prominent. Its contour is defined by lines begin- 
ning at the edge of the branchial cleft, about midway between the axil 
of the pectoral and the median line of the belly, extending below, beyond, 
and around the extremity of the pectoral (which, when normally placed, 
touches with its tip the outer margin of the corslet), then extending be- 
yond its tip for a distance nearly equal to its length, round up into the 
lateral line, down which a narrow tract of scales continues to its extrem- 
ity, though narrowed to a single row after passing its curve ; passing 
the lateral line, the contour of the corslet curves forward and inward, 
then ascending to a point distant from the median line of the back about 
the diameter of the orbit, it follows backward in a direction parallel to 
this line, to a point opposite the posterior extremity of the second dorsal, 
where it curves upward to the median line of the body, and completes 
its circuit. 

When viewed from above, the rows of scales appear to be arranged 
concentrically about the origin of the first dorsal fin. The scales are 
largest along the edges of the pectoral arch and the dorsal fin, decreas- 
ing rapidly in size as they recede from these regions. There are about 
thirty rows between the dorsal and the upper margin of the pectoral, 
normally placed. 

Eadial Formula.— B. XIV, 2 + 12, VIII. A. 2 + 12, VII. P. 28. V. 6. 

Color. — The upper parts must have been deep blue in life ; the belly 
and flanks below lateral line, the opercles, and throat, pearly opalescent 
■white. The lower part of the pectoral arch and tracts at the base of 


the ventrals and anal, as well as those parts of the opercles where the 
bone is close to the outer skin, were of a chalky white. The corslet is 
bronzed brown in the alcoholic specimen. 

There are four distinct bluish lines upon the sides, which are nearly 
parallel with the lateral line, and which constitute the most prominent 
specific character. The first of these begins directly under the tip of 
the pectoral, the second at the margin of the corslet, at a point in the 
line from the upper to the lower axillary angles of the pectoral. The 
third and fourth are rather indistinct anteriorly, but are very distinct 
in the posterior half of the body, and are about as far distant from each 
other as are the first two, the interval between the two pairs being 
slightly greater than that between the members of each pair, and equal 
to the diameter of the orbit. The first or uppermost line is nearly 
straight, the others, following the lower contour of the body, curve 
upward over the anal fin, and all four become lost in the darker color 
of the caudal peduncle. 

This is without doubt the Scomber Pelamis of Linnd, characterized by 
him as " Scomber pinnulis inferioribus VII, corpore lineis utrinque qua- 
tuor nigris" (Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 1758, i, p. 297), and given by Giinther 
as Tkynnus pelamys (Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus. ii, 1860, p. 364:). It is hope- 
lessly confused by Cuvier and Valenciennes with Pelamys sarda. Pro- 
fessor Poey assigned it to its present generic relations in 1868 (Syn. 
Pise. Cubens. p. 362). 

The geographical distribution of this species is not very well known, 
owing to the uncertainty of its synonymy. The British Museum has 
two stuffed specimens, one from the Cape Seas, and one from Yarrell's 
Collection of British fishes. Couch records it from the Frith of Clyde 
(July), and from Cumberland, England, and Ireland. Poey has it from 
Cuba. It has also been recorded from the seas of India and China. 

The presence of this form upon our coast was first suggested by Messrs. 
E. G. Blackford and Barnet Phillips of New York, who recognized the 
species in New York Market from the plates in Couch's History of Brit- 
ish Fishes. Only one was seen, and it was unfortunately not preserved. 
This was in the summer of 1873 ; and as none have since been found, 
it may be said, with some certainty, that the species is at present only 
accidental in our fauna. 


By TV. H. DALL. 

Further information has been received from Mr. Hemphill in regard 
to the Tertiary fossils enumerated lately in these Proceedings. These 
facts, having an important bearing on geological and faunal changes, 
are now summarized. 



The long, low, narrow strip of land lying between San Diego Bay and 
the ocean is locally known as the Peninsula. It appears to have been 
pierced formerly by narrow channels or outlets by which the waters of 
the bay communicated with the sea, and even now, in heavy storms, 
the surf breaks over the barrier. At high-water mark is a stratum 
about four feet thick, containing fossils mingled in a confused manner, 
above which is a bed of fine sand extending to the surface of the pen- 
insula, and having a total thickness of some twelve feet. From the 
lower bed (A) were obtained the following species : — 

Corhula luteola. 
Tellina modesta. 
Lucina Nuttallii. 
Pecten vaucicostatus. 
Nucula exigua. 
Hhectaxis punctoccelata. 
Tornatina ccrealift. 
Tornatina eximia. 
Volvula cylindrica. 
Melampus olivaceus. 
Dentalium liexagonum. 
Vitrinella sp. 
Crucihulum spinosum. 
Crepidula adunca. 
SerpuIorMs squamigerus. 
Litorina scutulata. 
Lacuna solidula. 
Rissoina Woodicardi ? 
Myurella simplex. 

Drillia Hemphillii. 

Mangilia angulata. 

Odostomia gravida. 

Turhonilla chocolata. 

Turhonilla vlrgo. 

Turhonilla torquata. 

Eulima micans. 

Scalar ia indianorum. 

Ceritkiopsis assimillata. 

Olivella Mplicata. 

Olivella hoetica. 

Nassa fossata var. 

Nassa perpinguis. 

Neverita, var. alta. 

Nitidella Gouldii. 

Amphissa 'versicolor. 

Pteronotus festivus. 

Fish teeth and a sp. of Serpula. 

From the sand bed (B) were obtained, — 

Periploma argentaria. 
Macoma secta. 
Macoma indentata. 

3Iacoma nasuta. 
Mactra californica. 

In the lowest part exposed of bed A are found Cardium procerum^ 
Dosinia ponderosa, and Anomia Umatiila, but they do not seem to be 
scattered through the general body of the stratum. 


On the mainland near the town of San Diego, the land is rather low, 
gradually rising inland toward some bluffs. To the eastward of the 
town, or what is known locally as the "railroad laud", a stratum (A^) 
four or five feet thick is exposed at high-water mark, and, like the 
stratum A of the peninsula, contains a confused aggregation of fossils, 
at the bottom of which is a layer of the upper valves of Anomia lima- 


tula, hardly mixed with any other species, and containing, so far as 
could be discovered, no perfect specimens or lower valves. 

Stratum A^ is regarded by Mr. Hemphill as the outcroi)piag of an 
extensive formation, probably underlying the whole of the level land 
back to the bluffs, and presenting estuarine characters. It is sur- 
mounted by, or passes into, a fine sandy deposit (B^), at least seventy 
feet thick in some places, containing fossils scattered through it, and it 
is in this stratum that the fossils from the well were found. In nearly 
all the wells that have been sunk in San Diego, fossils have been found, 
showing that the bed is of wide extent as well as of great thickness. 

The following fossils were afforded by stratum A^ : — 

Plioladidea ovoidea, 
Solecurtus caUfornianus, 
Macoma sahulosa f 

Tellina Bodegensis, 
Donax flexuosus. 
Mactra falcata. 
dementia suhdiaphana. 
Chione simillima. 
Chione succincta. 
Dosinia ponderosa. 
Saxidomus aratus jun. 
Petricola pholadiformis f 

Cardium procerum. 
Ostrea lurida. 
Anomia limatula. 
FissurelUdea callomarginata. 
Crucihulum spinosum. 
Cerithidea sacrata. 
Drillia penicillata. 
Scalaria indianorum. 
Eanella muriciformis. 
N'assa fossata. 
Nassa tegula. 
Cerostoma Nuttallii. 

From the well-digging in stratum B^ came, — 

Venericardia monilicosta. 
Area microdonta, 
Leda coelata. 
Pecten expansus. 
Janira dentata. 
Mamma nana. 

Crepidula princeps. 
Turritella Cooperi. 
Turbonilla sfylina. 
I^assa mendica. 
Cyliclma alba. 
Cadulus fusiformis. 

To which may be added the following species not enumerated from that 
locality in the list (pp. 11-12) in these Proceedings, but also obtained by 
Mr. Hemphill: — 

Glottidia alhida Hds. 
Xylotrya sp. (tubes). 
Cryptomya californica Conr. 
Solen rosaceus Cpr. 
Solecurtus caUfornianus Conr. 
2Iacoma expansa Cpr. 
dementia suhdiaphana Cpr, 
Cardium centifilosum Cpr. 
Lucina Nuttallii Conr. 
Lucina acutilineata Conr. 

Lucina tenuisciiJpta Cpr. 
Gryptodon fiexuosus Mont. 
Modiola recta Conr. 
N'ucula exigua Sby. 
Acila Lyallii Bd. 
Pecten hastatus Sby. 
Janira florida Hds. 
Ostrea concJiaphila Cpr. 
Placunanomia macroschisma Desh. 
Tornatina eximia Bd. 



Cylichna cylindracea Linn. 
Dentalium liexagonum Sby. 
Dentalium semipolitum B. & S. 
iSijyhonodentalktmpusillum ? Gabb. 
CalUostoma annulatum Martyn. 
Galerus filosus Gabb. 
Crepidula navicelloides Nutt. 
Turritella Jeivettii Cpr. 
Bittium asperum Cpr. 
Myurella simplex Cpr. 
BrilUa (four sp. undet.). 
Surcula Carpenteriana Gabb. 
Mangilia variegata Cpr. 
Ilangilia (four sp. undet.). 
Clathurella Conradiana Gabb. 
Odostomia straminea Cpr. var. 
Odostomia sp. 

Turhonilla torquata Cpr, 
JEulima rutila Cpr. 
Scalaria subeoronata Cpr. 
Cancellaria (four sp. uudet.). 
Neverita Recluziana Petit. 
Sigaretus debilis Gld. 
Banella Matheivsonii Gabb. 
Olivella hoetica Cpr. 
Nassafossata Gld. 
Asfyris tnherosa Cpr. 
Astyris sp. 
Ocinehra lurida Cpr. 
Fteronotus festiviis lids. 
Troplion orpheus Gld. 
Colus DupetWionarsi? Kien. 
Volutopsis (sp. uudet.). 
Chrysodomus Diegoensis Dall. 

About ten miles northward from San Diego, on the seacoast of Cali- 
fornia, are beds of coarse sandstone, of considerable thickness, dipping 
to the northward. About twenty feet of it (stratum C) are fossiliferous, 
containing the shells, not aggregated in a confused mass, as in some other 
cases above mentioned, but distributed much as they might have been 
while living. According to Mr. Hemphill, these fossils have not the 
aspect of an estuary deposit, but rather that of animals living in the 
open sea. Pecten expansus occurring in both the well (B^) formation and 
this sandstone, Mr. Hemphill supposes that they may be of identical 
age, but that the different assemblage of species may be due to the one 
being formed in an estuary and the other on an open coast. This sand- 
stone bed contained, among others, the following species: — 

Pecten islandicus. 
Pecten hericeus. 
Pecten rentricosns. 
Pecten expansus. 
Pecten Stearns H. 
Pecten HempMUii. 
Pecten ivquisulcatus var 

Ostrea Veatcliii. 
Lucina acutilineata. 
Opalia anomala. 
Opalia varicostata. 
Scalaria iincta. 
Scalaria HempMUii 

Adjoining bed C, and composed of recent alluvial soil, eight or ten 
feet above tide-wafer, is another stratum (D), in which the specimens 
are in a poor state of preservation, and nearly all found living near Saa 
Diego at the present time. This bed afforded, — 

Laqucus californicus. 
Cumingia californica. 
Tapes staminea. 
Lucina acutilineata. 

Axinea profunda. 
Acmwa mitra. 
Acmcea insessa. 
Fissurella volcano. 


CMorostoma Pfeifferi. 
Surcula Carpenteriana. 
Conus californicus. 
Neverita Eecluziana. 

Mitra maura. 
Monoceros engonatum. 
Purpura crispafa. 
Fusus Harfordi. 

Near Santa Barbara, the outcrop (0^) upon the seabeach afforded a 
few fossils, some of which were similar to species obtained from the San 
Diego well. Among these were the following, all recent species: — 

Venericardia monilicosta. 
Bittium quadrifilatum. 
Bittium asperum. 
Lacuna vincta. 

Astyris gausapata. 
Ampliissa versicolor. 
Trophoii orpheus f jun. 

The formation within whose limits the beds above described are to be 
included extends from the Pribiloff Islands southward, at least to Yesso 
Island, Japan, on the west, and to Chili on the east. A fruitful locality 
is at Cerros Island, Lower California, from whence Waldheimia Kennedyi 
Dall, and also a number of the species referred to in the preceding 
article, have been obtained, some of which are described by Gabb in the 
Paleontology of California. 

Jurassic or Cretaceous beds appear to exist at Todos, Santos Bay, 
Lower Caliibruia, not far from San Diego. Mr. Hemphill collected here, 
and has presented to the National Museum, half a dozen species not yet 
critically examined, but containing a fine specimen belonging to the 
Eudistcv, which have hitherto been hardly known as American fossils. 

March 2, 1878. 




The type of the genus Brevoortia of Gill is the species described in 
1802 by Latrobe under the name of Clupea tyrannus^ and later by Mitch- 
ill under the name of Clupea menhaden. As has been already indicated,* 
the former name has the prior claim to adoption, and the species must 
be called Brevoortia tyrannus. Of this species, there appear to be two 
geographical races or varieties. One of these is the typical form of the 
Atlantic coast of the United States, the other a closely allied form from 
the coast of Brazil, already described by Spix under the name of 
Clupanodon aureus. For the northern form, the name of Mitchill should 
be retained, and the two varieties may be distinguished as Brevoortia 
tyrannus var. menhaden, and Brevoortia tyrannus var. aureus. On the 
coast of Patagonia and Paraguay occurs a well-marked species described 
by Jenyns under the name of Alosa pectinata. This species is readily 

' Vide su])ra, p. d. 


distinguished by its larger scales, which are arranged in 18 to 20 lateral 
rows, instead of 25 to 27, as in B. tyranmis. The generic relations of 
this species were recognized many years ago by Professor Gill, and its 
name should stand as Brevoortia pectinata, (Jenyns) Gill. 

A third species occurs in the Gulf of Mexico. It is distinguished by 
its larger head and fins. It appears to have never been described, and 
for this form the name Brevoortia patromis is proposed. It is accom- 
panied by the same Crustacean parasite that is found in the mouths of 
B. tyrafinus, to which Latrobe gave the significant specific name of 

Brevoortia tyrannus, (Latrobe) Goode. 

Diagnosis. — Head and jaws short, the length of the head less than 
one-third of the length of the body, less the caudal fin, especially short 
in var. aurea ; the maxillary in length much less than three-twentieths 
of the length of the body. Height of body about one-third of total 
length, in very fat individuals three-eighths. Fins comparatively short, 
the height of the dorsal less than length of maxillary, and considerably 
less than three-tenths of length of body, that of the anal usually less 
than half that of maxillary, that of ventral always less than one-tenth 
of total length, the length of middle caudal rays one-fifth that of body 
and less, that of exterior caudal rays usually about three-fourths, often 
less than two-thirds, and rarely more than five-sixths of total length. 
Fins all shorter in var. aurea. Insertion of ventral far behind tip of 
pectoral. Insertion of dorsal about equidistant from snout and base 
of middle caudal rays, but varying two or three one-hundredths to 
either side of the median point, and always slightly behind the vertical 
from insertion of veutrals. 

Scales of medium size, much serrated, arranged very irregularly in 
24-20 transverse and GO-80 longitudinal rows. Scales forming sheath 
at base of pectoral not large. Squamation of caudal lobes moderate. 

Operculum strongly striated in var. menhaden., almost smooth in var. 

Scapular blotch conspicuous. 

This species is easily distinguished from Brevoortia patronus by its 
shorter head and fins, by its slenderer body, and its pectinated scales, 
and from B. pectinata by its smaller, less regularly arranged, and more 
numerous scales, and its shorter, less furcate caudal fin. 


Read. — The length of the head varies from 0.28 to 0.33. The poste- 
rior end of the maxillary extends to a point in the vertical from the centre 
of the orbit. The length of the skull, as indicated by the " distance 
from snout to nape", varies from 0.19 to 0.23. The length of snout, 
measured from a line drawn perpendicularly through the centre of the 
orbit, varies from 0.09 to 0.11. The length of maxillary varies from 


0.12 to 0.145 ; that of mandible from 0.15 to 0.18. The diameter of the 
eye enters 4^ times in the length of the head. Its width varies from 
0.11 to 0.15 in very fat individuals. 

Shape of Body. — This is exceedingly variable, and the variation is 
caused largely by the fatness of the individual. In very plump ones, 
the expansion of the belly throws back the origin of the ventrals and 
anal, and greatly changes the appearance of the fish. In the specimens 
before me, the height of the body ranges from 0.31 to 0.38i. The table 
of measurements subjoined shows the effect of increased height of body 
ui)on the other measurements of proportion. 

Fins. — The range of variation in the position of the dorsal is indi- 
cated in the diagnosis. There is no appreciable correlation between the 
positions of the dorsal and anal in the same specimen. The insertion 
of the anal is distant from the snout from 0.C8 to 0.75. The lengths of 
the rays in dorsal, anal, ventral, and caudal vary much, as the table of 
measurements indicates. In the caudal, the upper lobes vary from 0.16 
to 0.25; the lower lobes from 0.18 to 0.27. The relation of the pectoral 
and ventral fins is much affected by the length of the head, the inser- 
tion of the former being thrown much further back in long-headed indi- 

Scales. — The degree of serration varies much in individuals as well as 
the squamation of the bases of the vertical fins and the number and 
regularity of the body-scales. In young individuals, the scales are 
arranged with much regularity; but, in adults, I have strong reason to 
believe that scales are intercalated here and there, throwing the arrange- 
ment into great disorder, and rendering an accurate enumeration imijos- 

Varieties. — The series before me embraces some two hundred specimens 
of Brevoortia tyranniisoi various ages, seasons, and localities. Almost 
every feature is subject to wide variations, and there is usually no decided 
correlation between different characters except that a long head is accom- 
panied usually by long jaws, and a pectoral set farther back and extend- 
ing more nearly to the insertion of the ventral. There are, however, 
certain groups of individuals which can be included within a diagnosis 
which may serve to distinguish them from all the others of the same 
species. To what extent it is desirable to define varieties which are 
not separated geographically, I am not well satisfied. The exact mean- 
ing of the terms " sub-species" and "variety" as employed by Cope, 
Cones, Gill, Yarrow, and other recent writers has not been definitely 
interpreted. It seems desirable, however, to designate in some way 
the limits of variation from the normal specific type in different direc- 
tions. With this purpose, and premising that by a variety I mean sim- 
ply a divergent form, connected by intermediate forms with the typical 
specific form, I have thought it desirable to name provisionally two 
varieties, and to call attention to others which may possibly exist. This 
is done with much hesitation, and only with a view to an attempt to 


Ibnnnhite the minor clitieiences to be observed between lishof tbe same 
species on different parts of our coast. A precisely parallel case is to 
be found in tbe shad of the different Atlantic rivers, which arc well 
known to exhibit strong- distinctive marks. Very possibly every school 
of menhaden has its own characteristics. In every case where I have 
had an opportunity to observe them, the individuals composing the same 
school were closely similar to each other. 

The typical form of the species as now defined is taken from the coast 
of Southern New England and the Middle States. It has the height of 
tbe body about one-third of the total length, the head three-tenths of 
the total length, or a little more, the maxillary long (0.14 to 0A41) and 
exceeding the height of the dorsal. 

The species described by Spix under the name of Clupanodon aureus 
cannot be distinguished by any apparent specitic characters from Bre- 
voortia fi/rannus, since one or more of the specimens of the latter species 
before me partake of some of the peculiarities of the Brazilian form. 
There is, however, a general average of characters exhibited by the Brazil- 
ian specimens as well as by the figure of Spix, with which they closely 
agree, which seems to me to entitle them, for the present at least, to recog- 
nition as belonging to a distinct geographical variety. The distinrtivc 
characters appear to consist in (1) a greater average height of body; 
(2) a lesser length of head ; (3) a lesser average length of maxillary and 
mandible ; (4) a slightly lower anal and dorsal fin ; (5) a greater average 
distance of anal from snout ; (G) a greater average length of the middle 
caudal rays; (7) a shorter average pectoral ; (8) a more regular arrange- 
ment of the scales, and a more luxuriant growth of small scales at the 
bases of the fins. 

A number of specimens from Xoank, taken in 1874, vary quite as much 
from the normal type and in almost the same respect as the variety just 
described. The maxillary and mandible are shorter, however, than in 
the Brazilian form, the anal fin lower, and the lobes of the caudal are 
extremely short, sometimes hardly exceeding in length the pectoral 
tin. But for the fact that these specimens show almost all the charac- 
ters of the Brazilian Brevoortia, and in some cases exaggerations of 
them, I should be inclined to consider the aurea a distinct species. 
Having with some hesitation allowed it the rank of a variety, the ques- 
tion must be decided as to the propriety of also allowing varietal rank 
to this peculiar form from Xoank. The exact meaning- of the terms sub- 
species and variety as recently employed by zoologists is not very clear 
to my mind, but I infer that a " variety" is composed of an assemblage 
of individuals varying uniformly from the typical specific form in a 
degree sufficient to be susceptible of description and definition, though 
not necessarily separated from it by the absence of connecting forms.. 
Prem^ing then that in giving to the Noank specimens a varietal r.ame 
my object is simply to define the limits of variation from the nor?nal 
Proc. Nat. Mus. 78 ;3 .Hav S, 1878. 



type iu a j^iveii direction, J would provisioually propose that they be 
desifjnated as variety hrevicaudata. 

The specimens from the Saint John's River, Florida, are extremely 
variable in every respect. Certain individuals show a tendency to 
elongation of the head and fins, and also a slenderness of the posterior 
part of the body, and nearly all the individuals from that region are more 
lightly and gracefully shaped. They all have a tendency to a yellow 
coloration, especially upon the caudal lobes. I have not felt justified, 
hovrever, in calling it a variety. 

I have not had an opportunity to study the Maine schools, but am 
inclined to believe that their differences are very perceptible. 

TahJe of Measurements. 

CunxKl miiiibiv of specimen. 

Extreme kngtb ' 

Body : 

Greatest heigbt 

Lea«t heiu'lit of tail 

Length of caudal jxiduuclo 

Head : 

Greatest length 

Distance from snout to nape 

Greatest width 

Length of suout from perp. from centre of orbit. 

Length of operculum , 

Length of maxillary 

Lengtii of mandible 

instance from snout to centre of orbit 

Dorsal : 

Distance from snout 

Length of base 

Origin of pectoral to origin of dorsal 

End of dorsal to end of anal 

Lengtii of longest ray 

Length of last ray . Z. , 

Anal : 

Distance from suout 

Length of base , 

Origin of anal to origin of doisal 

Length of longest ray 

Length of last ray 

Caudal : 

Length of middle rays 

Length of external ray.s, superior 


Pec tor il : 

Distance from snout 

Distance of tip from suout 

Length , 

Length of longest axillary appendage 


Distance from snout 


Origin of ^-entral to end of dorsal 

Dorsal rays , 

Acal rays 

10,405 = 709 I 10,405 = 0rig. 
C. A. S. I No. 247. 

"Wood'-s Holl, 

Millim. lODths. Millim. lOOths 

Wood's lloll, 

Very fat. 

251 I . . . . 













243 I.... 

















20,0(36 a. 

Wood's Holl, 













Table of Measurements — Continued. 

Curreut number of specimen. 

Extreme l^^ngth 

Body : 

Greatest beight 

Head : 

Greatest length 

Distance from snout to nape 

Greatest width 

Length of snout from perp. from centre of orbit. 

Length of operculum 

Length of maxillary 

Length of mandible 

Distance from snout to centre of orbit 

Dorsal : 

Distance from snout 

Length of base 

Origin of pectoral to origin of dorsal 

End of dorsal to end of anal 

Length of longest ray 

Length of last ray. .'. 


Distance from snout 

Length of base 

Onjiin of anal to origin of dorsal 

Lengt.h of longest ray 

Length of last ray 

Caudal : 

Jjcngth of middle rays 

Length of external rays, superior 


Tectoral : 

Distance from snout 

Distance of tip from euout 

Length of longest axillary appendage 

Ventral : 

Distance from snout 


Origin of ventral to end of dorsal 

Dorsal rays 

Anal rays 

20,GGC b. 

Wood's noil, 












18,049 b. 

Saint John's 
Uivei- Florida. 




Indian Eiver, 

Millim. lOOths, 









Current number of specimen . 

Extreme length 

Body : 

Greatest lieigbt 

Least height of tail 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Head : 

Greatest length 

Distance from snout to nape 

Greatest width , 

Length of snout from perp. from centre of orbit. 

Length of operculum 

Length of maxillary 

Length of mandible ; 

Distance from snout to centre of orbit 

Dor.sal : 

Distance from snout 

Length of base 

Origin of pectoral to origin of dorsal 

End of dorsal to end of anal 

Length of longest ray 

Length of last ray 

West Florida. 

Millim. 100th; 



Saint John's 
Eiver, Florida. 

Millim.! lOOths. 


Saint John's 
River, Florida. 

Millim. lOOths 



34 ,V 

20 .V 






' Broke' 

Table of Measurements — Continued. 

Current number of specimen 

I I West Floiida. 

Anal : 

Distance from snout 

Length of base 

Origin of anal to origin of dorsal 

Length of longest ray 

Length of last ray 


Length of middle rays 

Length of external rays, superior 


Pectoral : 

Distance frcm snout 

Distance of tip from snout 


Length of longest axillary appendage 

Distance from snout 


Origin of ventral to end of dorsal 

Dorsal rays 

Anal rays 

Millim. lOOths, 

17,927. 19,040. 

Saint John's Saint John's 

River, Florida, liiver, Florid.i. 

Millim. lOOlhs. Millim. ' lOOtbs. 












18 or 19 







Current number of specimen. 

Extreme length 


Greatest height 

Least height of tail 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Head : 

Greatest length 

Distance from snout to na])0 

Greatest width 

Width of interorbital area 

Length of snout from perp. from centre of orbit. 

Length of operculum 

Length of luaxillary 

Length of mandible 

Distance from snout to centre of orbit 

Dorsal : 

Distance from snout 

Length of base 

Origin of pectoral to origin of dor.sal 

End of dorsal to end of anal 

Length of longest ray 

Length of last ray 


Distance from snout 

Length of base 

Origin of anal to origin of dorsal 

Length of longest ray 

Length of last ray 

Caudal : 

Length of middle rays .'.. 

Length of e xterual ray.s, superior 


Pectoral : 

Distance from snout 

Distance of tip from snout 


Length of longest axillary appendage 

Ventral : 

Distance from snout 


Origin of ventral to end of dorsal 

Dorsal rays 

Anal rays 


Saint John's 
River, Fla. 

Millim. lOOths. 

18,049 a. \ 19,408. 
Virgin i;i. 

Saint John's 
IMver, ria. 

Millim. lOOths. Millim. lOOths, 







18. V 

14 V 



Table of Meastirements — Continued. 

Current number of specimen. 

14,846 a. 
Noank, Conn. 

14,846 b. 
Noanli, Conn. 

Var. axirea. 

M. C. Z. 
Rio Janeiro. 

MiUim. lOOths, 

Extreme length 


Greatest lieiglit 


Greatest length 

Distance from snout to nape 

Length of snout liom peip. from centre of oibit. 

Length of operculum 

Length Oi" maxillary 

Length of mandible 

Distance from snout to centre of orbit 

Dorsal : 

Distance from snout 

Length of base 

Origin of pectoral to origin of dorsal. 
End of dor.sal to end of anal 

Length of longest ray 

I^ength of last ray 

Anal : 

Di.stance from snout 

Length of base 

Origin of anal to origin of dorsal. . 

Length of longest ray 

Length of last ray 

Caudal : 

Length of middle rays 

Length of external lays, superior, 
inferior . 
Pectoral : 

Distance from snout 

Distance of tip from snout 



Distance from snout 


Origin of ventral to end of dorsal . 

Dorsal rays 

Anal rays 

Millim. lOOths 





Millim. lOOtb.s, 



I 37 
1 5 








Current number of specimen 

Var. aurea. 

M. C. Z. a. 

Sambaia, Thayer 


"Var. aurea. 

M. C. Z. h. 

Sambaia, Thayer 


age of 








Body: height 

















Head : 

Greatest length" 



Length of snout from perp. from centre of orbit. 




Dorsal : 








Caudal : 

Length of middle ravs 


Length of external rays, superior 


Pectoral : 


Distance of tip from snout 







Tentral : 

Distance from snout 





Anal rays 



Btevoortia pectinata, (Jenyns) Gill. 

Diagnosis. — Proportions of head and jaws as in B, tyrannus. Height 
of body almost three-eighths of total length, and greater proportionally 
than in B. tyrannus. Fins nearly as in B. tyrannus, but uniformly aver- 
aging slightly more; the height of the dorsal somewhat less than three- 
twentieths of total length ; that of the anal equal to or slightly less 
than half the length of the maxillary. The caudal fin is somewhat 
longer and more furcate, the length of the external rays never being less 
than five-sixths of the length of the head, while that of the medial rays 
remains proportionally the same as in the species first described. Inser- 
tion of ventral somewhat behind tip of pectoral, this tin and the dorsal 
being uuiformly somewhat farther back than in B. tyrannus ; the inser- 
tion of the latter from one to four one-hundredths posterior to a point 
equidistant from the snout and the base of the median caudal rays, and, 
as in B. tyrannus, behind the vertical from the insertion of the ventrals. 

Scales very large, considerably serrated, and arranged regularly in 
18 to 20 transverse and 50 longitudinal rows. Scales forming sheath at 
base of pectoral not large. Operculum smooth, or with inconspicuous 
and few striations. Squamation upou lobes of caudal extensive and 

Variations. — The variations in the individual specimens studied are 
not of great importance, and are indicated in the table of measure- 

Table of Measurements. 

Current number of specimen. 

Extreme length 

Body : 

Greatest height 


Greatest length 

Distance from snout to nape 

Length of maxillary 

Length of mandible 

Dorsal : 

Distance from snout 

Length of longest ray 

Length of last ray 

Anal : 

Distance from snout 

Length cf longest ray 

Length of last ray 

Caudal : 

Length of middle rays 

Length of external rays, superior 
inferior . 
Pectoral : 

Distance from snout 

Distance of tip from snout 



Distance from snont 


Dorsal rays 

Anal rays 

Number of scales in lateral line 

Nunibei' ol l):,n>i verse rows 


Millim. lOOths, 

II. 17 
I. 21 
abt. 50 
abt. 20 










24 + 




M. C. Z. a. 
Rio Grande. 

Millim. lOOths 

IL 17 
I. 20 













M. C. Z. b. 
Eio Grande. 



IL 17 
I. 20 


lOOths. lOOths. 









Brevoortia patronus, sp. noc, Goode. 

Diagnosis. — Head larger than ia the other American forms, its length 
usually more than one-third that of the body, the maxillary about three- 
twentieths of the length of the body. Height of body always more than 
three-eighths of its total length, its anterior inferior profile cultrate, con- 
vex, giving an obtusely rounded profile to the subpectoral outline, and 
throwing the snout above the median horizontal axis of the body. Fins 
long and powerful} the height of the dorsal usually equal to the length of 
the maxillary, and about three-tenths of total length of body ; that of 
the anal equal to or greater than half the length of the maxillary : that 
of the ventral one-tenth of body-length ; length of middle caudal rays 
always more than one-fifth and often more than one-fourth the length of 
the head, that of the exterior rays almost equal in length to the head 
and rarely less than five-sixths of its length. Insertion of the ventral 
under or slightly posterior to the tip of the pectoral. Insertion of dorsal 
always posterior to a point ou the dorsal outline, equidistant from the 
snout and the base of the medial caudal rays (sometimes as much as 
seven onehundredths of total length), and always in advance of the 
vertical from the insertion of the ventrals. 

Scales of medium size, with entire, tluted margins, arranged regularly 
(in young) in 24 to 25 transvere and 50 to 70 longitudinal rows. Scales 
forming sheath at base of pectoral very large, round. Squamutioa of 
caudal lobes inconspicuous. Axillary a])pendages large. Operculum 
smooth or very delicately striated. Scapular blotch inconspicuous. 

The variations of individuals are sufficiently indicated in the subjoined 
table of measurements. The most characteristic specimens occur at 
Brazos Santiago, Tex., and the more northern specimens show a tendency 
to shortening up of the head, jaws, and fins. 

Description.* — The body is much compressed, especially below and in 
advance of the pectorals ; the contour of the belly between the ventrals 
and the gill-opening is cultrate, projecting, obtusely rounded. The 
height of the body equals two-fifths of its length, and the least height 
of the body at the tail is one-fourth of its greatest height in front of the 
pectorals. The length of the caudal i^eduncle, from the end of the anal 
to the base of the exterior lobes of the caudal, is one-fifth of the height 
of the body, and one-twelfth (0.08) of its length. 

The head is elongated and large, triangular; its length is more than 
one-third (0.35 and 0.34) that of the body, and its height at the nape is 
slightly more than its length. The length of the skull, as indicated by 
the distance from snout to nape, is about one-fourth (0.24 and 0.24.]) of the 
length of the body, and the greatest width of the head (0.13) slightly ex- 
ceeds the half of this. The width of the interorbital is about equal to the 
diameter of the orbit, and slightly more than one-fourth the length of the 
head. The maxillary reaches to the vertical from the posterior margin 

*To avoid coufusion, this is drawn up from tlie HrazosSantiajjjo specimeus, which are 
most characteristically developed. 


of the pupil; tbe inaudible nearly to the vertical from the posterior mar- 
gin of the orbit. The length of the maxillary is about equal to that 
of the longest ray of the dorsal tin (0.15 to O.IG), that of the mandible 
(0.19) half the distance from the origin of the anal to the origin of the 
dorsal (0.38) or to the length of the base of the anal (0.18). The distance 
from the tip of the snout to the centre of the orbit (0.13 to 0.13f ) equals 
the greatest width of the head. The length of the operculum is equal 
to that of the eye : the o[)ercular striations are fine, but distinct and 
numerous. The dorsal tin is inserted posteriorly to a point equidistant 
from the snout and the base of the caudal and in advance of the verti- 
cal from the insertion of the veutrals. Its length of base (0.20 to 0.21i] 
is double that of the operculum. Its greatest height is nearly half the 
length of the head. It is composed of 19 rays, of which the third is the 
longest. Its upper edge is slightly emarginated. The height of the last 
ray ^0.10) is equal to half the length of the base. 

The distance of the anal from the snout is slightly less than three- 
fourths of the length of the body (0.70-0.72), its length of base (0.18- 
0.18_1) one-fourth of this distance. The distance from the origin of the 
])ectoral to the origin of the dorsal (0.37-0.37i) is about equal to that 
from the origin of the anal to that of the dorsal (0.38). Its height 
(.09-.09i) is about half its length of base, its least height (at last ray) one- 
third of the same (.OG-.Oo^l). The tin is composed of 22 rays, its edges 
slightly emarginated. 

The caudal tin is much forked and elongate, the middle caudal rays 
(0.08) half the length of the maxillary, the exterior rays above (0.31-0.32) 
twice that length, the lower exterior rays (0.35-0.34) nearly equal to 
twice the length of the mandible. 

The pectoral tin is strong, falcate, inserted under the angle of the 
subopercnlum, at a distance from the snout (0.35-0.34) about midway to 
tbe insertion of the anal. Its tip extends beyond the insertion of the 
veutrals, its length (0.22) being nearly two-thirds that of the head. 
The axillary api)endages are half as long as the tin, or more. 

Tiie distance of the ventral from the snout (0.54-0.55) is about the 
same as that of the dorsal, though by the contour of the body it is 
thrown slightly behind the point of dorsal origin. Its length (0.10) is 
equal to that of the last ray of the dorsal. 

The scales are quite regularly arranged in about 24 to 25 horizontal 
and 50 vertical rows. Their free portion is narrow and high. They are 
entire at the edges, and lluted or crenulated. There are two rows of 
differentiated scales upon each side of the dorsal line, but they are 
scarcely pectinated. The scales forming the sheath at the base of the 
pectoral are large and round. 

Color. — Silvery, with a brassy sheen upon the sides and greenish gray 
upon the back. 

Tahle of Measurements. 


Current nuiul)er of specimen. 

Extreme length 

Body : 

Greatest lieight 

Least iieight of tail 

Leniith of caudal ix-duuele. ... 
Head : 

Greatest length 

Distance from .snout to nape 

llreatest width 

I>enf:th of snout from )>eri>. from 
centre of orbit . . . . - 

Length of optrcuhim 

Length of maxillary 

Length of maudtble 

Distance from snout to centre of 


Dorsal : 

Distance from snou t 

Length of base 

t)rigin of pectoral to origin of 

End of dor.sal to end of anal 

Length of longest ray 

T^ength of last ray 


Distance from snout 

Length of base 

Origin of anal to origin of dorsal 

Length of longest ray 

Length of last ray 


Length of middle rays 

Length of external rays, superior, 
inferior . 
Pectoral : 

Distance from snout 

Distance of tip from snout 


Length of longest axillary ap- 
pendage .' 

Ventral : 

Distance from snout 


Origin of ventral to end of dorsal 

Dorsal rays 

Anal rays 

Number of .scales in lateral line 

Brazos Santiago 

Millim. lOOths. 



47 to 50 











892 b. 

891 rt. 

Brazos Santiago, I Mouth of Hio Mouth of llio 
Texas. ! Grande. : (Irande. 

Millim. lOOths. Millim lOOths. ! Millim. ICOths, 



47 to 50 










abt. 6f 







abt. 65 













27 -i- 




Table of Meastirementu — Continued. 

Current number of specimen. 

Extreme length 

IJody : 

Greatest height 


( Iieatest length 

Distance from snout to nape 

Length of snout from perp. from 
cent re of oibit 

Length of operculum 

Length of maxilhiry 

Length of mandible 

Distance from snout to centre of 


Dorsal : 

Distance from snout 

Length of base 

Origin of pectoral to origin of 

End of dorsal to end of anal 

Length of longest ray 

Length of last ray 


Distance from snout 

Length of base 

Origin of anal to origin of dorsal 

Length of longest ray 

Length of last ray 

Caudail : 

Length of middle rays 

Length of external rays, superior 
inferior . 
Pectoral : 

Distance from snout 

Distance of tip from snout 


Ventral : 

Distance from snout 


Origin of ventral to end of dorsal . 

Dorsal rays 

Anal rays 

iv'imiber of scales in lateral line 

Mouth of llio 

5,864 a. 

5,864 b. 

Millim. lOOths. , Millim.i lOOths. Millim. lOOths, 

65 or 









I 37 
impt. 7 
i impf. 5 

' 7 










abt. 70 

abt. 55 








5864 c. 

Millim. lOOths. 

abt. 55 




17. i 

70 i 





The Smitbsonian Institution has received from Mr. Silas Stearns, of 
the Pensacola Ice Company, Pensacola, Fla., a fish new to the fauna of 
the United States, and believed to be new to science. This fish was 
taken March 18, 1878, on the Snapper Bank, off Pensacola, in 3.1 
fathoms of water. It was packed iu ice, and arrived in good condition, 
March L*2, at the National iMnseum, where it was cast in plaster, and 
sketched by Mr. Shindler. It is now a fine alcoholic specimen, No. 
Ii0,971 of the Fish Catalogue. 

Caulolatilus mlcrops is related to the Brazilian form Canlolatilufi 
chrysops (Cuvier and Valenciennes) Gill, and the Cuban form Caulolatilus 
cyanops Poey, described in 1867.* Of the former, two specimens only 

" IJepertorio Fisico-Nattirtil de la Isla de Cubit, i, \k 'M'2. 


are recorded : one, tbe type of the original description, one foot long, 
collected on the coast of Brazil by M. Gay, and probably now iu the 
Museum iu Paris; a second iu the British Museum, a stufled specimeu, 
purporting to have beeu collected in the West Indies. Of Poey's G. 
cyanops the National Museum possesses a tine specimeu (Cat. No. 4750), 
15 inches long, collected and presented by Professor Poey. 

The Peusacola specimen, now under consideration, is two feet and 
three inches long, weighing nine pounds and one-quarter. Its color has 
faded, but a yellow blotch is still visible under the eye, similar to that 
mentioned iu C. chrysops. A dark blotch is visible in and above the 
axilla of the pectoral. 

The following diagnosis is believed to characterize the peculiarities 
of the new form. It is accompanied by a table showing the detailed 
measurements of C. cyanops and C. microps^ and another showing the 
relations of C. chrysops as far as they can be gleaned from the published 

Caulclatilus microps, i^jk nor., Goode and Bean. 

Diagnosis. — Height of body contained slightly more than three anJ 
one-half times iu its leugth, its width seveu times, the species being 
higher and more robust than C chrysops and C. cyanops. Leugth of head 
equal to height of body, being in same proportion to total length as iu 
C. cyanops (though less in proportion to height of body), and longer pro- 
l^ertioually than in C. chrysops. Width of interorbital area equal to 
half the leugth of snout, instead of four-tifths, as iu 6'. cyanops. Leugth 
of snout greater than that of maxillary. Diameter of eye contained six 
times in leugth of head, instead of four times, as iu C. chrysops, and three 
and three-fourths times, as in C. cyanops. Nostrils midway from eye tc* 
snout, and separated by a distance equal to diameter of eye. Deutitiou 
much as in C. cyanops. Fins all shorter than iu ('. cyanops, the anal 
and soft dorsal two-thirds as high. Caudal fin slightly emarginate. 
Pectoral not extending to first ray of anal, as in the other species, less 
than one-fourth of total leugth. Scales in lateral line 120, in transverse 
line 48, being smaller and more numerous than in C. cyanops. 

Radial Formula. — D. VII, 25 ; A. I, 23 ; C. 17 ; P. I, IG ; ^'. I, 5, instead 
of D. VII, 24 ; A. I, 22 ; C. VJ ; P. 1, 15 ; V. I, 5, as in C. cyanops, or D, 
VIII, 24; A. II, 22; C. 17; P. 17 ; V. I, 5, as in C. chrysops. 


Tahlc of Measurements. 

Current iiuiubor of speciiHeii. 

CaulolatUus microps, 

Pensacola, Fla. 



CaulolatUus cyanopn 




Extreme length 

Length to end of middle caudal rajs 

Uody : 

Greatest height 

Greatest width 

Height at ventrals 

Least height of tail 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Head : 

( heatest length 

1 distance from snout to nape 

Greatest width 

Width of interorbital area 

Length of snout 

Length of maxillary 

Length of mandible 

Distance from snout to ceutre of orbit . 

Diameter of orbit 

Dorsal (spinous) : 

Distance from snout 

Length ol' base 

Greatest height 

Length of lirst spine 

Length of secon<l spine 

Length of last spine 

DotsaI (soft) : 

Length of base 

Length of first ray 

Length of longest ray 

Lengt h of last ray 

Anal : 

Distance from snont 

Length of base 

Length of antecedent spine 

Length of first ray 

Longfh of longest ray 

Length of last ray . '. 


Length of middle rays 

Length of external rays 


Distance from snout 


Ventral : 

Distance from snout 




Fresh specimen. 



Pectoral , 


Number of scales in lateral line 

Number of transverse rows above lateral line . 
Number of transverse rows below lateral line 






I- 5 

abt. 120 














(9th) 8i 



Alcoholic specimen. 








I- 5 





















Table showhif/ Comparative Projwrtions of Atlantic Species of Caulolatilus. 

C. chrysops.* 

0. cyanops. | 0. inicrops. 


Ai 1 3* 

3} 31 
12 Hi 

Head in total length 

10 71 

10 H 

'J 7 

!N"ear eye 

3j t; 

snout to fvc j to eye. 

l-2i " 1 13i 

Anal '. 1 ... 1 


than in cjianops, and 
1 two-thirds as bifi^h. 

Extenda to first 
aual riy. 

1 in the other species. 

anal ray. anal ray. 
108 1 120 

35(10 + 25) 48 (13 + 35) 

* These proportionate measurements, as taken from the " Histoire Naturelle des Poissons ", doubtless 
have reference to extreme length to end of external caudal rays. In this genus, however, the differenco 
thus admitted is not extremely large. 

April 30, 1878. 

THK Ot «^'tKKEI\<E OF HffPPOt' AMPl .^ ANTfl<Jt ORl »I, OR AX 


A specimeu of llippocampn.s, measuring about five inclies, was pro- 
cured by the Uuited States Fish Commission from a mackerel schooner, 
which had captured it, in company with a school of mackerel, on Saint 
George's Banks, in August, 1873. It was kept alive for some days, and 
an interesting fact was observed witl) regard to its habits, its tail appa- 
rently not being used for prehension. This specimen agrees very closely 
with H. antiquorwn as described by G linther, and is provisionally referred 
to that species; it does not agree with the description and figure of H. 
hudsonius, DeKay, a species which has never been accurately defined, 
and which may prove identical with H. giittulatusj Cuv. 

II. antiquonim is, then, an addition to the fauna of L^asteni North 
America. The geographical range of the species is very wide ; it has been 
recorded from the English coast, the Mediterranean nt Malta and other 
points, Fernando Po, Japan, and Australia. Several specimens were 
collected in Bermuda in 1872 and 1877 in company with R. (juUulatus. 

A specimen received by Storer from Holmes'S Hole was, in his first 
report, referred to H. hrevirostris, Cuv., which is synonymous, according 
to Giinther, with If. antiquorum. Storer afterward adopted the name 
proposed by BeKay, but his description and figure refer to a form more 
nearly resembling that now under consideration. 

The following notes were taken from the fresh specimen, the colo;-5 
while it was living : — 

No. 21044, U. S. Nat. Mus. Cat. Fish. 


Body rinj?s, 1 + 10. Caudal rings, 37. Tubercles of body and tail 
oloDgated, slightly recurved, usually prolonged into slender filaments; 
those on the 2d, 4th, and Gth body rings much larger than the others; 
tubercles prominent and filamentose upon the 4th, Gth, 9th, 12th, IGth, 
nud 20th caudal rings. Ventral tubercles upon Gth, 7th, 8th, and 9th 
body rings. Occipital crest very high, with live prominent tubercles, 
the anterior two with long filaments. Length of snout equal to dis- 
tance from posterior margin of orbit to gill-opening. Operculum marked 
with fine, radiating strine. 

Radial formula. — D. 19 (the first imperfect). P. 18. V. 4. 

Color. — Yellowish-brown; the eyes and cheeks covered with radiating, 
wavy lines of light brown. Snout encircled by a narrow, undulating, 
white band near its middle. 

The Commission has an accurate sketch by Mr. Emertou. 

April 30, 1878. 


i.\ Tin; c oi.i-iErTio:v.s of the natsoivai. miseijiII. 
By W. II. OALL. 

Haliotis (.'var.) assimilis, u. s. 

Shell solid, strong, not very thick, with a rather light piuk, white and 
greenish nacre, usually with five open holes ; spire more elevated than 
that of any other Californiau species, consisting of two and a half or 
three whorls; aperture very oblique in adult specimens, the thickened 
margin of the columella narrow, somewhat concave, inclined sharply 
inward and upward, about three-fourths as long as the columellar side, 
of the aperture. Between the row of openings and the columellar edge, 
the space is unusually broad, marked midway by an obtuse carina, sep- 
arated from the row of holes by a shallow channel; surface reddish or 
dull greenish, with rather rough, crowded, unequal, spiral ribs and 
rounded, irregular, wavy, radiating undulations crossing the spiral 
sculpture obliquely. The muscular impression, in most specimens, is 
but lightly marked, and, except for occasional spot-like impressions, is 
smoothly nacreous, like the rest of the interior. Lon. 4.5 in. Lat. 3.0 
in. Alt. of spire 1.5 to 2.0 in. Aperture 3 inches wide and 3.75 long, 
in an adult specimen. 

Hah i tat— Monterey ; S3H Diego, Ciil.; in deep water only; thrown 
up by heavy storms, usually dead and worn when found and everywhere 
rare. Mus. Cat. 31267. 

This species, or variety, has long been knowu to me and to most 
Californiau collections, but has not hitherto been characterized, owing 
fo the dead condition of most of the specimens found. Mr. Hemphill 
having forwarded two fresh specimens, it seems well to put it on record. 

The form is different from any other Californiau species; the spiral 


sculpture is that of II. rv/cscens ; the radiating sculpture, except that it 
is not sharp or imbricated, recalls IL corrugatus, and the nacre is similar 
but less bright. These characters suggest the possibility of its being 
a hybrid between II. corriigatus and riifescens; but if this be the case, 
why should it not have a similar habitat? Those two species are litto- 
ral, but this is exclusively deep-water. I have received it from Dr. 
Oanfield, Mrs. Capt. Lambert, and others, in past years, and have exam- 
ined some twenty specimens of all ages. 

Acmasa (scabra var. ?) Morchii, n. s. 

Shell conical, much elevated, with a sub-central recurved apex resem- 
bling that of Helcion pectinatus covered with close-set, rough, imbricated 
ribs and riblets, the coarse, imbricated, sharp lines of growth forming 
with the other sculpture a close reticulation in some specimens. Interior 
with a brown-mottled spectrum and margin, otherwise white; exterior 
dull grayish or greenish speckled. The imbrications on the principal 
ribs very strong, in some specimens forming small spines concave 
beneath. Lat. IG""". Lou. 20""". Alt. 10™'". 

Tomales Bay, California, Ilemphill, 16 specimens. Mus. Cat. 31268. 

This very peculiar form has the sculpture of A. scabra., but much 
exaggerated, and very nearly the profile of Helcion pectbiatus. The 
recurved apex recalls that of A. persona. It would not be referred to 
any described Californian species if its characters, as they appear, were 
the only test. But it is almost certain that all the species of Limpets 
and Siphonaria', which have this peculiar elevated shape, acquire it 
from a particular habitat which they seem to prefer. This may be the 
stem of a large Fucus, a shell, round pebble, or what not, as in the case 
of those species of Acmaa usually (but wrongly) termed Nacella by 
Californian conchologists: Acnucaosmi ; Liriola sithspiralis ; etc. They 
all have a flattened or normal variety, though this is often very rare. 

Hence I consider the elevated form and pointed apex as probably 
due to a peculiar habitat, as in the other cases ; a view which is borne 
out by a peculiar arcuation of the margin in most of the specimens, as 
if the creature had lived on a round shell or pebble. 

Eliminating the elevation as a permanent character, the shell, appa- 
rently very limited in its distribution, might well be a hybrid between 
.1. scabra and A. persona. Whether this be the case or not, it is a very 
remarkable form, and well deserves a name, even if only of varietal 
value. We owe its discovery to Mr. Hemphill's industry and eminent 
abilities as a collector. 

Afril 30, 1878. 




In the Aunals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1, p. 40, I 
called attention to the explorations in the Lesser Antilles that were 
being made by Mr. F. A. Ober, giving an account of bis progress up to 
that time in the island of Dominica, and stating that when his final 
collection from there was received, a catalogue of the birds obtained 
and noticed by him would be published. 

When his last collection came to hand, it was found that the publica- 
tion of the promised catalogue would be delayed ; it was therefore 
deemed best to give a provisional list cf the species iu Forest and 
Stream ; this appeared in the issue of December G, 1877. 

On his second visit to Dominica, Mr. Ober had an attack of fever, 
which debarred him from concluding his explorations satisfactorily. 
Several species that were seen by him, but not procured, he was able 
to identify. A few other birds were heard of, but the descriptions given 
of them were insutticient for their identilication ; these being undoubted 
inhabitants of the island are included in the catalogue, with such infor- 
mation as he could obtain concerning them. Some of these species Mr. 
Ober hopes to have procured for him by residents, who promised to make 
efiforts to do so. 

Mr. Ober is entitled to much credit for his industry and perseverance 
thus far, and his notes testify that his heart is iu the enterprise. 

Besides birds, he has sent valuable collections in other branches of 

I have received fi'om him, by way of introduction to this catalogue, 
the following interesting account of the physical features of Dominica, 
with incidents of his movements, localities where birds were procured, 

All of his communications and notes are designated by (juotation- 

The arrangement of this catalogue is the same as that of the Xomen- 
clator Avium Neotropicalium, by Messrs. Sclater and Salviu. 

"The island of Dominica is 25 miles in length by 10 in breadth. It 
is mountainous in character, consisting of a central ridge running north 
and south, from which chain project hills and spurs east and west ; thus 
the entire island is but a succession of hills and valleys, the latter ever 
narrowing into ravines and gorges, from which pour foaming streams 
and torrents. 

"The coast-line is for the greater part bold and precipitous, some of 
the hills slope gently to the sea, and some of the valleys open upon 
spacious bays, which, though not deep, atford good anchorage on the 
Caribbean side for small craft. From the volcanic nature of this island^ 


being thrust up from the great ocean bed, the water all around it is of 
great depth, and vessels anchoring off'Eoseau, the principal town, often 
run out sixty fathoms of chain before bringing up. 

"Thus when I speak of the small depth of the bays, I mean the 
small indentations they make in the general line of the shore. The 
valleys and low hills of the Caribbean shore are tolerably well culti- 
vated, principally in sugar-cane; the provision ground of the negroes 
reaching often to high hill-tops. 

"On the east or Atlantic side, called the ' windward ' side of the island 
(from the fact that the prevailing wind here is the northeast trade), are 
a few fine, though isolated, sugar estates, situated where deep bays give 
opportunity for boats to laud. The nature of the east side of the island 
is more rocky, and the seas more boisterous than the west or Caribbean 
slope. The almost unceasing trade-wind keeps the Atlantic in a tumult, 
in striking contrast to the calms of the Caribbean waters. 

"As this island is about midway the group known as the Lesser An- 
tilles, being in lat. loo 20' — 15° 45'; long. 61° 13' — 01° 30', it possesses 
much in its fauna that will prove of interest ; and doubtless some spe- 
cies will be found to inhabit it that exist neither north nor south of it; 
some that are found north but not south, and vice versa. Possessing as 
it does the highest mountain peak in any island south of Jamaica, and 
a range of mountains and hills of 2,000 to 3,000 feet in height, the 
essential character of the fauna is mountainous. In fact, along the 
coast and in the low valleys, very few birds are obtained more than the 
ordinary sparrows, hummingbirds, etc. Though not rich in either 
numbers or species, Dominica contains its best birds in high mountain 
valleys. Each kind has its characteristic haunt and breeding place, as 
will be described hereafter, and the majority of them are in the mount- 
ains and mountain valleys. 

" My first collecting ground was at Landat (see Forest and Stream), 
a mountain vale 1,500 feet above the Caribbean Sea, at the head of the 
Roseau Valley, which latter made up into the mountains from the sea 
for nearly five miles. The average temperature of this region was ten 
degrees lower than at Roseau, 1,500 feet below ; at night a blanket 
(sometimes two) was necessary. I collected here for a month — the month 
of March — during which period I visited the famous Boiling Lake, a 
chain of lakes on the mountains, the near mountain peaks, and thor- 
oughly explored every accessible ravine and valley within a day's walk. 

"After shipping my collections to the Smithsonian, I started for the 
central 'windward' portion of the island, where reside the last vestiges 
of the Carib Indians. With them I resided six weeks, in a cabin close 
by the Atlantic shore. It was while there that I procured the Imperial 
Parrot, and other birds of less note, by making forced marches into the 
high mountains. 

" I should note here that everything I needed had to be transported 
Proc. Nat. Mus. 78 4 July 31, 1878. 


over tbe rugged mouutain trails, from the town of Eoseau, a journey 
of a clay and night, upon the heads of men and women. 

" In May I returned to Koseau. In Juue I passed a week in Landat, 
finding little difference in the birds, except in the scarcity of the Hum- 
mingbirds and a few others. I also spent more than a week, in June, 
at Batalie, a lime plantation midway the west coast, where I found 
a few birds which I had seen in the mountains more abundant, and one 
species — the Tropic Bird — breeding in the clifis. 

" During May and June 1 was exhausted by a low type of fever, the 
result of exposure, which greatly retarded my efforts to secure greater 
numbers of birds. From subsequent observation, however, and enquiry, 
I am certain that nearly all the resident species have been obtained. 
The very few not procured will be noticed further on. 

'• On the 15th September I returned to Dominica, after a visit to some 
of the northern islands. Making my way at once to the mountains, I 
had opportunity to note the changes that the seasons would make in 
the time which had elapsed since my first visit. The Hummingbirds 
were in great abundance, the 'Mountain Whistler' nearly silent, and 
perdu; the Flycatchers same as usual ; Wrens about the same, but more 
in the deep woods; sparrows, finches, etc., in customary abundance; 
the 'game birds' — 'Perdix', 'Kamier',and 'Tourterelles' — in abundance. 

" During this visit I succeeded in procuring the only species of Owl 
known in Dominica. The first was a female, September 18, sitting upon 
its nest, which contained three eggs freshly laid. The following day 
brought in the male ; this was the only find of value. 

" Strange to say, my old enemy, fever, visited me again, the first night 
I spent in the mountains; though I had been exempt from it for two 
months, and my last visit there had aided in its cure. This discouraging 
welcome to Dominica (I do not, though, attribute it solely to the climate) 
prevented me from going out on a projected trip to the mountains beyond 
for the Parrot ; I sent my men but they failed to get the bird. 

"The migratory species had arrived in small numbers— Golden Plover, 
Sandpiper, etc. — and the water of Eoseau Bay was black in places with 
large flocks of the 'twa-oo', a species of tern. These birds only come 
before a gale and are harbingers of a storm. September being a hurri- 
cane month, very few sailing craft of any kind were about; being, 
especially in the French islands, hauled up, to remain so through 

" Much to my regret, I was unable to procure the Parrot, but little 
larger than our Carolina Parrot, and the ' Diablotin'. The latter was, 
twenty years ago, in great abundance, breeding in the mountains ; but 
of late years it has become so scarce as to appear almost mythical. Its 
disappearance is attributed to the depredations of the 'Manacon', a 
worthless marsupial animal, introduced into Dominica years ago. Al- 
though the Diablotin is, probably, identical with the Petrel found in 
the Blue Mountains of Jamaica (the Prion CarVohcva^ as suggested by 


Prof. Baird),- yet it would be very interesting to know exactly what it 
is. If it is possibly remaining, I have hopes of securing it, as my friend 
H. A. Alford Xicholls, M. D., of Eoseau, has offered a large reward for 
it; if obtained, to be sent to the Smithsonian. 

"Having been in the island during the breeding season, I procured 
many nests and eggs, which are, probably, little known. Nests and 
eggs of three species of Hummingbirds, the 'Perdix', Owl, and many 
smaller birds, were received. 

" There are few sea-birds resident here, or even visitors for the pur- 
pose of incubation, owing to the precipitous character of the coast, and 
the absence of small islands or detached rocky islets. 

" From Dominica I sailed south to St. Vincent, where I remain at 
this present writing (October). 

" Trusting you will make allowance for the many imperfections in 
this (necessarily) hasty sketch ; and hoping to give you full and perfect 
descriptions when I have leisure to elaborate my notes, 
" I remain, faithfully yours, 


" It would be wrong in me to conclude without acknowledging the 
obligations I am under to a few gentlemen of Dominica. 

"To the President of the island, C. M. Eldridge, Esq.. for kindly let- 
ters of introduction to other islands ; for much proffered aid and a great 
deal of information. 

" To Dr. Imray, the oldest medical man in the island, one who has 
done much to develope the natural resources of Dominica; a botanist 
of repute, especially an authority on Tropical plants, to him I am in- 
debted for many favors. Free access to a large and well-selected library 
was one of the many delights his generous nature afforded me. 

" To the Hon. William Stedman, for many and delicate acts of kind- 

" To Dr. H. A. Alford Nicholls, for numerous favors. I never can 
repaj' the debt I owe these two gentlemen, for the many and continued 
attentions during my stay. At the time when I was sick with fever, it 
was to the attentions of the one and the skilful medical attendance of 
the other, that my rapid recovery was due. The period of convales- 
cence, passed principally in their society, will continue a very jileasant 

" The information possessed by Dr. Nicholls upon wood and mountain 
life was freely placed at my disposal, and it was owing chiefly to his 
suggestions, that my collecting grounds were so judiciously chosen as 
to comprise within their areas the characteristic birds of the island. 
Upon botany and ethnology the doctor is well informed, and his collec- 
tions and herbarium promise to become very valuable. 

" These remarks will perhaps account for my protracted stay in the 
island, and for a lingering regret at leaving it." 


Fam. TUEDID^. 

1. Margarops herminieri (Lafr.).— Local name, "Morer". 

" This curious bird inhabits the high woods; especially does it delight 
in the comparatively open places beneath the towering gomier trees, 
where perhaps a narrow trail has left the ground bare of leaves. There 
you will find where it has been scratching with its strong feet. It is 
very shy, and being very good as food it is sought by the mountaineers, 
who call it to them by imitating its cry of distress. 

" Iris tea-color. Not abundant. 

"Length, ^, 9in. ; alar extent, 15; wing, 5; tail, 3y 

Of this fine species there are five males in the collection, but no 
females, and Mr. Ober makes no allusion to their plumage. It has not 
before been recorded from Dominica. 

2. Margarops densirostris (Vieill.)-— Local name, "Gros Grive". 

" These birds are much esteemed for their flesh, and are hunted with- 
out mercy, when the law allows. They are thus made very shy; at 
St. Marie, however, in the Indian section of Dominica, where they 
are not shot, they are very tame, and frequent the mango and bread- 
fruit trees about the habitations of the people. They lay in April and 

" Iris very pale straw color ; bill horn color. 

"Length, <?, 11 in.; alar extent, 17^; wing, 5i ; tail, 5f." 

The sexes do not diflfer apparently in size or plumage; not before 
noted from Dominica. 

3. Margarops montauus (Vieill.)-— Local name, " Grive ". 

"Abundant, but much reduced in numbers by being shot for food. In 
habits and actions much resembles the American Mockingbird, without 
his song, however. 

" Iris yellow. 

" Length, <?, 9^ ; alar extent, 14f ; wing, 43 ; tail, 4." 

Numerous specimens of both sexes sent; no apparent difference 
between them; also not sent before from this island. 

The nest of this species is composed of fine roots loosely woven toge- 
ther; the inside with the smallest roots, but no soft lining; it is very 
shallow, and appears small for the size of the bird, having a diameter 
of but four and a half inches ; there are two eggs of a uniform beauti- 
ful aqua-marine blue, measuring 1.20 x .75. 

Collected at Shawford Valley, May 10. 

4. Cinclocerthia ruficauda, Gould.— Local name, "Trembleur". 

" Its name is given from its habit of quivering its wings. Abundant 
in the mountains and lower valleys. (See letter in Forest and Stream.) 
" Length, <?, 9 in. ; alar extent, 12 J; wing, 4 ; tail, 3J." 
The sexes are alike in colors and dimensions. This species has not 
been obtained before in Dominica. 


5. "Thrush"? 

"Another bird was described by several persons, something like the 
Thrush, but with yellow bill and legs. Its egg is like the Cuckoo's in 
shape and color." 

Of course, it can only be determined by examples. 


6. Myiadestes genibarbia, Sw. — Native name, "Siffleur Montagne; Solitaire". 
"The Mountain Whistler frequents the most gloomy and solitary 

mountain gorges, seeking the most retired situations — not so much 
from shyness as from some inherent proclivity. 

" Found on the borders of open glades in the morning when seeking 
its favorite food, the berries of a tall shrub. Never found below 1,000 
feet altitude. Its mellow notes are first heard from a dark ravine above 
Shawford Valley as one ascends the mountains. (See Forest and 

"Length, <?, 7 J in.; alar extent, 11; wing, 3|; tail, 3^." 

The female differs from the male only in having a wash of brownish- 
olive across the middle of the back. There is a single specimen of the 
young; in this each feather of the upper plumage terminates with 
black, and has an adjoining subterminal round spot of bright rufous; 
the feathers of the under plumage are more rufous, with the terminal 
edge less distinctly marked with black ; the throat and under tail-cov- 
erts are light rufous ; the tail as in the adult. This specimen is spotted 
much in the same manner as the figure of the young of 3f. ralloidcs, in 
Exotic Ornithology, by Messrs. Sclater and Salvin, pi. xxxii. 

The M. armillatus of Bonaparte (Cons. Av. i, p. 335) agrees best with 
M. genibarhis^ Svv., as he describes the parotic region to be black, striped 
with white, a character peculiar to that species. He has Swainson's 
name as a synonym, considering the two to be identical ; he gives for 
the habitat Central America and the Antilles. 

Prof. Baird (Rev. Am. Birds, p. 421) proves that M. armillatus, Gosse, 
from Jamaica, is not M. armillatus, Vieill., and names it M. soUtarius. 
The true habitat of Vieillot's species is thus left unsettled, and I believe 
no authentic examples of it are known to exist in any collection. Yieil- 
lot, in his original description (Ois. Am. Sept. i, p. 69, pi. 42), gives the 
Antilles as its habitat ; afterwards (Enc. Meth. ii, p. 824) specifies Mar- 
tinique as a locality. 

Mr. Sclater (P. Z. S. 1871, p. 270) considers the last reference as prob- 
ably applying to M. geniharhis. Mr. Sclater also says : — " It is possible 
that M. armillatus verus may be the species from St. Domingo, where 
there is an unknown representative of this form." 

31. geniharhis is noted from St. Lucia by Mr. Sclater in his list of the 
birds of that island (P. Z. S. 1871, p. 263). The specimens from there 
he compared with two examples of 31. geniharhis in the Swainson collec- 
tion at Cambridge, and found them to agree. 


SwainsoQ erroneously supposed this bird to be a native of Africa ; 
his figure of it (2^at. Lib. vol. xiii), to be correct, should have the chin 
and an elongated quadrate mark on the lower eyelid pure white. 

There are in the collection twelve adult specimens, which are appa- 
rently in full plumage, having the pure white chin and rictal stripe sep- 
arated by a black line, and the white patch on the lower eyelid ; in the 
young example, the white marks are wanting. 


7. Thryothorus rufescens, Lawr., Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. v. 1, p. 47. 
" Wren, <? , Landat, March 3, 1877. 

" Found only in the deep, dark woods, or on their borders. I shot 
several, but lost them in the rank vegetation. They have a most de- 
licious song, like, I think, our Northern Wood Wren. Will have more 
extended notes at some future day. I just missed getting its egg. In 
June I found a nest, and had my boys watching it for eggs, but some 
one robbed it before me. When I left, I told the people of the valley to 
procure the eggs and save them for me. 

"It (the nest) was merely a few straws in a small hole in a bank, 
about six inches deep, with a diameter of four inches. 

"Length, 4i in.; alar extent, 6g; wing, 2^; tail. If. 

"Iris bright hazel. Abundant in the deep woods, but hard to find 
from its terrestrial habits. Native name, 'OseuoliV 

In the first two collections, there being but the type-specimen, I re- 
quested Mr. Ober to get more ; in the last collection are four others, but 
all are males. These were procured in September, and are of a darker 
or brownish-rufous, no doubt owing to the different season. 


8. Siurus naevius (Bodd.). 

" Wagtail — very scarce. 

" Shot while feeding about the pools of the upper waters of the 
Eoseau River, a rocky stream of cascades and water-falls. 
"Length, 5f in.; alar extent, 9^ ; wing, 3^, 9." 

9. Dendroeca virens (Gm.). 

"Only one seen; very ragged in plumage. 
"Length, 5 in.; alar extent, 7§ ; wing, 2^, ,?." 

10. DendrcBca petechia (Linn.). 

" Yellow Warbler, ' Titien '. Shawford Valley, March 21. 
"Abundant on the plantations of the east coast, overgrown with 


"Length, 5 in.; alar extent, 7^; wing, 2f, 9." 

"A nest with eggs was taken at St. Marie in April." 

The nest is well shaped and compactly formed ; is composed of fine 

dried grasses, the outside of coarser materials, strips of bark, and long. 


thin, flag like leaves, intermixed with a little cotton. It seems large for 
the bird; it measures in outside diameter 5 inches; height, 2^; depth 
of cavity, 1| inches. There are three eggs of a dull white, sparingly 
speckled with reddish-brown, except on the larger end, where the spots 
are confluent; two measure in length .75 of an inch and .50 in breadth; 
the other is .55 in breadth. 

11. Dendrocca plunibea, Lawr., Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. v. 1, p. 47. 
There are no notes which apply to this species. 

12. Setophaga ruticilla (Liuu.). 

" Redstart, ' Chat'. Not common. 

" Length, 5 in. ; alar extent, 7i ; wing, 2J, <?." 


13. Vireosylvia calidris var. dominicana, Lawr. 

" I think this bird is a summer visitor only, as I did not see it before 
March 19, and then only one. It increased in numbers in April and 
May; was abundant in the Indian Settlement. I send nest and eggs. 
Its note makes it conspicuous. 

<' Length, $, 6J in.; alar extent, lOJ ; wing, 3.} ; tail, 2^\" 

" Local name, ' Chewick'. Iris hazel." 

Male. — Upper plumage olive-green, purer and brighter than in Y. 
calidris ; cap of a clear ash, rather darker than that of var. harhatula ; 
a distinct blackish line along the edge of the crown ; superciliary stripe 
ashy- white; cheeks with a tinge of buff; lores and a stripe behind the 
eye dusky : a blackish moustachial line along each side of the throat ; 
the under plumage is grayish-white, purer on the upper part of the 
throat and abdomen ; sides pale olive-green ; under wing-coverts yellow ; 
crissum pure pale yellow ; the bill is large and darker than in its allies ; 
the upper mandible is blackish horn-color, the under whitish horn-color. 

The female differs in no respects from the male. 

The only necessary direct comparison with any of the West Indian 
or moustached form is with var. barbadense, Eidg. ; that and the pres- 
ent bird only having a distinct dark line along the edge of the crown. 
The type of barbadense was kindly sent me by Mr. Eidgway : it is 
smaller than the Dominica species ; the plumage above is of a lighter 
brownish-olive, the cap not so dark, the under parts of a pale yellowish 
or creamy-white, and the bill of a fleshy-brown color ; in general color- 
ing they are quite unlike. 

The nest (marked '' St. Marie, April 22, '77") is not the beautiful struc- 
ture described by Dr. Brewer (N. Am. Birds, v. 1, p. 362) belonging to F. 
calidris of Jamaica, and does not appear to have been pensile ; it is com- 
posed of fine grasses, intermixed on the outside with a coarser kind of 
a long, thin, ribbon-like form. There are but two eggs — perhaps not the 
full complement ; they are of a dull white, rather closely spotted with 


pale chocolate, confluent at the larger end ; they measure in length .80 
of an inch by .60 in breadth. 

The nest measures in outside diameter 3.J inches; depth of cavity IJ 


14. Progne dominicensis (Gm.). 
" * Hirondelle.' Resident. 

" The first seen was shot at Mountain Lake, 2,300 feet above sea-level, 
March 23 ; later in the season I found a few on the Atlantic side, in 
June, breeding in the clifl"s at Batalie, on the Caribbean shore. 

"Length, 7f in. ; alar extent, 15 ; wing, Sf, <?." 


15. Certhiola dominicana, Taylor.— Local name, " Sucrier". St. Marie. 

" I procured a series of these, that you might be able to determine 
better the local differences. 

" Everywhere abundant in lowland and mountain valleys ; breeds in 
old plantations from March through to the rainy season. I send nests 
and eggs. 

" Length, 4g in. ; alar extent, 7| ; wing, 2^. 

" 1 put in a few nests of these birds to illustrate the domed struc- 
ture — a character that prevails among the smaller birds — grass-birds, 
Sparrow and Sucrier." 

There are two nests, globular in form, one containing three eggs, ob- 
tained at St. Marie, April 20, 1877 ; the other with four eggs, in Shawford 
Valley, in April. For the size of the bird, the nest seems a bulky struc- 
ture, but is elaborately made; the inside is of fine grasses ; the outside of 
fine wiry stems of some plant, and the thin flag-like leaves spoken of in 
describing the nest of Doichccca petechia ; it has an outside diameter of 
5 inches, the depth of the cavity 3 inches, across the opening 1| 
inches. The entrance is on the side. The eggs are dull white, some 
closely spotted with pale reddish-brown ; others less so ; some with the 
spots confluent at the larger end ; others having them distinct. They 
measure .68 of an inch in length by .53 in breadth. 


16. Euphoiiia flavifrons (Sparm.). 

" 'L'oivseau de St. Pierre.' Rare. 

" Feeds among the tops of trees in the high woods ; said to occur, 
also, on the coast; stomach full of small green seeds. 

" Length, 4;| in. ; alar extent, 8 ; wing, 2^ ; tail, 1|, 9." 
. There is in the collection but one specimen, a female, which I suppose 
to be this species. I wrote Mr. Ober to endeavor to get others, but he 
was unable to do so. I have a male specimen from Porto Rico of U. 


sclateri, presented by Dr. Guudlach — this is much smaller than the 
above, measuring in length 4:^ in. ; wiug, 2 jV ; tail, 1/^. 

17. Saltator guadeloupensis, Lafr. — Local name, ''Grosbec". 

" Found among the bushes and low trees fringing the cleared valleys 
and open plateaus. Its clear note makes it a marked bird in the breed- 
ing season. Found eggs in May. Inhabitant of both coasts. Not 

"Length, 8^ in.; alar extent, 12:| ; wing, 4 ; tail, 3^', 9. 

" Length, 8J in. ; alar extent, 12A ; wing, 4 ; tail, 3§, c? . 

^' Nest obtained at St. Marie, Indian country. May 1, 1877; lays from 
two to three eggs at a time." 

The sexes do not differ in plumage. The nest is made of the stems of 
•coarse grasses, and though appearing to be loosely put together, yet is 
Nquite compact; there are a few finer stems at the bottom of the cavity. 
The outer diameter is 5^ inches, height 3 inches, depth of cavity If 
inches. The eggs are light greenish-blue, with a few irregular black 
markings on the larger end; the length is 1.06 of an inch, the width .80. 


18. Loxigilla noctis (Linn.). — Local name, Moisson ; Pere Noir; Sparrow. 

" The male is black, the female gray, I have no doubt, as they are 
always seen together. Very common, especially on old plantations; 
make their nests in low trees and stout shrubs. The nest sent, with 
three eggs, was obtained in Shawford Valley, March 21, 1877. 

" Length, 5J in.; alar extent, 0; wing, 3 ; tail, 2f, ^ . 

" Length, 51 in. ; alar extent, 8.J ; wing, 2^; tail, 2i, 9." 

The nest under examination is placed in the upright trifurcated 
branch of a prickly shrub or tree, and is thus supported behind and on 
€ach side ; it is a large and loosely formed structure, composed of fine 
stems of i)lants, dried leaves, and small, dried plants ; it is covered 
over or domed, and has a large opening in front, the lower part, which 
is the nest proper, is more comj)act, and is lined at the bottom with 
fine, soft grasses or stems of plants ; the height of the nest outside is 8 
inches, the breadth 5; the opening in front has a diameter of 3 inches; 
depth of cavity, 2 inches. The complement of eggs is three. Those sent 
differ much in size and appearance. One is nearly white, marked with 
minute pale spots of reddish-brown, quite evenly distributed ; this 
measures .80 by .62 of an inch. Another, of about the same size, is 
more conspicuously spotted; at the larger end densely so; size, .78 by 
.57. The last is much smaller, the spots larger and darker ; it is closely 
spotted all over, the spots not confluent at the larger end ; it measures 
.72 by .50. 

Mr. Sclater speaks of the single specimen from St. Lucia (P. Z. S. 
1871, p. 271), and referred to this species as differing from a Martinique 


skiu in Laving " no rufous at all on the crissum, and the superciliary 
mark shorter ". 

Five males in the collection from Dominica have the under tail coverts 
rufous, of the same shade as that of the throat; the rufous line running 
from the bill is darker, and extends over the eye as far as upon a line 
with its centre. Probably the Dominica and Martinique birds are alike; 
but if other examples from St. Lucia prove to be without rufous cris- 
sum s, it would seem to be a well marked variety. 

The female from Dominica is, above, a brownish-olive, having the 
face, sides of the head, and upper tail-coverts tinged with rufous; the 
wing-coverts and tertials are edged with bright rufous; the under 
plumage is of a dark ashy-olive; the under tail-coverts are pale rufous. 

Specimens of a LoxlgiUa collected in Guiana by Mr. A. H. Alexander 
(taxidermist), though similar in color and markings to examples of L. 
noctis from Dominica, are so much less in all their measurements that 1 
think, at least, it may be considered a variety. The bill of the Guiana 
bird is much smaller, the under mandible of a brownish horn-color, be- 
ing black in the West Indian bird ; the under tail-coverts are of a paler 
rufous ; the rufous of the throat more restricted, and the superciliary 
line extending beyond the eye. 

The measurements of the two are as follows : — 

Dominica bird, ^, length, 5i in.; wing, 3; tail, 2|; tarsus, f. 

Guiana bird, <?, length, 4i in.; wing, 2§ : tail, 2; tarsus, §. 

Viewed together, the skin of the West Indian bird appears to be 
nearly twice the bulk of the other. 

I propose to distinguish the South American form by the name of 
LoxUjilla noctis var. propinqua. 

Mr. Alexander obtained quite a number of this small species in 
Guiana, but he had disposed of most of them before they came under 
my notice. Three males examined were alike in size and coloring. I 
was unable to find a female among the birds collected by him: this is 
easily accounted for ; his object in making collections being to secure the 
more showy and saleable males. 

Mr. Alexander informed me that they were not uncommon along the 
Essequibo Eiver, and that he saw them also at Berbice. 

The only citation of Guiana as a locality for L. noctis that I have 
noticed is by Bonaparte (Cons. Av. i, p. 493), viz, " Surinam'"; he also 
gives Martinique. 

19. Phonipara bicolor (Linn.). 

"SiSiYerbe; Grass-bird. 

"Abundant everywhere; breeds in great numbers in Shawford Valley, 
three miles from the coast ; nests in lime-trees. 

"One with three eggs taken April, 1877; another with four eggs." 
"Length, ^, 4a in.; alar extent, C^-; wing, 2i. 
"Length, 9,4iin.; alar extent, Gi ; wing, 2i." 


The nest is globular in shape, and is composed of fine roots and stems 
of plants, intermixed with thin, flag-like leaves; it is G^ inches high 
and 5^ inches broad ; the opening is 2 inches across ; depth of the 
cavity, IJ inches. The eggs are quite uniform in appearance; they are 
white, with a scarcely perceptible greenish tinge, sparingly speckled 
with reddish-brown, except on the larger end, where the examples vary 
in having the spots more or less confluent. They vary in size from .06 
to .57 of an inch in length, and in breadth from .54 to .50. 


20. Elainea martinica (Liun.). — Local name, "Quick". 

" Rather abundant in the mountain valleys, especially in the lateral 
ravines bordering the glades of open pastures. In habits and cry 
resembling our Phoebe-bird. 

"Length, ^, Gf in.; alar extent, lOi; wing, 34. 

"Length, 9, 6 in.; alar extent, 10; wing, 3f." 

Of this species, Mr. Ober sent nine examples. Mr. Sclater (P. Z. S, 
1S71, p. 271) considers £'. rimi from St. Thomas "undistinguishable'' 
from E. martinica. I have but one specimen of E. riisii, which differs 
only from the Dominica bird in being light brownish-olive above; the 
upper plumage of E. martinica is dark olive; the difference may be 
seasonal. Mr. Sclater also raises the question whether E. ijagana " is 
really separable"; in five specimens, so-called, from Brazil, Guiana, and 
Xew Granada, the most marked difference from the West Indian bird 
is that the breast and abdomen are of a decided pale yellow. In E. 
martinica, the throat and breast are of a clear bluish-gray, the abdomen 
with just a tinge of yellow. 

Mr. Sclater (P. Z. S. 1870, p. 834) thinks that his E. siihpagana will 
have to be reunited to E. pagana. I have one example of this form,, 
from the City of Mexico, which is of a bright yellowish-olive above, and 
the abdomen of a fine clear light yellow. These differences may be due 
to geographical position. 

21. Myiarchus oberi, Lawr., Ann. N. Y. Acad, of Sci. v. l,p. 46. — Local uauie, " So- 
leil coucher ". 

" It is SO called because it utters its peculiar cry just at sunset ; the 
hunters say when Soleil Coucher cries, it is time to make ojoussa, or 
camp. Obtained at Landat in March ; not common. 

" Length, ^, 9 in. ; alar extent, 12J ; wing, 4. 

" Length, 9 , 8^ in. ; alar extent, 12^ ; wing, 4." 

22. Blacicus brunneicapillus, Lawr , Add. N. Y. Acad. Sci. v. 1, p. IGl. — Local name, 
" Goubemouche "'. 

" Everywhere abundant in the ravines and dark valleys of the mount- 

" Length, <? , 5| in. ; alar extent, 8J ; wing, 2^ ; tail, 23." 


23. Tyrannus rostratus, Stl. 

" Pipere ; Loggerhead." 

"More an inhabitant of the lowlands than the mountains; found it 
abundant in St. Marie, Atlantic coast. 

" Found a nest with two eggs, April 20, 1877. 

"Length, c?, 0| in. ; alar extent, 15 ; wing, 4J. 

" Length, 9 , 9f in. ; alar extent, 15^ ; wing, 4f ." 

The nest is rather loosely made, of small harsh-feeling roots and stems 
of plants, with no soft lining for the eggs; it is 4| inches wide, with a 
height of 2 inches, the cavity but half an inch deep. The two eggs are 
alike in size, but vary in shade of color: one is of a light reddish salmon 
color, with large conspicuous spots of a deep rusty-red, mostly around 
the larger end; the other is white, with a slight tinge of color, the spots 
smaller and less conspicuous. They measure LOG by .77. 


24. Eulampis jugularis (Linn.). 

" Large Crimson-throat Hummingbird." 

" This species called ' Colibri ' in patois French. 

" This species is almost exclusively a frequenter of the high valleys 
of the mountains, though found lower down also. It delights in the 
plantain and provision grounds of the mountain sides, and there may 
be seen in early morning, glancing among the leaves, hovering over the 
flower clusters. In the open glades, also, it was abundant about the 
wild honeysuckle and flowering shrubs. It was easily approached, and 
many were caught for me by the little mountain boys, with native bird- 
lime, the juice (inspissated) of the bread-fruit tree. 

" I did not find it anywhere common on the east, or Atlantic side of 
the island. Took a nest and two eggs in June. It breeds later in the 
season than the smallest species (the Crested). Nest built in bread- 
fruit tree. Have nests of the three species. 

" Length, <? , 5 in. ; alar extent, 7J ; wing, 3|. 

"Length, 9, 5 in. ; alar extent, 7J; wing, 3." 

This would seem to be a very abundant species, as Mr. Ober procured 
about fifty specimens. Most of these bear evidence of having been cap- 
tured with bird-lime. The female differs only in the color of the throat 
being somewhat duller. 

Mr. Ober speaks of having obtained " nests of the three species"; 
but none have been received. 

25. Eulampis holosericeus (Linn.). 

" Green or Blue-throated Hummingbird." 

" This is not so abundant as the others. It prefers shade and seclu- 
sion. I noticed the curious habit first in this species, that it possesses 
in common with the larger, of flitting about in the dark forest, where a 


gleam of light would penetrate. It would dart aud double with rapid- 
ity, occasionally fluttering on suspended wing, like a Hawk, then dart 
off to a near twig, whence, after resting a while, it would renew its forage 
upon the diminutive insects sporting in the ray of dusky light. 

♦' Procured a nest and two eggs, in June, from a ' cactus ' tree." 

" Length, ^, 4J in. ; alar extent, C ; wing, 2^." 

26. Thalurania •wagleri (Less.). 

" White-throat Hummer." September, 1877. 

"This bird I found tolerably abundant, principally in the shady 
mountain paths of the ' high woods '. I saw but one before (earlier in 
the year) in March, while on my way to the Boiling Lake. It may be 
the young of No. 3G8 or 369, but of this you can judge, as I send speci- 
mens of each kind. luhabits the mountains. 

" Length, 9, 4i in. ; alar extent, G; wing, 2|." 

Mr. Ober's note given above refers to the female of this species, of 
which two examples were sent in his last collection ; also one male, No. 
3G9; on the label of this specimen he wrote, "Purple-throat Hummer, ,? !. 
Length, 4i in. ; alar extent, G; wing, 2^." (No. 3G8 is Eulampis holose- 
riceus.) This is the first allusion he has made to its being a distinct 
species, which is difficult to account for, as the male is also very differ- 
ent in appearance from the three other species found abundantly in the 
island. In his first collection, seven males of T. tcagleri were sent, but 
there is no note or any comment to lead to the supposition that he con- 
sidered it a fourth species — the three regular forms being the only ones 
spoken of. 

The female of this species appears to have been more rarely obtained 
than the male. 

It has the crown and upper tail-coverts bluish-green, the upper 
plumage and wing-coverts dark green tinged with golden ; the middle 
tail-feathers are golden bronze, ending with greenish-blue; the other 
tail-feathers are greenish-blue, with their bases golden bronze, and ending 
with grayish-white ; the lores, a line under the eye, and the earcoverts 
are black ; the under plumage is ashy-white; the bill is entirely black. 

The procuration of the female establishes this species as being resi- 
dent in Dominica. 

27. Orthorhynchus exilis (Gm.). 
" Small Crested Hummer." 

" This species is called by the natives, ' Fou, Fou,' or ' crazy, crazy,' 
from its eccentric motions in the air. 

" It is not uncommon along the coast and in the lower valleys. Al- 
most the only species on the Atlantic side in April and May. Very 
abundant everywhere. Took first nest, March 20, in Shawford Valley ; 
found others as late as June 20, at Batalie, on sea-coast. 

" In order of numerical abundance this species can be first, the Crim- 
son-throat second, the Blue or Violet-breast third. 

"Length, 3^ in.; alar extent, 4f ; wing, 2, c?." 



28. Chaetura poliura (Temm.)- 
'• Swift. 

'' This bird only appears after a rain, then in great numbers, darting 
swiftly about, disappearing as soon as it Las ceased. In March saw 
but three at the Mountain Lake, 2,300 feet. In June they had descended 
to the valleys, and were even sporting about the seashore. 

" They live and breed among the clififs, high up the mountains and 
near the waterfalls of the Eoseau Yalley. Abundant also at Batalie? 
lower down the coast. 

"Length, <?, 4§ in.; alar extent, 10^ ; wing, 3|.'' 

I have never seen an example of C. poliura^ but as the bird under 
investigation agrees in i)lumage quite well with the description of that 
species given by Mr. Sclater (P. Z. S. 1865, p. 611), I have called it so 
provisionally; it differs, however, in dimensions, the wing especially 
being shorter. 

29. "Swift." 

'•A species of Swift, intermediate in size between the small Swift and 
the large Martin." 
This species has not yet been obtained. 


30. Ceryle alcyon (Liun.). 
" Kingfisher."' 

" Seen in April on the windward side of Dominica, and again in Sep- 
tember on the leeward, or Caribbean side. In September it appears 
more plentiful. Undoubtedly a resident." 

i^^o specimen sent, but is this species without much doubt. 


31. Coccyzus minor (Gm.). 
"Cuckoo; Manioc." 

"Not very plentiful; unsuspicious, stupid; its cry similar to that of 
Yellow-billed Cuckoo, but more prolonged, sharper, and harsher. 
" Nesting in May ; inhabits the low shrubs and trees of old clearings. 
"Length, (?, 13 in.; alar extent, 16J; wing, 5J. 
"Length, 9, 13J in.; alar extent, 17; wing, 5|." 


32. Chrysotis augusta (Vig.). 
" ' Cicero.' 

" Except in the rainy season, this bird can only be found in the high 
mountains, where grow the mountain palm, ^owier, hois diable,iind other 


trees of mountain growth, upon the seeds of which it feeds. It is there 
abundant, yet shy and difficult to approach. Its cry is harsh, resem- 
bling the call of a Wild Turkey. Morning and evening they call one to 
another for perhaps an hour; during the rest of the day they remain 
silent, except for an occasional cry. When a gun is fired, they all cry 
out, and then keep perfect silence. They do not seem to associate in 
docks at this season, like the Parrot, but are found more often in pairs. 
They breed in the hollow tops of high trees, and the young are rarely 
taken. When caught young, they readily learn to talk. The only manner 
in which one is secured alive is by being wounded. 

" It descends to the valleys in the rainy season to some extent, but 
prefers the mountains. At that time they are very fat, excellent eating, 
and much hunted. 

" I made an excursion into their mountain fastnesses, camping on 
their feeding grounds, but only secured three (though assisted by the 
Carib hunters), the country was so wild and the birds so shy. 

''Length, <?, 21 in.; alar extent, 35; wing, 11. 

"Length, 9, 22 in.; alar extent, 36; wing, 12." 

As specimens of the Imperial Parrot are exceedingly rare in collec- 
lions, and a description of it not readily available, I thought that one 
taken from the examples before me might prove useful. 

The male has on the front adjoining the bill a narrow line of a dark 
-warm brown color ; the feathers of the crown and occiput are of a rather 
•dull bluish-green, with lighter terminations ; the feathers of the hind 
neck, and extending around in front, are bronzy-green, with a broad 
subterminal band of dark bluish-purple, and ending with black; the 
feathers of the back, wing-coverts, flanks, and upper tail-coverts are of 
a bright, rather dark green, conspicuously edged with lighter or verditer- 
green ; these terminal edgings are crossed with waving dark marks like 
water-lines ; the tail-feathers are reddish-brown, having their bases green 
for a short space, the two middle feathers show more green ; the edge 
of the wing is scarlet (not the flexure) ; the primaries have their outer 
webs bright dark green for two-thirds their length, the terminal third 
of a brownish-purple ; the first quill is entirely, and the inner webs of 
the others are of a dark purple ; all but the first primary have their 
outer webs incised; the secondaries have their outer webs green; on 
the outer two a speculum of scarlet; the inner webs are dark purple; 
on the chin and sides of the throat adjoining, the feathers are dark 
iDrown, with coppery terminations; the ear-coverts are brown, ending 
with light bluish ; the feathers of the lower part of the throat, the breast, 
and abdomen are bronzy dark olive, broadly marked subterminally with 
an opalescent band of violet-purple and light blue, changeable in differ- 
ent lights, their terminal margins are black ; the upper mandible is dark 
horn-color, with a whitish mark on its side at the base; the under man- 
dible is lighter; the feet blackish-brown. 

The female specimen has the colors a little duller, and the speculum 
less bright, but it may be possibly younger. 


33. "Parrot." 
"Not abundant 

" This bird, about the size of our Northern Carolina Parrot, but more 
robust, is very shy, keeping mainly to the higher mountains ; sometimes 
descending to the inner valleys, to feed upon the wild guavas. 

" It is sometimes captured by being wing-broken, and takes kindly to 
confinement, but unlike its larger brother, the Cicero, does not learn to 
talk. It congregates in small flocks. It is oftener shot in the months 
between September and February. A very beneficent law of Dominica 
prohibits the shooting of Parrots, Ciceros, Eamiers, &c., in any other 
months, thus ensuring protection during the breeding season." 

This species was not obtained by Mr. Ober. 


34. Strix flammea var. nigrescena, Lawr. 
"Owl. 'Shawah.' 

" Very rare; its cry even is seldom heard. It haunts principally the 
mountains and higher valleys ; builds its nest in a hollow tree, or in the 
hollow of a large limb, and lays eggs elliptical in shape, white and gran- 
ular. In this case they were three in number, and from the appearance 
of the ovules, were the full complement. They were newly laid, Sep- 
tember 19." 

I find this to be a very dark variety of Strix flammea. At my request, 
Mr.Ridgway sent me a specimen of the dark-plumaged form (var. guate- 
mal(C,frQm Costa Kica), spoken of in N. A. Birds, v. 2, p. 14. On compa- 
rison, the difference is very marked : the example from Costa Rica is 
above brown, intermixed with rufous, and closely freckled with fine 
whitish vermiculations ; it is also marked, not closely, with whitish 
ovate spots surrounded with black ; the color below is dark reddish- 
ochraceous, with black sagittate spots. The sex not given. It measures, 
length, 14i in. ; wing, 13 ; tail, 6 ; tarsus, 2^. 

The male from Dominica has the upper plumage of a fine blackish- 
brown, rather sparsely marked with small white spots ; the tail is 
crossed with alternate bands of brown and light dull ochraceous freck- 
led with brown ; the wings are the color of the back, somewhat inter- 
mixed with rufous ; the under plumage is light reddish-ochraceous, 
marked with small round black spots (the color is lighter than the under 
plumage of the Costa Rica specimen) ; the ends of the ruft'-feathers are 
dark reddish-brown ; feathers around the eye, black 5 the face is of a 
light reddish fawn color. " Bill white ; iris deep chocolate, half an inch 
in diameter." 

Length (fresh), 13 in. ; wing, 10 ; tail, 4^ ; tarsus, 2. 

The female is of the same dark color above, with the white spots so 
minute as to be scarcely perceptible ; the tail is darker ; the under 
plumage of a darker reddish-ochraceous than in the male (not so dark 


as that of the Costa Eica specimen), a few roundish black spots on the 
breast; on the abdomen the markings are in clusters, and irregular in 

Length (skin), 13 in. ; wing, 9^ ; tail, 43- ; tarsus, 2^. 

Besides its much darker upper plumage, the Dominican form is of 
much smaller dimensions. 

The color of the eggs is dead white; they measure in length 1.60 by 
1.22 in breadth. 


35. Pandion haliaetus (Linn.). 
" Fish-hawk." 

" Seen circling over the sea in September." 

36. Buteo pennsylvanicus (Wils.). 

" ' Mai tlui.' St. Marie, Indian country. 

" This bird courses above the valley, uttering its cry of ' Mai fini, fini'. 
It is not abundant; eats lizards as well as small birds. The largest of 
the Hawks here resident. Iris amber. 

"Length, <?, 15 in. ; alar extent, 32 ; wing, 10^. 

"Length, 9, 15 in.; alar extent, 32 ; wing, 10." 

37. Tinnunculus sparverius var. antillarum (Gm.). 
" ' Glee glee.' I^owhere abundant. 

" Length, ^, lOi in. ; alar extent, 20; wing, Of." 

The two specimens sent were submitted to Mr. Ridgway for deter- 
mination ; he wrote me as follows : — " The Dominica Timiuncuhisis iden- 
tical with that from St. Thomas, St. Bartholomew, and Porto Rico. It 
is what I have called '■sparverius var. dominicensis\ but I find upon 
farther investigation that it should bear the name of antillarum^ Gm. — 
dominicensis being, as I now conclude, the bird which I have called leu- 
cophrys.'^ Mr. Ridgway also wrote : — " You may mention that I have a 
male T. sjmrveroides, in the j)lumbeous plumage, from South Florida."' 


38. Fregata aquila (Linn.). 

" Man o' War Hawk ; Frigate Pelican." 

" Often seen iiyiug at great height ; said to breed on an inaccessible' 
cliff on the southeastern side of the island." 


39. Phaethon flavirostris, Brandt. 
" Tropic Bird. Abundant. 

" Breeds in the cliffs near the Lime Plantation of Batalie, the prop- 
erty of Dr. imray. They also breed in the cliffs of Mount David, near 
Proc. Nat. Mus. 78 5 Joaly 3®, 1§78, 


Eoseau. They appear from out tbeir holes early in the morning, go out 
to sea to fish and return at 9 or 10; coming out again in the afternoon. 
A road winds at the base of the cliff, and thus they can be closely 
observed. They are said to reside here the year through, and commence 
incubating in April. 

"Length, <?,23in. ; alar extent, 36 ; wing, llj. 

"Length, 9, 27 in. ; alar extent, 36 ; wing, 11^." 


40. Pelecanus fuscus (Linn.). 
"Brown Pelican." 

" One or two seen ; does not breed here, but probably on the nearest 
sandy island." 

Fam. ARDEID^. 

41. Ardea candidissima (Gm.). 

" ' Gaulin blanc' Not common. 

" In such rivers as that at Hatton Garden, which runs a long distance 
through a tolerably level valley, with broad shallows, banks well lined 
with bushes, with deep holes well stocked with fish, this bird is often 
found. Iris pale yellow. 

" Length, ^, 21^ in.; alar extent, 35; wing, lOJ in." 

42. Ardea caerulea, Linn. 
" ' Crabier noir.' 

" Shot in a stream far up the mountains. Iris straw-color. 
" Length, 9, 21^ in. ; alar extent, 37; wing, 10^." 

43. Biitorides virescens (Linn.). 
" Green Heron, Common. 

" Breeding season commenced in April ; found eggs in June. Iris 

" Length, 9, 19^ in. ; alar extent, 26; wing, 7^." 


44. Columba corensis, Gm. 
" ' Eamier.' 

'" Abundant in the high woods, never touches earth ; makes its nest 
in the high gomier trees in May. Shot in numbers in the rainy season, 
then very fat and most delicious eating. Iris orange, shot with gold, 
■with an inner circle around of darker color. 

"Length, <?, 16 in. ; alar extent, 28; wing, 9." 

45. Zenaida martinicana, Bj). 
" ' Tourterelle.' 

" Breeds on rocks and cliffs along the coast (Caribbean), very plenti- 


fal. In the mountains not numerous; abundant in Indian country, 
cominsr about the huts even, not being troubled there. Found eggs in 
June at Batalie. 

"Length, <?, 12i in.; alar extent, 19.; wing, 7." 

46. Chamaepelia passerina (Linn.). 
"Ground Dove. ' Bagas.' 

" iSTot numerous on the bills ; on Grand Savannah, near Batalie, 
Caribbean coast, abundant. Found eggs in June; the nest, a^frail 
platform of grass stalks and sticks, placed on an old stump. 

"Length, $,Gf in.; alar extent, 10^ ; wing, 3J." 

47. Geotrygon montana (Liun.). 

" 'Perdix rouge', <?; ' Perdix noir', 9. 

"Not uncoDimon in the high woods; called Perdix or Partridge; 
robust; strong in short flight, and frequenting the ground; it more 
resembles that bird than a Dove. Iris yellow. 

"Length, <?, lOJ in.; alar extent, 19,}; wing, 6}. 

"Length, 9,104in.; alar extent, 18 ; wing, 6." 

The two eggs sent are of a rather light salmon color, and immaculate; 
they measure 1.19 by .89. 


48. Charadrius virginicus, Borkh. 
"Golden Plover." 

"Arrives in flocks, frequenting the < Grand Savannah', staying but a 
short time.'^ 

49. Strepsilas interpres (Linn.). 

"Only one seen, at Scott's Head. The flocks of migratory Plover and 
Curlews visit Dominica but little, preferring lower islands, like Antigua 
and Barbuda to the rocky islands, where their favorite food is necessa- 
rily scarce. 

"Length, 9 in.; alar extent, 18J; wing, 6." 


50. "Sandpiper." 

Species undetermined ; seen, but not obtained. 

51. Tringoides macularius (Linn.). 

"A resident species. In the hurricane months, the island is visited 
by numberless flocks of Plover. No other Sandpiper or Plover (1 think) 
resides here. 

"Length, 5, 7f in.; alar extent, 12^; wing, 3^." 


Fam. LARID^. 

52. "Tern." 

" Not procured, but I think is Sterna stolida." 

53. Sterna antillarum (Less.). 

"Veiy few seen; principally about Scott's Head, the southernmost 
point of the island. 

"Length, <?, 8^ in.; alar extent, 18^; wing, 6J." 

54. Sterna fuliginoaa (Gm.). 
" ' Twa 00.' 

" When I reached Dominica, September 15, large flocks of this species 
were skimming the water, apparently feeding upon the fish. There were 
hundreds. Wishing to get into the mountains at once, I neglected to 
get this bird, thinking it would be on the coast upon my return. In a 
week, however, the squally weather which had brought them in had 
passed, and they also had disappeared. I was able only to procure this 
mutilated specimen, which I send with regret." 

55. Sterna anaestheta, Scop. 
" Tern." 

" St. Marie, Atlantic coast, April 20. This bird made its first appear- 
ance a week ago, coming from the open ocean, to breed upon a rock off 
this stormy shore. My Indian boys procured twenty eggs from the 
rock. The birds leave the island so soon as their young are fledged. 

"Length, (?, 14.J in.; alar extent, 29; wing, lOJ. 

"Length, $,15^ in.; alar extent, 30; wing, 10|." 


56. "'Diciblotin.'" 

"Twenty years ago it was abunda,nt. Said to have come in from the 
sea in October and I^ovember, and to burrow in the tops of the highest 
mountains for a nest. In those mouths it incubated. The wildest 
stories are told about it, and but for the evidence of such a man as Dr. 
Imray, I should treat it as a myth. Doubtless as you write, it may be 
identical with the Jamaica Petrel." 

Cn first receiving the account of this bird from Mr. Ober, I wrote to 
Professor Baird, suggesting that it might be Piiffimis ohscnrns, which 
species was found breeding in the Bahamas by Dr. Bryant. Professor 
Baird replied that he thought it was more likely to be Prion Caribbaaj 
discovered in the Blue Mountains of Jamaica a few years since. 

It is quite possible it may be an undescribed species, and its acquisi- 
tion is most desirable. 

It goes and comes, doubtless, mostly if not altogether at night. If the 
burrows made by it could be found when the birds are incubating, 
probably they could be unearthed in the daytime, and thus be secured. 


Its movements being like those attributed to evil spirits, probably 
suggested the name by which it is known. 

Dr. Bryant (Proc. Boston Soc. of iSf. H. v. 7, p. 132) gives the fol- 
lowing account of Puffimis ohsatirus : — "The nest is always placed in a 
hole or under a projecting portion of the rock, seldom more than a foot 
from the surface, and never, as far as my experience goes, out of reach 
of the hand. On being caught they make no noise, and do not resist at 
all. Why these birds and the Stormy Petrels never enter or leave their 
holes in the daytime, is one of the mysteries of nature; both of them 
feeding and flying all day, yet never seen in the vicinity of their breed- 
ing places before dark." 



The United States National Museum has lately received from Mr. 
Livingston Stone a small collection of fishes obtained by him from the 
Clackamas River, a tributary of the Columbia in Oregon. The collec- 
tion comprises only six rpecies, but each species (excepting Salmo tsnp- 
pitch) is represented by several specimens, all in excellent condition ; 
and it so happens that each one of these is a species of special scientific 
interest, and one concerning which our knowledge has for one reason or 
another been incomplete. Four of these species were first described by 
Kichardson (Fauna Boreali-Americana, 1836), viz, Oncorhynchus quimiat, 
Salmo tsuppitch, ISalmo clarJci, and Gila oregonensis; another, Acrochilus 
alutaceus, was first made known by Professor Agassiz (Am. Journ. Sci. 
and Arts, 1855) ; and the last, Salvelinus speetabilift, by Dr. Girard in 1856. 

I. ONCORHYNCHUS QUINNAT (Richardson) Giinther. 
California Salmon. Columbia Salmon. Quinnat Salmon. 

\S2&Salmo quinnat Richardson, Fauna Bor.-Am. iii, p. 219, (described from notes by 
Dr. Gairdner). 

Salmo quinnat DeKay, Fauna New York, Fishes, p. 242, 1842, (copied). 

Salmo quinnat Storer, Synopsis Fis^b. N. A. p. 196, 1846, (copied). 

Salmo quinnat Herbert, Frank Forrester's Fish and Fishing, Supplement, p. 31, 

Salmo quinnat Girard, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila. viii, p. 217, 1856. 

Salmo quinnat Girard, Pac. R. R. Rep. Fishes, p. 306, pi. 67, 1858. 

Salmo quinnat Suckley, Nat. Hist. Wash. Terr. p. 321, 1800. 

Oncorhijnclius quinnat GtJNTiiKR, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus. vi, p. 158, 1866, (compiled). 

Salmo quinnat Suckley, Monograph Genus Salmo, Rept. U. S. Fish. Comm. p. 
105, 1874. 

Salmo quinnat Nelson, Bull. Ills. Mus. Nat. Hist, i, p. 43, 1876, (Illinois River). 

Salmo quinnat Hallock, Sportsman's Gazetteer, p. 359, 1877. 

Oncorhynchus quinnat Jordan, Man. Vert. ed. 2d, p. 357, 1878. 

Oncorhynchus ^itinnaf Jordan, Catalogue Fresh-water Fishes N. A. p. 431, 1878. 

Salmo quinnat, U. S. Fish Comm. Repts., and of writers on Salmon and fish cul- 
ture generally. 


18b6—Fario argyreus Girard, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 218. 

Fario argyreus Girard, Pac. K. E. Surv. Rep. Fishes, p. 312, pi. 70,1858. 

Salmo argyreus Suckley, NhI. Hist. Wash. Terr. p. 326, 1860. 

Salmo argyreus Suckley, Monograph Salmo, p. 110, 1874. 
1861— 5a/mo ivarreni Suckley, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y. vii, p. 308. 

Salmo warreni Suckley', Monograph Salmo, p. 147, 1874. 

Salmo ivarreni Jordan & Copeland, Check List, p. 144, 1876. 

This species, the most abundant and most valuable of the Salmonulw 
of the Pacific coast, is represented in the present collection by nume- 
rous partly grown specimens, some black-spotted and some nearly plaia 
silvery. The only question which now arises in the synonymy of this 
species is as to its distinctness from its congeuer 0.wey7ta(Walbaum),(0. 
lycaodon Pallas). The slender, more fusiform, nnd less compressed form 
of the latter species, as well as its fewer brauchiostegals and less forked 
tail, seem to indicate specific difference. The types of Fario argyreus 
Girard, I have examined. They are two in number, each about 8 inches 
long, and are evidently young quinnats. The original types of Salmo 
warreni are apparently lost. There is, however, a bottle of small silvery 
fishes, young individuals of quinnat, in the National Museum, labelled 
by Dr. Suckley " tSabno warreni f'' There can be little doubt that the 
original types of Salmo tvarreni were similar specimens of a young 
OncorhynchuSj most likely the young of 0. quinnat. 

There can be no possible doubt of the entire generic distinctness of 
the genus Oncorhynchus from Salmo, although the characters assigned 
to Oncorhynchus by Dr. Suckley have no such value. The great devel- 
opment of the anal fin and the peculiar form and dentition of the 
vomer are of much more importance than the hooked jaws of the male, 
although neither character was noticed by Dr. Suckley. Indeed, this 
author includes most of the Oncorhynchi, under one name or another, in 
his subgen us Salmo. Thus the species termed by him quinnat, conjluentus 
( = Iccta), argyreus (= quinnat), 'paucidens (= nerica), truncatus (= nerlca), 
richardi (= nerica), Jcenneriyi, and warreni (= quinnat), are all hook-jawed 
species, with a long anal fiu and an increased number of branchioste- 
gals, yet they are all referred by Dr. Suckley to his subgenus Salm,o 

An examination of the specimens of Oncorhynchus in the National 
Museum, including all of Dr. Suckley's types excepting richardi and 
icarreni, has convinced Dr. Gill and myself that they all belong to five 
species, 0. gorbuscha, 0. Uta, 0. nerica, 0. quinnat, and 0. kenncrlyi. 
These are divisible into two very strongly marked subgenera, or perhaps 
even distinct ^euera,— Oncorhynchus, including the first four species 
named, and i///ps?/a>io. Gill, including only Icennerlyi. O.liennerhji is 
very much smaller than the other species, and is much more compressed 
and of a different form. Its. form seems to me, however, rather an exag- 
geration of that of 0. quinnat than a distinct type, and the resemblance 
is almost as great between quinnat and Jcenneriyi as between quinnat 
and gorbuscha. 


The species of Oncorhynchus at present admitted by Dr. Gill and 
myself may be briefly compared as follows : — 

a. Body more elongate, heavier forward and less compressed than iu the next; jaws 
in the adult males very unequal ; the lower jaw prolonged and hooked 
upwards ; the upper jaw still more elongate and curled over the tip of the 
lower, the profile of the forehead being concave when viewed from the side; 
teeth of the premaxillaries and of the tip of the lower jaw greatly enlarged 
and hooked (Subgenus Oncoi-hynchus.) 

b. Scales very small, in more than 200 transverse rows ; smaller on caudal peduncle 
than on flanks ; form much distorted in the adult males, the fleshy hump at the 
shoulders being greatly developed, and the caudal peduncle slender and rather 
elongate ; the jaws greatly prolonged and curved ; size small. (Pacific coast 
and streams, Washington to Kamtschatka.) corbuscha.* 

hi). Scales medium, in about 170 (155 to 180) transverse rows; form distorted, but 
less so than in the i^receding, the fleshy hump considerably developed in the 
males, and the jaws greatly elongated and hooked; branchiostegals about 16. 
(Pacific coast and streams, Oregon to Kamtschatka.) KEXA.t 

bhb. Scales large for the genus, iu about 133 transverse rows, 
c. Form elongate, not greatly compressed, the greatest depth in advance of the 
middle of the body ; the males with the caudal peduncle rather slender, and 
with a well-marked fleshy hump, and with the jaws much elongated and dis- 
torted ; caudal fin feebly forked ; branchiostegals about 13. (Pacific coast 

and streams, California to Kamtschatka.) nerka.j: 

cc. Body elongate, compressed, the greatest depth (in female and immature speci- 
mens at least) being just under the dorsal fin; depth of body one-fourth of 
length, or a little more ; head moderate, rather bluntly pointed ; less distorted 
in male specimens than in the preceding species; maxillary shortish, curved, 
reaching somewhat beyond eye; caudal fin more or less forked ; branchioste- 
gals 15 or 16. (Coast and streams, California to Alaska.) quinnat. 

aa. Body oblong, very strongly compressed, the dorsal region much elevated ; a nearly 
even slope from the snout to the base of the dorsal fin ; dorsal fin unusually 
far back, the first ray being behind the middle of the body ; head long, deep, 
compressed, but still wide ; mouth extremely large and very oblique ; the jaws 
about equal in the females ; in the males, the lower jaw protruding beyond the 
upper, which is curled up like the snout of a snarling dog, showing the 
enlarged canines, the premaxillaries never hooking over the lower jaw, as is 
the case with Oncorhynchus proper ; dentition as in typical Oncorhynchus. 

(Subgenus Hypsifario Gill.) 

* Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walb.) Gill & Jordan. — Gorbnscha, Pennant, Arctic 
Zoology. — Salmo goi-buschajWaihaum, Artedi Gen. 1792. — Sahno gibber, Bloch, Schneider, 
Ichthyologia, 1801. — Salmo proteus, Pallas, Zool. Rosso-Asiatica, 1811. — Salmo gibber, 
Suckley, 1861. — Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, Jordan, Man. Vert. ed. 2d, 1878. 

t Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum) G. & J. — Kefa vel kayko, Pennant, Arctic Zool- 
ogy. — Salmo keta vel kayko, Walbaum, 1792. — Salmo keta vel kayko, Bloch, Schneider,, 
1801. — Salmo lagocephalus, Pallas, 1811. — <Sa/mosco»7eri, Richardson, 1836. — Salmo conflu- 
entus, 1861. — Oncorhynchus keta, Jordan, Man. Vert. ed. 2d, 1878. 

I Oncorhynchus nerka (Walb.) Gill & Jor. — Narla, Pennant, Arctic Zoology. — 
(SaZmo «e/-fca, Walbaum, 1792. — Salmo hjcaodon, Pallas, 1811. — Salmo japonensis, Pallas,. 
1811. — ? Salmo paucidens, Richardson, 1836. — Salmo consuetus, Richardson, Voyage of the 
Herald, 1854. — Salmo dermatinus, Richardson, /. c. 1854. — Salmo cants, Suckley, 1861. — 
Salmo cooperi, Suckley, 1861. — Salmo scouleri, Suckley, 1861, (not of Rich.). — Salmo trun- 
catus, Suckley, 1861. — ? Salmo richardi, Suckley, 1861. — Oncorhynchus hjcaodon, GUnther,, 
1867. — Oncorhynchus nerka, Jordan, 1878. 


d. Depth of body about .29 of length, its width only about .10 ; length of head 
.29 of length; the interorbital space about .09 ; maxillary, .12; mandible, .19; 
scales moderate, thin, partly imbedded in the skin along the back, but not 
closely imbricated, in number about 20-135-20; branchiostegals about 15; 
dorsal fin rather high — higher than long ; adipose fin long and narrow, some- 
what spatulate; caudal fin well forked ; general color red, some\. hat spotted 
above; size small. {Habitat. — Pacific coast streams, Sacramento River to 
Eraser's River.) kenxeklyi.* 

The series of OncorhyncM in the National Museum is by no means so 
complete as is desirable, except in the case of 0. quinnat and 0. kcnncrlyi. 
0. l^eta, 0. tierlca, and 0. gorhuscha are represented only by skins, mostly 
dried and moth-eaten, and all in poor condition. A fuller series may 
show that more than five good species exist, or it may show that 0. 
quinnat is really only a variety of 0. nerl-a. 

2. SALMO TSUPPITCH Richardson. 

Tsuppitch Salmon. Black Trout of Lake Tahoe. 

1836 — Salmo tsvppitch Richardson, Fauna Bor.-Am. Fishes, p. 224. 
Salmo tbvjjpitch DeKay, New York Fauna, Fishes, p. — , 1842. 
*Sa/mo tsuppitch Storer, Synopsis, p. 197, 1846. 

Salmo tauppitcli Herbert, Frank Forrester's Fish and Fishing, Suppl. p. 39, 1850. 
Salmo tsuppitch Suckley, Nat. Hist. Wash. Terr. p. 327. 
Salmo* tsiqypitch Gunther, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus. vi, p. 118, 1867. 
Salmo tsuppitch Sucicley, Monograph Salmo, p. Ill, 1874. 
Salmo tsuppitch Jordan, Man. Vert. ed. 2d, p. 358, 1878. 

A fine specimen of a trout from the Clackamas Eiver enables me to 
make a probably correct determination of the hitherto unidentified Salmo 
tsuppitch of Eichardson. The specimen seems to be identical with the 
so-called "Black Trout of Lake Tahoe" (not the "Silver Trout of Lake 
Tahoe", which is the species termed by Professor Gill and myself 
S. liensliaicV), of which numerous specimens were collected in Lake 
Tahoe and in Kern Eiver, California, by Mr. H. W. Henshaw. I feel 
less hesitation in identifying Eichardsou's tsuppitch with this species, 
from the fact that the fish does not seem ever to have been renamed by 
later writers. The following description was taken from the Clackamas 
Eiver specimen. 

General appearance of Salmo henshatcl, but with smaller scales, 
smaller, shorter head, and smaller mouth, besides wanting the hyoid 

Body elongated, somewhat compressed, the dorsal region moderately 
elevated. Head rather small, pointed and lengthened, its form quite 
distinctly conic, less convex than in spilurus, the top rather narrow 
and slightly keeled. Mouth moderate, not large, with rather weak 
teeth, the maxillary comparatively narrow and not extending much 

* Oncorhynchus kennerhji (Suckley) Jor.— *S'rt?)no kenncrliji, Suckley, ISiM.—Hijpsifario 
keiinerlyi, Gill, 186A.— Oncorhynchus kennerliji, Jordan, 1878. 


beyond the eye ; opercle more prolonged backwards than in spilurus^ 
making the head appear longer. Pectoral fins smaller than in spilurns. 

Scales small, silvery, 28-180-29. 

Caudal fin short, rather faintly forked, but more so than in spilurus. 
Adipose fin rather small. Fins all small, the dorsal of the usual "sa- 
lar^' pattern. 

Fin-rays : Dorsal, 2, 11. Anal, 2, 10. 

Color dark above] head, body, and upper fins with small, round, block 
spots, very numerous, and nearly as close together before as behind; a 
few spots on the belly in some specimens. 

Measurements of specimen: Length, 12 inches; depth, .23i of length 
to base of caudal ; head, .24J ; interorbital width, .07 ; maxillary, .10 ; 
mandible, .15; middle caudal rays, .11 ; outer caudal rays, .17. 

This species may be known from S. spihirus by the more forked tail, 
the longer and slenderer head, and the greater spottiness anteriorly. 
From aS'. irideus, it may be known by the much slenderer form, larger 
mouth, longer head, and much larger scales ; from 8. henshmci, which it 
most resembles, by the shorter head and by the lack of hyoid teeth; and 
from ;S'. clarU, which it also resembles, by the want of hyoid teeth, and 
other characters. 

These black spotted Salmon of the Eocky Mountain region and Pacific 
slope belong to a well-marked group, for which the name Salar, Valen- 
ciennes, may be retained as a subgenus of the genus Salmo. Although 
not by any means so different from the true Salmo (type S. salar L.) as 
are the genera Oncorhynchus, Cristivomer (type S. namaycushW-d\h.), and 
Salvelinus (type 8. salvelinus L.), it is not impossible that future writers 
may consi<ler Salar as a genus distinct from Salmo. The character of a 
single instead of a double row of teeth on the shaft of the vomer, sup- 
posed to distinguish Fario, Val., from Salar, has no generic value, and 
probably not even a specific value, at least as hitherto stated. In all the 
species properly referable to Salar, the teeth are arranged alternately, 
each one pointing to the right or left, in an opposite direction from its 
neighbor. These teeth are therefore in a sort of quincuncial row, which 
in many or most instances appears as two distinct rows, and almost 
always is divided into two anteriorly. Most of the " Salmon-trout" and 
"Trout" of Europe and Asia belong to this group, ^^Salar^\ Although 
most of the species referred to Fario belong to Salar, it is not certain 
whether the type of Fario, F. argenteus Val., from France, is a Salar 
or a true Salmo. The figure looks to me like a young Salmon {S. salar). 

The American species of the subgenus Salar which are now consid- 
ered valid by Dr. Gill and myself may be compared as follows : — 

Common characters : — Eiver Salmon, not anadromous, with the vomer comparatively 
flat and not boat-shaped, its form essentially as in Sahno proper, 
the Yomerino teeth extending for some distance along the shaft of 
the bone in two alternating rows or in one zigzag row, the teeth 
divergent and directed somewhat forward, not deciduous: scales 


moderate, comparatively thin and loose, appearing silveiy, espe- 
cially in fishes -which have entered the sea: tins small, the last raya 
of the dorsal somewhat elongate, the first ray usua^y less than 
twice the height of the last ray ; caudal fin slightly forked, or more 
usually truncate, with a slight emargiuation, double-rounded when 
spread open : upper parts, especially the back, and the dorsal and 
caudal fins, more or less thickly covered with small, rounded, black 
spots ; in some specimens, especially those which have been in the 
sea, these spots are more or less confluent, obscured or eveu obsolete : 
species not of the largest size, the sexual peculiarities not strongly 

marked (Subgenus Salar.) 

a. Hyoid bone entirely destitute of teeth. 

I. Scales comparatively large, in 120 to 150 transverse series, 
c. Body more or less short and deep, compressed, the depth .24 to .33 of length. 
Head short, bluntish, convex above, obtusely carinate, about .25 of 
length : mouth small, smaller than in any other of the group, the 
maxillary bone of moderate width, scarcely reaching beyond the 
eye, .10 to .11 of length, the mandible about .15: eye large, about 
.05 of length : caudal fin moderately but very distinctly forked, 
more so than in any of the other members of the group ; first long 
ray of dorsal about twice the height of the last ray: dorsal, 2, 11; 
anal, 2, 11 : scales a.bout 28-135-28, varying considerably, but in all 
cases decidedly larger than in any other of our species of tSalar. 
Rivers from California to British Columbia west of the Sierra 
Nevada irideus. 

hb. Scales comparatively small, in 165 to 205 transverse series. 

d. Caudal fin somewhat forked: head rather small, about .25 of length, pointed 
and lengthened, conical, the upper outline rather narrow and not 
much convex, the carina slight : mouth moderate, the maxillary 
comparatively narrow and extending much beyond the eye : opercle 
considerably prolonged backward : scales small, 28-180-29 : depth 
about .24 of length : body nearly equally spotted before and behind. 

Rivers wes*; of Sierra Nevada tsuppitch. 

dd. Caudal fin double-rounded or truncate, not at all forked in the adult, 
e. Head not notably broad and flat, heavy and proportionally short, its 
upper outline strongly convex, both longitudinally and trans- 
versely : mouth very large, the maxillary extending much past the 
eye in the adult, the opercle not especially prolonged backward: 
dorsal fin notably high behind, its last rays more than f the height 
of the first, some of the middle rays shortest: scales small: depth 
of body about .24 of length : spots on body most numerous poste- 
riorly. Rocky Mountains to the Sierra Nevada south of the Colum- 
bia region spilurus. 

X. Scales medium, in 170 to 190 transverse rows : top of head gibbous, 
obtusely carinated. Headwaters of Rio Grande, Bear River, etc. 

Subspecies sjnlurus* 
XX. Scales small, in 190 to 205 rows : head more or less sharply cari- 
nated, much less gibbous. Generally distributed. 

Subspecies pleuriticusA 
aa. Hyoid bone with an elongate band of small teeth between the bases of the first 
and second pairs of gill-arches (readily scraped ofi" by careless 
observers, and possibly sometimes naturally deciduous). 

* ,'^almo fipilurus Cope, 1872.— Salmo stomias var. spilurus Jordan, 1878. 
t Salmo pleuriticus Cope, 1872.— Salmo stomias var. pkuriticus Jordan, 1878. 


/. " Head large, broad, flat, not keeled, 4.25 in total length, equal to depth 
of body : muzzle obtuse: eye nearly 5 times in head : scales (small, as 
in var. pleuriVmis) 42 below first dorsal ray : dorsal fin equidistant : 
caudal tiu not notched. Kansas River." — (Cope.) stomias.* 

ff. Head comparatively large, and long acuminate, .25 of length, its outline 
as a whole pointed, but the muzzle itself bluutish, its upper surface 
not much convex in either direction, very slightly carinated : mouth 
medium, the maxillary moderate, .12 of length, not reaching much 
beyond eye: patch of hyoid teeth small, and comparatively weak: 
body elongate, not greatly compressed, the depth .25 of length: 
dorsal fin small, its last rays | the height of the first: caudal fin 
short, quite distinctly forked : scales small, in 160 to 184 transverse 
rows : colors rather dark, back and sides more or less profusely 
covered with small rounded spots. Streams of California west of 
the Sierra Nevadas; Lake Tahoe HENSHAWi.t 

fff. Head comparatively short and thick, .22 to .25 of length, its outline 
more convex, more or less distinctly carinated above : mouth rather 
small, but larger than in irideus, the maxillary not reaching far be- 
yond the eye : patch of hyoid teeth well developed : body moderately 
elongate, compressed; depth .24 of length: dorsal fin rather low, 
its last rays f the height of the first : caudal fin scarcely forked, 
rather more so than in spilurus : scales moderate or rather small : 
colors variable, the back and sides usually profusely, but variably 
spotted, silvery in sea-run individuals. Eio Grande to Upper Mis- 
souri and west to the Pacific clarki. 

y. Scales moderate, in 155 to 165 rows ; chiefly west of the Eocky 

Mountains Subspecies clarki. 

yy. Scales small, in 165 to 170 rows ; chiefly east of the Eocky Mount- 
ains Subspecies aurora. 

The American species of this subgenus Solar are very closely inter- 
related, and might almost be considered as varieties of a single poly- 
morphous species. The occurrence of forms apparently intermediate 
prevents me from considering aurora and pleuritlcus as distinct species, 
although they may usually be readily recognized. 

Of the true subgenus Salmo, there seems to be but one species in 
America, the Salmo salar, our specimens being, so far as I can see, pre- 
cisely identical with the European. The land-locked Salmon of Maine, 
Salmo sebago, Girard, does not diifer by any constant character from 
Salmo salar, and its permanent residence in fresh water is the only 
character of which I know on which a subspecies sebago could be based. 
Landlocked Salmon from Bergen, Sweden, in the United States Kational 
Museum, and land-locked Salmon from Sysladobsis Lake, Maine, are to 
my eye precisely alike, and both are Salmo salar, Linnaeus. 

* Salmo stomias Cope, 1872. — I have not seen this species, but Professor Cope writes 
me that if I had, I would certainly consider it speciiically distinct from S. pleuriticus. 
Since the above was in type, I have examined a head of a large specimen of Salmo 
stomias from the Upper Missouri. It agrees fully with Professor Cope's descrijition. As 
it is a species with well-developed hyoid teeth, it is related to S. clarki, and S, hen- 
shawi, ditfering in the peculiar form of the head and the smaller size of the scales. 

t Salmo henshawi Gill & Jordan, Jordan, Man. Vert. ed. 2d, p. 358, 1878. — This fine 
species is named in honor of Mr. H. W. Henshaw, the well-known ornithologist, who 
first brought specimens from Lake Tahoe. 


3. SALMO IRIDEUS Gibbons. 

Pacific Coast BrooTc Trout. 

185^—Sahno iridea Gibbons, Proc. Cal. Ac. Nat. Sc. p. 36. 

Salar iridea Gikard, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 220, 1856. 
^alar iridea Girard, Pac, R. R. Expl. Fishes, p. 321, 1858, pi. 73, f. 5, and pi. 74. 
Salar irideus Jordan, Catalogue Fishes N. A. p. 431, 1878. 
Salmo irideus GiJNTiiER, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus. vi, p. 119, 1867. 
Salmo iridea Suckley, Monograph Genus Salmo, p. 129, 1874. 
Salmo irideus Jordan &■ Copeland, Check List, p. 144, 1876. 
Salmo irideus Haixock, Sportsman's Gazetteer, and of writers on fish and fish- 
culture generally. 
Salmo irideus Jordan, Man. Vert. ed. 2d, p. 358, 1878. 
Salmo rivularis Ayres, Proc. Cal. Ac. Nat. Sc. p. 43. 
1856 — Fario gairdneri Girard, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 219, (not Salmo gairdneri 
Rich., a species with the "caudal fin semilunate" and "no hyoid teeth"; 
hence neither the present fish nor S. clarlli Rich.). 
Fario gairdneri Girard, Pac. R. R. Expl. Fishes, p. 313, pi. 71, f. 1-4, 1858. 
1858— i^ario neivberrii Girard, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 224, 1858, (substitute for 
Salmo newbcrrii Suckley, Monograph Genus Salmo, p. 159, 1874. 
Salmo newberryi Jordan & Copeland, Check List, p. 144, 1876. 
1858 — Fario clarkii Girard, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 219; (not Salmo clarkii Rich.). 

Fario clarkii Girard, Pac. R. R. Expl. Fishes, p. 314, pi. 71, f. 5-8, 1858. 
1860 — Salmo masoni Suckley, Nat. Hist. Washington Terr. p. 345, (substitute for cZa7'^"u). 
Salmo masoni Suckley^, Monograph Salmo, p. 134, 1874. 
Salmo masoni Jordan & Copeland, Check List, p. 144, 1876. 
1860— f Salmo gairdneri Suckley, Nat. Hist. Washington Terr. p. 331, (not of Richardson). 

? Salmo gairdneri Suckley', Monograph Salmo, p. 114, 1874. 
1867 — Salmo purjjtiratus Gunther, Cat. Fishes Biit. Mus. vi, p. 116, 1867, (in part; prob- 
ably not of Pdllas, whose specimens came from Siberia, ^= Salmo mykiss Wal- 
baum, = Salmo muikisi Bloch, both names prior to Pallas, who gives " Mykisa" 
as the vernacular name of purpuratus). 

Sabitaf. — California to British Columbia, in streams of or west of the 
Sierra Nevada and Cascade Ranges. 

This abundant Trout is represented by several specimens. In justifi- 
cation of the above synonymy, I may say that I have examined speci- 
mens purporting to be the types of irideus Gibbons, rivularis Ayres, 
newberrii Girard, masoni Suckley, and gairdneri Suckley, and that I 
have no hesitation in considering all (excepting gairdneri Suckley) as 
representatives of a single species. 

The type of 8. neivberrii, which Dr. Suckley was unable to find, is a 
well-preserved young fish, without hyoid teeth. It has a rather wider 
maxillary than is usual in irideus and rather smaller scales (.33-146-33), 
and the vomerine teeth are in a single, somewhat zigzag row. Never- 
theless, I believe it to be an irideus, with which it agrees in every other 

The types of S. masoni, the one a moth-eaten skin and the other % 
specimen in alcohol, are not different in any respect from the ordinary 
irideus. Notwithstanding Dr. Suckley's statement that the scales in his 
type are "double the size of irideus ^\ his typical specimens have each 
about 130 scales in a longitudinal series, which is about the usual num- 
ber in irideus. 


The type of S. gairdneri, Suckley, is a large stuffed skin, badly 
stretched, and iu very poor condition. I am not able certainly to iden- 
tify it. 

As Dr. Giinther found about 130 rows of scales in his S. purpuratus, I 
have referred it to the present species rather than to S. clarlci. As else- 
where stated. I consider it rather unsafe to identify fresh-water Salmon 
from America and Asia as belonging to the same species before the 
species of either region have been critically studied. 

4. SALMO CLARKI Richardson. 

Subspecies CLARKI. 

Salmon Trout of the ColumMa. 

183(5— Salmo clai-lii Eichardson, Fauna Boreali-Americana, iii, p. 224. 

Salmo clarkii Storer, Synopsis, p. 197, 1846, 

Salmo clarkii Herbert, Frank Forrester, Fish and Fishing, Supplement, p. 40, 

Salmo clarkii Suckley, Nat Hist. Washington Terr. p. 344, 1860. 

Salmo clarkii Suckley, Mouograiih Genus Salmo, p. 112, 1874. 

Salmo clarkii Jordan, Man. Vert. ed. 2d, p. 359, 1878. 

Salar clarkii Jordan, Catalogue Fishes N. A. p. 430, 1878. 
1856— Fario stellatits Girard, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 219. 

Fario stellatus Girard, Kept. Pac. R. R. Expl. p. 316, pi. 69, f. 5-8, 1858. 

Fario stellatus Suckley, Nat. Hist. Wash. Terr. p. 346, pi. 69, f. 5-8, 1860. 

Salmo stellatus GtJNTHER, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus. vi, p. 117, 1867. 

Salmo iridea var. stellatus Suckley, Monograph Genus Salmo, x). 130, 1874. 
1856 — Fario tsuppitch Girard, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila. viii, p. 218, (not Salmo tsuppitch 

Fario tsuppitch Girard, Rept. Pac. R. R. Surv. Fishes, p. 300, 1653. 
1858 — Salmo gibbsii Suckley, Ann. N. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist, vii, p. 1, 1858, (substitute for 
tsuppitch Grd.). 

Salmo gibbsii Suckley, Nat. His. Wash. Terr. p. 332, 1860. 

Salmo gibbsii Gunther, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus. vii, p. 119, 1867. 

Salmo gibbsii Suckley, Monograph Genus Salmo, p. 141, 1874. 

Salmo gibbsii Jordan &■ Copeland, Check List, p. 144, 1876. 
1861 — Salmo brevicauda Suckley, Ann. N. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist, vii, p. 308. 

Salmo brevicauda Gijnther, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus. vi, p. 120, 1867. 

Salmo brevicauda Suckley, Monograph Genus Salmo, p. 140, 1874, 

Salvia brevicauda Jordan & Copeland, Check List, p. 144, 1876. 

Subspecies AURORA. 
Missouri River Trout. Utah Trout. Yelloicstone Trout. 

1856 — Fario aurora Girard, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila. viii, p. 218. 

Fario aurora Girard, Pac. R. R. Surv. Fishes, p. 308, pi. 08, 1858. 

Salmo aurora Suckley, Nat. Hist. Wash. Terr. p. 343, 1860. 

Salmo aurora Gunther, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus. vi, p. 119, 1867. 

Salmo aurora Suckley, Monograph Genus Salmo, p. 110, 1874. 

Salmo aurora Jordan & Copeland, Check List, p. 144, 1876. 

Salmo clarkii var. aurora Jordan, Man. Vert. ed. 2d, p. 359, 1878. 
1856 — Salar lewisi Girard, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila. viii, p. 219, 1856. 

Salar letcisi Girard, Pac. R. R. Surv. Fishes, p. 29, pi. 71, 1858. 

Salmo (Salar) leivisi Suckley, Nat. Hist. Wash. Terr. p. 348, 1860. 

Salmo letcisi Gunther, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus. vi, p. 122, 1867. 

Salmo lewisi Suckley, Monograph Genus Salmo, p. 139, 1874. 

Salmo letvisi Jordan «& Copeland, Check List, p. 144, 1876. 


l8o6—Salar virginaUs GiRARD.Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila. viil,p. 220, 1850. 

Salar virginaUs Gihard, Pac. R. R. Expl. Fishes, p. 320, 1858. 

Salmo (Salar) virgina'is Suckley, Nat. Hist. Wash. Terr. p. —, 1860. 

Salmo virginaUs Gunther, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus. vi, p. 123, 1867. 

Salmo virginaUs CoPE, Hayden, Geol. Surv. Montana, 1871, p. 469, 1872. 

Salmo virginaUs Suckley, Monograph Genus Salmo, p. 135, 1874. 

Salmo virginaUs Cope &. Yarrow, Zool. Lieut. Wheeler's Expl. W. 100th Mer. 
p. — , 1876. 

Salmo virginaUs Jordan & Copeland, Check List, p. 144, 1876. 
IS72— Salmo carinat-us Cope, Hayden's Geol. Surv. Montana, 1871, p. 471, 1872. 

Salmo carinatus Jordan & Copeland, Check List, p. 144, 1876. 
lS7iSalmo tttah Suckley, Monograph Genus Salmo, p. 136, 1874. 

Salmo Utah Jordan & Copeland, Check List, p. 144, 1876. 

Examination of a very large series of the Salars with hyoid teeth has 
convinced the writer that all (excepting S. stomias and S. henshaici) be- 
long to a single species, although two, and possibly three, or even four 
subspecies or varieties may be distinguished. For this species the 
name Salmo clarki is the name to be retained, as almost the only import- 
ant character which Eichardson was able to assign to this species is 
that of the patch of teeth on the hyoid bone. No other species of this 
group possessing this character is as yet known from the Columbia. 

Specimens examined from Utah, from the Rio Grande, from the head- 
waters of the Missouri, Yellowstone, Platte, and Snake Rivers, as well 
as the types of Fario aurora from the Columbia, possess much smaller 
scales than typical clarki (i. e., stellatus Grd.). These may be really spe- 
cifically distinct, but intermediate specimens occur; and until this Rocky 
Mountain species can be better defined as distinct from the Columbia 
River species, it is best to consider it as var. aurora of the latter. 

The typical specimens of Fario stellatus Girard are still preserved. 
I consider them as typical of Salmo clarlci. This perfectly distinct 
species is almost the only one described by previous writers, which Dr. 
Suckley ventured to discard, he confounding it with S. irideiis, yet of 
all our species of Salar, irideus and clarJci (stellatus) are technically the 
most distinct. 

The types of S. hrcvicauda Suckley are still preserved, but are almost 
decayed. One of them is certainly a clarJci, probably sea-run; the other 
is past recognition. 

The types of Fario aurora are still preserved in the same condition 
as when first described and figured. They are well kept as to the 
bodies, but the scales are all rubbed off, an accident apparently not 
noticed by Dr. Girard 's artist, which accounts for the peculiar squama- 
tion shown in the published figure. These specimens are young, and 
very chubby ; but as they have hyoid teeth and show no points of dis- 
tinction from S. lewisi Grd., I identify them as belonging to the same 
species. The remarks of Dr. Suckley on the description of such speci- 
mens as new species are so pertinent that I will quote them here. They 
would perhaps have sounded better, however, if he himself had sup- 
pressed his own Salmo icarreni, Salmo gibhsli, and other more or less 
purely complimentary species. 


" The naming of Salmonidcc, and the description of new species, based 
on the characters of young, partially grown fish, cannot be too strongly 
reprobated. There is already too much confusion in the synonymy of the 
different kinds; and if the practice of describing and namiug new 
species from the characters of unidentified immature individuals is not 
stopped, the study of the relations of the species will become so com- 
l)licated, that useful classification will be next to impossible, and the 
principal object and usefulness of scientific arrangement, such as sim- 
plifies the study of natural history in other branches, will be greatly 
impaired." — (Suckley, Monograph Salmo, p. 113.) 

The types of Salar leivisi are still preserved. The one figured by Girard 
seems to be a female specimen, in very flabby condition. It is quite deep- 
bodied and has a smaller head and mouth than is usual in this species. 
Other specimens from the same waters agree more or less completely in 
these respects with 8. virginalis^ so that it does not seem possible to 
consider the Missouri River Trout as even varietally distinct. 

The types of iSalmo carinatus I have not seen. They were from the 
Yellowstone, and so far as the description is concerned seem to belong 
to this species. 

The types of Salar virginalis are likewise preserved. They represent 
the ordinary form of this species in the Eocky Mountain region, and 
hence are typical of what I call var. aurora. 

The original type of Salmo gibhsii, a stretched skin in poor condition, 
is now lost. If the species is not identical with Salmo clarM, it is likely 
to remain uncertain. 

Salmo clarJci Richardson is identified by Dr. Giinther with Salmo pur- 
puratus Pallas {Salmo mylciss Walbaum) of Kamtschatka. Giinther's 
Salmo purpurafus^ however, appears to be Salmo irideus, and not the 
present species, and an identification of a fresh-water salmon from Cali- 
fornia with a Kamtschatkan salmon is very uncertain. In regard to the 
migratory salmon, however, the case is different. 

5. SALVELINUS SPECTABILIS (Girard) Gill (51 Jordan. 

Pacific Red-spotted Trout. 

1856 — Salmo spectabilis Girard, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 218, (not Salar spectah'dis 

Salmo spectaUlis Girard, Pac. E. R. Expl. Fisbes, p. 307, 1858. 

Salmo spectahiUs Suckley, Nat. Hist. Wash. Terr. p. 342, 1860. 

Salcelinus spectabilis Jord^vn, Man Vert. ed. 2d, p. 360, 1878. 

Salvelinus spectaiiUs Jordan, Cat. Fishes N. A. p. 430, 1878. 
1861— Salmo 2)ar}cei Suckley, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y. vii,p. 309. 

Salmo parkii GIjnther, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mas. vii, p. 121, 1867. 

Salmo parkei Suckley, Monograph Genus Salmo, p. 149, 1874. 

Salmo parlei Jordan & Copeland, Check List, p. 144, 1876. 

Salmo parkii Hallock, Sportsman's Gazetter, p. 347. 
18G1— Salmo camplelli Suckley, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist, vii, p. 313, (substitute iov spfctabilis). 

Salmo campbelli Guntiier, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus. vi, p. 148, 1867. 

Salmo campleUi Suckley, Monograph Genus Salmo, p. 118, 1874. 

Salmo campbelli Hallock, Sportsman's Gazetteer, j). 349. 


The Charrs, or Salvelini, form a strongly marked group, which has 
several times been distinguished as generically or subgenerically differ- 
ent from the true Salmons. The absence of teeth on the shaft of the 
vomer has been the character most usually relied on to distinguish the 
Charrs. A more important character is, however, seen in the form of the 
bone, which is boat-shaped, with the shaft short and depressed. Ths 
Charrs are further distinguishable by the very small size of the scales, 
and also by the coloration, they being always red-spotted, and with the 
lower fins peculiarly colored. 

No one who examines the skull of the Charr can doubt its generic 
distinctness from Salmo. The question of the nomenclature of the 
genus is a matter perhaps of some uncertainty. The group has long 
been known as Salvelini, but that name was hardly given by Nilssou 
in the usual generic or subgeneric sense, but merely as a plural noun 
referring to an assemblage of species. 

In 183G, Richardson used the name Salvelinus for the "subgenus" of 
Charrs. The use of the name in nomenclature therefore dates from 

In 1842, DeKay founded his genus Baione on the young of one of the 
species of Charr (.S'. fontinalis); Baione is therefore a synonym of Salve- 
linusy although given under a different supposition. 

Somewhat later, the genus TJmbla was proposed by Rapp for those 
Salvelmi which have teeth on the hyoid bone. As Salmo salvelinus L., 
the presumable type of Salvelinus^ has such teeth, Umhla probably is also 
a mere synonym of Salvelinus. That the character of hyoid teeth is not 
a generic one In this case is evident from the close relationship of such 
species as S. oquassa and S. spectaMUs, with hyoid teeth, with S. fonti- 
nalis and S. bairdi, species destitute of such teeth. The teeth in S. spec- 
tahilis and S. oquassa are too few and small for their absence or presence 
to be a generic character. In the subgenus Salar, the case is precisely 
the same. 

In 1867, Dr. Giinther proposed a genus Huclio for the Salvelini with- 
out hyoid teeth. Tlie genus cannot stand on that basis, but neverthe- 
less it appears to be valid, its type, Salmo huclio L. [Huclio germanorum 
Giinther), being a Pike-like fish, very unlike, both in form and habits, 
the genuine species of Salvelinus. The single known species of Huclio 
as thus restricted, inhabits the Danube. 

The remaining subdivision of the old genus Salmo, for which the 
name Cristivomer has been proposed by Dr. Gill and myself, is peculiar 
to the lakes of the northern part of America. 

The relations of Cristivomer are entirely with Salvelinus, a fact which 
has not hitherto been noticed. Its vomer differs, however, from that of 
Salvelinus in being provided with a raised crest flush with the head or 
chevron of the bone. This crest is posteriorly free from the vomer for 
some distance, and is armed with a series of stout teeth. There is also 
a strong band of hyoid teeth, the dentition generally being more com- 
plete than in most other Salmons. 


The scales in Cristivomer are quite small, and the species are gray- 
spotted. There are probably but two species, Crlstlvoiner nainaycush* 
(Walbaum) and Cristivomer siscowet (Agassiz). 

The species of Salvelirms known within the limits of the United 
States are compared below. The species from British America, Salve- 
linus stagnnlis (Fabricius) (= iS\ nitidus and S. alipes Rich.), 8. rossi Rich., 
8. hoodi Rich., 8. lordi Giinther, 8. arcturus Giiiither, and 8. tudes Cope, 
I have not seen. Most or all of them are probably valid. 8alvelinus 
bairdi, of the Pacific coast, is very near 8alveUniis fontinalis, and may 
be a variety of it ; but never having seen it in life, I am not by any 
means prepared so to consider it. 

Common characters : — River Salmon, not anadromous, witli the vomer boat-8hai)ed, some- 
what carinate bek)w; a few teeth on the posterior part of the chevron ; none 
on the depressed shaft: scales very small, more or less imbedded in the skin, 
in 200-250 transverse series, those of the lateral line considerably enlarged . 
liiis moderate, the last ray of the dorsal not lengthened, shorter tlian any of the 
other developed rays ; caudal Hn rather short, usually but little emarginate in 
the adult, forked in the young : sides of the body with round red spots ; lower 
fius with a pale marginal band anteriorly, succeeded by a darker band; in sea- 
run specimens, these spots and other markings are often obliterated, and a 
more or less uniform silvery tint prevails : species not of the largest size, the 
sexual peculiarities not very strongly marked, the adult male usually with a 
fleshy projection at the tip of the lower jaw, which fits into a slight emaxgi- 
uatiou of the upper jaw. 
a. Hyold bone provided with a median band of teeth. 

b. Body elongate, slender, considerably compressed, the depth about .20 of the 
length of the body: caudal peduncle long and slender: head quite small, .21 
of length of body; its upper surface flattisb, .I3i of length, the interorbltal 
space about .07 : mouth quite small, the maxillary short and moderately 
broad, .OS of length, not extending to the posterior margin of the eye; man- 
dible .12 of length ; snout, .Oo : scales quite small, in about 230 trausverse 
rows: caudal fin well forked; adipose tin rather small: coloration dark blue, 
the red spots confined to the sides of the body, round, smaller than the pupil :: 
hyoid teeth numerous, small. Lakes of Maine OQUASSA.t 

bb. Bi)dy stout, not greatly compressed, the back elevated, the depth .24 of the 
length: head large, stout, broad, and flattened above, about .28 of length, its 
upper surface .17 of length, the interorbltal space .08: mouth large, the max- 
illary extending beyond the eye .11 of length ; the mandible, .16 ; the snout, .07 : 
hyoid bone with very few (3 or 4), rather strong teeth (sometimes deciduous): 
fins short, the caudal slightly forked ; adipose fin unusually large, its leogth 
in adults nearly twice that of the eye : scales very small, in about 240 traus- 
verse rows: red spots on the sides quite large, about the size of the pupil; 
back covered with very distinct spots, similar to those on the sides, but raiher 
smaller, the dorsal spots said to be cream-colored or greenish in life, rather 
than red. Streams west of the Sierra Nevada spkctabilis. 

* Namaycush Salmon, Pennant. — Salmo namaycush Walbaum, 1792, =: Salmo namaycush 
Bloch, 1801,^ Salmo pallidus Rafinesque, 1817, = Salmo amethijsius Mi tchill, 1818, =^ Salmo 
coiifinis DeKay, = Salmo symmetrica Prescott, 1851, = Salmo adarondacus Norris, l>Hi-l, =- 
Salmo toma Hamlin, 18G3. 

i Salveliiius oqaaasa (Girard) Gill & Jordan. — Salmo oqnassa, Girard, 1854. 

Proc. Nat. Mus. 78 G August 6, 1878. 


aa. Hyoid bone without teeth. 

c. Body elongate, moderately compressed, not much elevated, the depth .2!> of 
length : head large and long, notably so in the adult, nearly .30 of length, .22 
to .25 in the young ; top of head .14 to .18 of length ; interorbital space broad, 
.07 to .08^ of length ; snout rather conical and pointed, .09 of length, blunter 
in the young; mandible .22 of length in adult, .15 in young: eye small, nearly 
in a line with the axis of the body : scales very small, similar to those in the 
other species, in about 230 transverse rows : caudal fin little forked ; adipose 
fin quite small, shorter than the eye ; pectoral and ventrol fius not elongate : 
red spots about the size of the pupil, confined to the sides of the body, the 
back being nearly plain. Rivers west of the Sierra Nevada ijairdi.* 

cc. Body oblong or elongate, moderately compressed, not much elevated, the 
depth .20 to .30 of leugth : head large, but not very long, its length .21 to 
,24 of leugth, the top about .14, the rather broad interorbital space about .07: 
mouth large, the maxillary reaching more or less beyond the eye, about .10 of 
length; the mandible about .15: eye large, more or leps above the line of the 
axis of the body: scales very small, in about 230 transverse rows: caudal fin 
slightly lunate in the adult, forked in the young; adipose fin small; pectoral 
and ventral fius not especially elongate : red spots on body chiefly confined to 
the sides, rather less than the size of the pupil ; the back and vertical fins 
more or less barred or mottled ; coloration often plain in sea-run individuals. 
Rivers from Little Tennessee in Georgia to Lake Superior and Hudson's Bay. 


The original type of 8. spectabiUs and of 8. camphelU, the latter being 
merely a substitute name, is still preserved in the National Museum. 
Although badly decayed, its identity with the species here called spec- 
tabiUs is evident. The types of 8almo parlcei are now lost, but that the 
species is the same as ;S^. spectabiUs seems unquestionable. The name 
spectabiUs should now be retained for this fish, as the spectabiUs of 
"Valenciennes, being a Solar, belongs to a different genus. 

6. GILA OREGONENSIS (Richardson) Jordan. 

.1836 — Cijprinus (Leuciscus) oregonensis Richardsox, Fauna Bor.-Americana, iii, p. 305. 

Leuciscus oregonensis DeKay, New York Fauna, Fishes, p. 215, 1842. 

Leuciscus oregonensis Cuv. & Val., Hist. Nat. des Poissons, xvii, p. 326, 1844. 

Leuciscus oregonensis Storek, Synopsis Fishes N. A. p. 412, 1846. 

Phjchocheilus oregonensis Girakd, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 209, 1856. 

Pti/chocheilus oregonensis Giraud, Pac. R. R. Expl. Fishes, p. 298, pi. 64, figs. 5-9, 

Leuciscus oregonensis GtJNTHER, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus. vii, p. 239, 1868. 

Ptychochilus oregonensis Jordan & Copelaxd, Check List of Fishes, p, 151, 1876, 

Gila oregonensis Jordan, Catalogue Fishes N. A. p. 424, 1878, 
1655— Ftychocheilus gracilis Agassiz, Am. Journ. Sci. Arts, xix, p. 229, 

Specimens from the Clackamas River agree in all essential respects 
with the descriptions given by Agassiz, Girard, and Giinther. The 

* Salvelinus iairdi (Suckley) Gill & Jordan.— Salmo bairdii, Suckley, 1861. 

t Salvelimts fontinalis (Mitchill) Gill & Jordan.— <Sahno foniinalis, Mitchill, 1814.— 
Sahno allegheniensis, Rafinesque, 1820.— Salmo nigrescens, Rafiuesque, 1820.— f ,S«?mo 
hearnii, Rich., }82-.— Salmo canadensis, H. Smith, IS'SA.— Sahno eryihrogasier, DeKay, 
1842.— 5aio«e foniinaUs, DeKay, 1842.— 5a?mo immaculatiis, H. R. Storer, 18^0.— Salmo 
hudsonicus, Suckley, 18G1. The names immaculatiis aud canadensis were given to the 
Canadian Salmon-Trout, which is a Brook-Trout run into the sea. 


teeth are 2, 4-5, 2, not 2, 5-5, 2, and the folding of the lips, which sug- 
gested the name Ptychochilus, is not an evident feature to me. 

This species, which is the type of the genus Ptychochilus, is a true 
species of the genus Gila as the characters of that genus are now under- 
stood. The general physiognomy is similar, the head is long, slender, 
and depressed, the mouth is very large and overlapped by the snout, 
the caudal peduncle is slender ; the scales are similarly small and 
loosely imbricated, the dorsal fin is slightly behind the ventrals, the 
anal fin is not elongate ; the lips are normal ; the pharyngeal teeth are 
two-rowed, the inner row 5-4 or 5-5, and the intestinal canal is short. 
In all these respects, the type of Ptychochilns agrees with the type of 
Gila, and as no generic difference has been shown, Ptychochilus becomes 
a synonym of Gila. At present, the fishes called Clinostomus by Girard 
are referred to Gila. The two groups ought to be geuerically distin- 
guishable. The typical species of each are very different in physiog- 
nomy, but at present, as has been shown by Professor Cope, we are 
unable to draw a line between them. 

The other species referred to Ptychochilus are probably distinct from 
oregonensis, but should be compared with species of Gila and with each 
other. If rapax and lucius have really the teeth 2, 4-4, 2, it may be 
necessary to frame a separate genus for them, as they would hardly be 
referable to Notro;pis or to Gila. 

7. ACROCHILUS ALUTACEUS Agassiz (5t Pickering. 


1855— Ac7-ocheilu 8 alutaceiis Agassiz & Pickering, Amer. Journ. Sci. Arts, xix, p.96. 
Lavinia alntacea Girard, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phila. 1856, p. 184. 
Acrochilus alutaceus GiJnther, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus. vii, p. 276, 1868. 
Aci-ochilus alutaceus Jordan & Copeland, Check List Fishes, p. 146, 1876. 
Acrochilus alutaceus J ordain. Catalogue Fishes N. A. p. 418, 1878. 

Several fine specimens of this very interesting species are in Mr. 
Stone's collection. As no detailed account has been given of the fish, 
and as none of the authors mentioned in the above synonymy, excepting 
Professor Agassiz, seem ever to have seen it, I give a description of one 
of the specimens. The relations of this genus are doubtless with 
Chondrostoma, but its teeth are fewer and differently formed. 

General form and appearance of the species of Gila, but the head not 
depressed, and more blunt forward. 

Body elongate, not much compressed, its sides more so than the cau- 
dal peduncle ; the greatest depth, over the ventrals, 4 in length; caudal, 
peduncle very long and very slender, unusually broad, nearly terete, its 
length contained 4f times in the length of the body, its least depth 2j 
in length. 

Head moderate, 4^ in length of body, bluntish, the profile considera- 
bly rounded, the interorbital space strongly convex. Mouth horizontal, 


subioferior, overlapped by the broad, bluut snout, its breadth considera- 
ble, but the maxillary not extending far back, not to opposite the front 
of the eye. Upper jaw protractile, covered with a fleshy lip, inside of 
■which is a small, straight, cartilaginous plate, similar to that on the 
lower jaw, but much smaller and not evident externally. Lower lip 
covered with a firm cartilaginous plate, sharp externally, the upper 
surface being formed by its bevelled edge. The transverse width of this 
plate is between four and five times its (longitudinal) breadth. The 
plate extends in nearly a straight line from one angle of the mouth to 
the other; its transverse width is contained 2^ times in the length of the 
head. Eye rather large, 5J in head, 1| in snout, its position anterior 
and not high up, 2;^ in interorbital space. 

Fin-rays : Dorsal 1, 10. Ventrals, 9. Anal I, 9. Dorsal long, rather 
low, its first ray just behind the first ray of ventrals, about over the 
middle of the latter fin, midway between the snout and the middle of 
the base of the caudal fin ; caudal fin very long, the lobes about equal, 
longer than the head, widely forked, the accessory rays at its base 
very numerous and recurrent on the caudal peduncle; about eight of 
these may be distinguished on each side of the tin. Anal fin rather 
large ; ventrals broad, not reaching vent. Pectorals moderate, not 
reaching two-thirds of the distance to the ventrals. 

Scales quite small, somewhat imbedded in the skin, very loosely 
imbricated, or often scarcely imbricated at all, the exposed surfaces 
longer than high, profusely punctate; squamation quite irregular; the 
scales smaller on back and belly than on sides, most exposed on caudal 
peduncle. Scales 21-85-13. Lateral line broadly decurved. 

Coloration very dark, belly paler, but nearly all parts of the body 
studded with minute dark points. 

Teeth 5-4 (5 on the left side, 4 on the right), hooked, somewhat club- 
shaped, with a broad masticatory surface. 

Peritoneum black ; intestines much elongate, filled in this specimen 
with vegetable substance, apparently fine leaves and branches of a 
Sphagnu7n\[k(^ moss. 

Length of specimen examined, one foot. 

8. MYLOCHILUS CAURINUS (Richardson) Girard. 

1836— Cyprinun (Leuciscus) caurimis Richardson, Fauna Boreali-Americana, iii, p. 304. 
Leuciscus canrinus DeKay, Zoology N. Y. Fishes, p. '215, 1842, 
Leuciscus canrinus Cuviek & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. des Poissons, xvii, p. 

325, 1844. 
Leuciscus caurinus Stoker, Synopsis Fishes N. Am. p. 159, 1846. 
Mylochtilus caurinus Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. p. 169, 1856. 
Mjjlocheilus caurinus Girard, Pac. R. R. Expl. x, p. 213, pi. 46, f. 1-4, 1858. 
Leucosomus caurinus Guntiiek, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus. vii, p. 270, 1868. 
Mylochilus caurinus Jordan &, Copeland, Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Hist. p. 155, 1876, 

(name only). 
Mylochilus caurinus Jordan, Catalogue Fishes, p. 427, 1878. 


1855 — Mylocheilus lateralis, Agassiz, Am. Journ. Sci. and Arts, p. 231, 

Mylocheilus lateralis Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. p. 1(59, 1856. 

Mijlot^lieilns lateralis Girard, Pac. R. R. Expl. p. 213, pi. 48, f. 5-8, 1858. 

Mylochilus 7ato•a?^s Jordan & Copeland, Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Hist. p. 155, 1876. 
1856— Mijlocheilus fratercuhis Girard, Proc. Acad, Nat. Sci. Phila. p. 169. 

Mylocheilus fraterculus Girard, Pac. R. R. Expl. x, p. 215, pi. 45, f. 1-4, 18.58. 

Mylocheilus fratercidus Cooper, Nat. Wealth Cal. by Cronise, p. 496, 1868. 

Mylochilus fraterculus Jordan & Copeland, Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Hist. p. 155, 
1876, (name only). 

Habitat. — Northern California to British Columbia. 

My specimens agree perfectly with Dr. Giiuther's description of his 
Leiicosomus caurinus, which was taken in part from Richardson's orig- 
inal types, except that the size of the eye in my fishes is proportionally 
larger. Agassiz's account of Mylocheilus lateralis answers in a general 
way, except that I find no trace of anything which can be called a horny 
sheath on the jaws. There is nothing in Girard's trivial description of 
Mylochilus fraterculus to indicate distinction. I therefore follow Dr. 
Giinther in considering M. lateralis and M. fraterculus as mere synonyms 
of M. caurinus. The genus Mylochilus resembles in form, squamation, 
etc., the genus Gila. It has, however, a much smaller mouth than most 
of the species of that genus. Its relations are rather with Pogonichthys 
and Platygobio, from both of which it differs in the peculiar form of its 
teeth as well as in the number of teeth. I find in the specimen before 
me the teeth 2, 5-5, 2, the teeth of the smaller row quite small and close 
together, and the innermost of the larger row much enlarged and trun- 
cate, gradually diminishing in size to the uppermost, which is slender, 
compressed, and hooked. I find no trace of a third row iu my speci- 

The genus Mylopharodou Ayres is perfectly distinct from Mylochilus, 
the upper jaw being non-protractile, the dorsal behind the ventrals, 
and no barbel at the angle of the maxillary. Mylopharodou thus far 
apparently contains but a single species, the types of Gila conocephala 
B. & G. and Mylopharodon rohustus Ayres being, so far as I can see, 




Previous to the publication, some two years since, of Mr, R. B. Sharpe's 
admirable work on the Strigida',* I had paid considerable attention to 
the study of the American Scops-owls, but the lack of suflicient material 
prevented my reaching any very positive conclusion as to several forms 
of questioned validity. More recently, however, through the assistance 
of several friends, among whom I may name in particular Mr. Osbert 

* Catalogue of the Striges, or Nocturnal Birds of Prey, in the Collection of the British 
Museum. By R, Bowdler Sharpe, London : Printed by order of the Trustees. 1875, 


Salvin, of England, and Mr. George N. Lawrence, of New York City 
(both of whom have kindly loaned me their entire series), I have been 
enabled to bring together a collection amply sufficient to settle former 

The inference derived from a careful study of the material first ia 
hand was, that a greater number of species existed than were usually 
recognized as valid; certain forms allied to 8. brasilianus (Gmel.), 
named, but generally considered synonymous with some other spe- 
cies, being represented by typical specimens, while there were no exam- 
ples of intermediate character, the differences between these several 
styles being moreover so obvious that it seemed scarcely possible they 
could intergrade. I was therefore quite convinced that additional 
material would confirm the view of their distinctness. Being thus 
prejudiced, as it were, in my views of the relationship of the several 
forms alluded to, I at first attempted to divide the new series accord- 
ingly. Determined and repeated eiforts failed, however, until I fully 
realized the utter hopelessness of the attempt. Thus I was irresistibly, 
though quite against my previous convictions, led to the same conclu- 
sion as that reached by Messrs. Sclater and Salvin, and subsequently 
adopted by Mr. Sharpe, that the several suppoised species allied to *S'. 
brasilianus are merely geographical, local, and individual variations of 
the same species. No other view seems justifiable, in view of the com- 
plete and unquestionable intergradation between the most extreme vari- 
ations. The only alternative is to allow a very much greater number 
of forms even than have been named, admitting at the same time the 
intergradation of each with the other. 

It has been remarked by an eminent author* that few, if any, birds 
vary moi-e in their feral state, both individually and otherwise, than 
the owls, and that of all the genera of this family the present one is 
the most variable. In this opinion I fully agree, for I have rarely had 
a more difiicult and, I may say, more unsuccessful task than my attempt 
to elucidate the several species and "races" treated in the present 

In the first place, the plumage is characterized by confused markings 
in the form of zigzags, "herring-bone" pictiirw, and minute vermicula- 
tions, having much the same general character in all, the difference 
between the several species in the pattern of coloration being exceed- 
ingly difficult of description. Next, there is the perplexing condition 
of "dichromatism", the same species having two very distinct phases 
of plumage— a gray phase, which may be considered the normal dress, 
and a rulous phase, which is an extreme development of the variation 
called '• ery thrism". These two extreme phases, which it is to be remem- 
bered do not depend at all upon age, sex, or season, being purely an 
individual peculiarity, are in each species so very unlike that corre- 
sponding phases of the several really distinct species resemble one 

* Sharpe, (. c, p. 44. 


another very much more closely than do the two extreme phases of any 
one species ! The geographical variations are also unusually pro- 
nounced, while last, but by no means least of the obstacles presented, 
is the very great range of individual variation within even a limited 
area of country. 

Genus SCOPS, Savigny. 

=^ Scops, Savign., Descr. de l'l5gypte, 1809, 291 (type, Strix scops, Linn.)- — Cass., in 
Baird, B. N. Am. 1858, 51.— Coues, Key, 1872, 202.— B. B. & E., Hist. N. Am, B. 
iii, 1874, 47. — <Siiarpe, Cat. Strig. Brit. Mus. 1875, 43 (includes Lophostrix, 
= EpMalites, Keys. &- Bi,as., Wirb. Eur. 1840, p. xxxiii (type, Strix scops, Linn. — Neo 
Schrank, 1802). 
? Pisorhina, Kaup, Isis, 1848, 769 (type. Scops menadensis, Quoy & Gaim.). 
= Mtgascops, Kaup, 1. c. (type, Strix lempiji, Horsf.). 
? Acnemis, Kaup, 1. c. (type, Scojys gymnopodiis, Gray). 
? Ptilopsis, Kaup, I.e. (type, Strix Icucotis, Temm.). 
= Lempijius, Bonap., Eev. et Mag. de Zool. 1854, 542 (type, Otus seniitorques, Schleg.). 

Generic Characters. — Small owls with distinct ear-tufts, the tarsns 
more or less feathered (usually completely feathered), the wings ample 
(more than twice the length of the short, slightly rounded tail), the 
plumage exceedingly variegated with vermiculations, cross-bars, and 
mottlings; toes naked or bristled — never completely feathered, except 
toward the base. 

The above brief diagnosis is sufiBcient to characterize this group. In 
general aspect the species of this genus are miniatures of those which 
belong to the genus Bubo, and are perhaps as nearly related structu- 
rally to the latter as to any other members of the family. 

All the American species have the outer webs of the scapulars mostly 
light-colored (generally white, with a blackish terminal border — rusty- 
ochraceous in Jiammeolus and the darker forms of hrasilianus), producing 
a more or less distinct stripe along each side of the dorsal region ; the 
feathers of the upper and lower parts usually with blackish shaft- 
streaks, those beneath generally with narrow transverse bars ; outer 
webs of the remiges with light-colored spots, and the tail more or less 
distinctly (never sharply) banded. All the species are, in some part of 
their range, dichromatic, having a bright rufous phase, quite different 
from the " normal " grayish plumage. 

Key to the Species. 

A. — Toes and lower half (or more) of tarsus completely naked 1. S. niidipea. 

B. — Toes alone (or with merely lower end of tarsus) completely 

naked , 2. S. hrasilianus. 

3. S. barbarus. 

4. S. jiammeolus. 
C. — Toes strongly bristled, sometimes densely feathered at base. .5. S. asio. 

6. S. cooperi. 

By the above characters, the American species of this genus are 
readily divided into three groups. It now remains to distinguish. 


between the species of each group, which is a much more difficult matter. 
Passing by group A., which contains only 8. nudipes, the tiiree species 
belonging to group B. may be distinguished as follows : — 
a.— Toes stout, with strong claws. Wing exceeding 5.75 inches (rare- 
ly less than 6.00, and ranging to nearly 8.00 inches) ; tail 

more than 3.15 2. S. hrasilianus. 

J). — Toes weak and slender, with weak claws. Wing less than 5.75 
inches (ranging in length from 5.10 to 5.60); tail less than 
3.15 (2.60-3.10). 
Feathers of the outer margin of the face with their shafts pro 
duced into slender, soft, hair-like, curved bristles, forming a 
conspicuous ruff, the anterior side concave. Plumage coarsely 

spotted, above and below 3. S. harbarus. 

Feathers of the outer margin of the face with their shafts not 
conspicuously developed. Plumage finely vermiculated, 
above and below, the outer scapulars having orange-buif 
siiots on the outer webs 4. S. flammeolus. 

The above brief diagnoses are probably sufficient to distinguish these 
three very distinct species in all their numerous variations. Thedifler- 
encesare very much more easily perceived than defined, the birds having 
an entirely different aspect when compared with one another. Of the 
three, S. hrasilianus varies almost indefinitely, but may always be 
known by its much stouter toes and stronger claws, as well as by its 
larger size, even in the smallest race {S. cassini), although the differ- 
ence in dimensions is sometimes so slight as to be perceptible only 
by actual measurement. IS. harharus is distinguished by the coarseness 
of its markings, which partake of the character of roundish or trans- 
versely-oblong spots, rather than fine vermiculations,and by the peculiar 
development of the shafts of the facial feathers. S. flammeolus is 
slightly smaller than 8. harharus, and of quite dift'erent build, having 
an extremely light and slender body, with small head, the wings thus 
seeming very long in proportion. As to colors, it may ordinarily be 
distinguished from all the other species by the pronounced orange-buff 
tint of the outer webs of the outer row of scapulars, these being in most 
others white, or, if not white, of a more sombre shade of buff and ful- 
vous, the plumage being otherwise quite different. According to Mrs. 
M. A. Maxwell, who has in her finely -mounted collection of Colorado 
birds a very beautiful specimen, tbe iris of this species is of a deep 
hazel, or umber-brown ; should this prove constant, it will afford an 
excellent character, since the iris in nearly if not all the other species is 
known to be a bright lemon-, or gamboge-, yellow. 

A. — Lower half or more of the tarsus completely nalced^ like the toes. 

Buio nudipes, Vieill., Ois. Am. Sept. 1807, pi. 22. 

Scops nudipes, Cuv., Reg. Anira. 1829, 347. — Strickl., Orn. Syn. 1, 1855, 203.— Lawr., 
Ann. Lye. N. Y. IX, 1868, 132 {Costa iiica ).—, P. Z. S. 1870, 216 ( Veragua).— 
SCL. & Salv., Nom. Neotr. 1873, 117 {Costa Bica to Columhia). — Sharpe, Cat. 
Strig. Brit. Mus. 187.S, 121 {Veragua ; Costa Bica).— Bovc, Cat. Av. 1876, 91 
( Veragua). 
Ephialifes nudipes, Gray, Genera B. 1, 1844, 38. 
Acnemis nudipes, Boxap., Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1854, 542. 
Strix psilopoda,Y iKVLL., Nouv. Diet. XVI, 1817, 46. 

Hal). — Costa Rica and Veragua. 

Diagnosis. — '^ Adult. Above sandy rufous, verniiculated with black, 
much darker on the back than on the head, the dorsal feathers black in 
the centre, barred and spotted with sandy rufous, these bars more dis- 
tinct on the scapulars, the outermost of which are silvery white, exter- 
nally tipped with black ; wing-coverts decidedly darker than the back, 
the innermost of the least series uniform blackish brown, the rest spot- 
ted and barred with sandy rufous, the bars especially broad on the 
greater series, some of which have a tolerably large buffy white spot 
near the tip of the outer web ; spurious quills externally notched with 
sandy rufous, inclining here and there to whitish; primary coverts 
nearly uniform blackish brown, with a few bars of sandy rufous near 
the tips of the outer webs ; quills blackish brown, the inner webs of 
the primaries quite uniform, excepting for a few yellowish bars near the 
bases of the interior feathers, the secondaries indistinctly barred with 
ashy brown on the inner webs, all the quills externally barred with 
sandy rufous, paler and more fulvonson the outer web of the primaries, 
the innermost secondaries mottled and barred with sandy rufous, and 
resembling the scapulars ; tail blackish brown, with seven feebly indi- 
cated narrow bars of sandy rufous ; head and neck decidedly clearer 
than the back, and somewhat inclining to chestnut, the feathers black 
in the centre, and laterally barred with the same, giving a generally 
barred appearance to these parts ; lores and sides of face bright bay, 
the loral plumes blackish at tip, and the ear-coverts with a few indis- 
tinct cross bars of black ; over the eye a few white-barred feathers, 
forming a faint eyebrow ; ear-tufts lighter than the crown, orange 
rufous, broadly barred with black at the tips ; under surface of body 
sandy rufous, many of the feathers coarsely vermiculated with black, 
the breast-feathers streaked and laterally barred with black, these black 
markings less distinct on the flanks and abdomen, on which parts are 
tolerably distinct bars of white ; leg-feathers bright orange-rufous, with 
a few narrow brown bars on the tibia ; under tail-coverts white, barred 
across with sandy rufous ; under wing-coverts fulvous, thickly mottled 
with brown near the outer edge of the wing, which is white, the lower 
series dark brown, like the inner lining of the quills; bill yellowish j 


feet yellowish, claws horn-colour. Total length 10 inches, wing G-8, 
tail 4-1, tarsus l-o5,bare part of latter 0-85. [Miis. Salvin and Godiuan.) 

" Obs. My description is taken from a specimen obtained at Calobre, in 
Veragua, by Arce, and kindly lent to me by Mr. Salvin. He has at the 
same time lent me another specimen, obtained by the same collector in 
Costa Kica. This latter bird differs in several points from the one 
described, having more of the general aspect of Scops pennatus of the 
Himalayas ; it is clear sandy in colour, the black forming regular bars 
across the plumage, the subterminal one very broad, and giving the 
appearance of large black spots to the upper surface ; feathers of the 
crown centred with black, the sandy-colored interspaces forming very 
distinct spots, the ear-tufts being still lighter, and barred across with 
whitish ; the white spots on the scapulars, wing-coverts, and outer webs 
of primaries very distinct, as are also the white bars on the lower sur- 
face, many of them being apparent also on the chest-feathers ; the quills 
barred with ashy brown on their inner webs, inclining to sandy buff" on 
the secondaries. Total length 9-5 inches, wing 6-8, tail 4, tarsus 1-45, 
bare part of the latter 0-65." 

The only specimens of this species which I have seen are several 
borrowed from Mr. Salvin, and returned to him without descriptions 
having been taken from them. I therefore quote Mr. Sharpe's account 
of the species [1. c). 

B. — Toes only, or with, at most, the extreme lower portion of the tarsus, 
completely 7iaJced. 


a. hrasilianus. 

Strix hrasUiana, Gmel., S. N. I, i, 1788, 289 (ex Briss., 1, 499). 

Strix choUha, Vieill., Nouv. Diet, xiv, 1817, 39 (ex Azaraj Apunt. 11,218). 

Strix decussata, Light., Verz. Doubl. 1823, 59. 

Strix crucigera, Spix, Av. Bras. 1, 1825, 22, pi. 9. 

Strix undulata, Spix, t. c. pi. 10. 

f Scops lopltotes, Less., Traitd, 1, 1831, 107. 

Ejglualiles argentina, Light., Nomencl. 1854,7. 

/?. atricaptllus. 
Strix atricapilla, "Natt.", Temm., PI. Col. II, 1838, pi. 145. 
Ephialites watsoni, Cassin, Pr. Phila. Acad. IV, 1849, 123. 

y. U8tU8. 

Sco2)s U8ta, SCL., P. Z. S. March 9, 1858, 132. 

6. guatemalcB, 

Scojis hrasilianus, subsp. (3. Scops guatcmalw, Sharpe, Cat. Striges Brit. Mus. 1875, 112, 
pi. ix. 

£. casaini. 
Scops hrasilianus, e. cassini, Ridgw., MS. 

The above synonymy will serve to show what names I would bring 
together under the specific head of Scops hrasilianus (Gmel.) on account 


of tlie complete intergradation of the forms which they designate ; it 
"Will also indicate the number and names of the more pronounced races 
I have been able to make out, arranged in chronological sequence, the 
full synonymy of each being given separately further on. 

There are now before me 44 specimens of Scops-owls from Tropical 
America, different si^ecifically from S. harharus, S. Jiamineolus, and S. 
7iudip€s, and also very distinct from the hairy-toed members of the 
genus. This series appears, at first sight, to be made up of several 
distinct species, there being no less than six very pronounced types 
of coloration represented ; these different styles being so exceedingly 
different in appearance that in the absence of intermediate specimens 
no one would hesitate to recognize their specific distinctness. 

These different styles are more or less characteristic of separate geo- 
graphical areas; thus, the '^hrasilianus^^ type prevails over Eastern 
South America, "i/sfi<s" in Upper Amazonia and in Columbia, '■'■guate- 
make'''' in Central America, and '•'■ cassinV in Eastern Mexico. They 
thus partake somewhat of the nature of geographical races; were they 
strictly such, the case would be very much simplified ; but such, unfor- 
tunately, is not the case, since it frequently occurs that extreme speci- 
mens of one form may be found in a region of which it is not typical, 
■while several, if not all, of them may be represented in a sufficiently 
extensive series from a single district! Thus, we have true ''■ guatemalce^'' 
from Bahia, Brazil; pure hrasilianus from Costa Rica and Guatemala; 
and a specimen apparently very much like ^^tistus^^ from Sta. Catarina, 
S. E. Brazil. 

In the absence of specimens of neutral or intermediate character, 
these facts would not be antagonistic to the theory of specific distinct- 
ness of the forms named above, but, on the contrary, would be decidedly 
confirmative, since they would do away with the probability that the 
variations are purely the result of geographical impress. Generalized 
specimens, however, or those which are not typical of either one or the 
other of the several reces, constitute a very large proportion of the 

It is in consideration of all these facts that we are led to conclude 
that the several particular forms we have named above, however distinct 
they may appear when the most specialized examples are compared, 
are but " strains " of a single species, tending toward the establishment 
of permanent geographical races (and in the course of time distinct spe- 
cies), but which, in consequence of the non-extinction of specimens of 
a generalized nature, have not yet passed the incipient stage. 

The variations in this species involve not only differences in the 
colors themselves, but in the character and distribution of the markings, 
scarcely two examples being exactly alike. Variations of a purely 

*A specimen from Mazatlan, Western Mexico, in the gray phase, is so exactly inter- 
mediate between guaiemalw and hrasilianus that it cannot be referred more properly to 
one than to the other. 


individual nature, however, are best treated under the head of each 
particular race. 

a. hrasilianus. 

Le HiboH de Brml, Buiss., Orn. I, 1760, 499 {Brazil ; = rufous phase, with feathers of 

lower surface distinctly rufous below the surface, and sharply barred). 
Strix hraiiiliana, Gmkl., S. N. I, i, 1788,289 (ex Briss., I. c). 

Scops brasitianus, Gray, Hand-l I, 1869, 47 (part).— Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S. 1868,629 

(Venezueln); 1870, 782 {Merida, Venezuela); 1873,304 (E.Peru)', Nora.Neotr. 

1873, 117 (part).— Sharpe, Cut. Strig. Brit. Mus. 187.5,108 {Bahia ; Para; 

Island of Alexiatia ; Upper Amazons ; Cayenne; Trinidad; Caraccas; Aniioquia; 

Columbia).— FiNScn, P. Z. S. 1870, 557 {Trinidad'').— Bovc, Cat. Av. 1876, 91. 

Epliialites brasiliensis, Gray, Genera B. I, 1844, 35. 

Otus brasiliensis, Temm. & Schleg., Fauna Jap. 1845, 25. 

Scojjs brasiliensis, Bonap., Consp. I, 1850, 46.— Kaup, Contr. Orn. 1852, 112.— 

Schleg., Mus. P.-B. Otl, 1862, 21 ; Rev. Ace. 1873, 11. 
Megascops brasiliensis, Kaup, t. c. 228. 
Asia brasiliensis, Bonap., Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1854,543. 
Choliba, AzARA, Apunt. II, 1802-05, 218. 

Strix choliba, YIF.II.J.., Nouv. Diet. XVI, 1817, 39 (ex Azara, Z. c), {— "brasilianus" 
style, with feathers of lower parts distinctly orange-rufous below surface, 
Epliialites choliba, Grat, Genera B. I, 1844, 38.— Pelz., Orn. Bras. 1870, 9. 
Scops choliha, D'Orb., Voy. Ois. l835-'44, 132.— Tschudi, Fauna Per. 1844, 118.— 
Strickl., Orn. Syn. I, 1855, 204.— Lawr., Ann. Lye. N. Y. VII, 1862, 462 (Aew 
Granada).— Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S. 1866, 198. 
Strix decussata, LiCHT., Verz. Doubl. 1823, 59. 

Scops decussata, Bukm., Th. Bras. II, 1856, 126 {grayish phase). 
Strij; crucigera, Sj'IX, Av. Bras. I, 1824, 22, pi. 9. 
Strix undulata, Svix, t. c. pi. 10. 
Ephialitcs argentina, LiCHT., Noni. 1854, 7.— Schleg., Mus. P.-B. Oti, 1862, 21. 

Scops argentina, Gicay, Haudl. 1, 1869, 47. 
f Scops lophotr.s. Less., Traits, I, 1831, 107.t— Pucheran, Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1849, 22 

* " One specimen, agreeing with Brazilian specimens." 

t "Tout le dessus du corps brun fonc6, ponctud de roux, mais par points tr&s-t6nu8, 
trfes-rapprochds et tres-nombreux. Les dessous du corps roux, flamme de noir, formant 
une masse brnne sur la poitriue ; les huppes dlargies a la base. Patrie inconuue. 

" Obscrv. On doit ajouter a ce sous-genre le Hibou chaperonne, Strix atricapilla, 
Tenini., pi. 145, du Brdsil, et le Hibou noctule, Strix noctula, Reinw., Temm., pi. 99, de 
Java et de Sumatra, qui est peut-etre Pesji^ce 25, decrite sous le nom de Scops de Java." 
[Lesson, I. c] 

From the description alone, as quoted above, it is absolutely impossible to decide to 
which of the races of S. brasilianus this reference belongs. It is quite as likely to be 
a synonym of the form we distinguish as a/riCfflj>(7?MS, Temm. (see p. 95). Sclater and 
Salvin (Ex. Orn VII, 1808, it. 102), who have seen Lesson's type, say that it is " proba- 
bly only a paler form" of S. brasilianus. Another name, usually referred to <S'. brasili- 
anus, but which we are in doubt about, is Scops portoricensis, Less. (Traits, I, 1831, 
107. — " Scops de Porto Rico"). We have never seen a specimen of this genus from 
any of the West India islands, but think it quite likely that peculiar races exist there. 
Of this bird also, Messrs. Sclater and Salvin " have seen the type-specimens, . . . in the 
Paris Museum, and have been unable to distinguish it from S. brasilianus." We quote 
below Lesson's description in full : — 

" D'un gris-roux glac6, strid en long de flammeches roux-brun, plus fiuementstrie en 
travers; deux huppes «51argies et triangulaires sur les c6tt5s delatete; taille uu peu 
plus forte, et teiute beancoup plus blonde que I'espece d'Europe. Habite I'llede Porto- 
Rico. (Mus. de Paris, Maug6.)" 


(critical).— BoNAP., Consp. I, 1850, 46.— Strickl., Orn. Syii. I, 18.')5, 204.— 
SCL. & Salv., Ex. Om. 18(J8, 102 (in text).— Gray, Haud-1. I, 1869, 47. 

Asio lophotes, Bonap., Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1854, 543. 
f Scops portoricensin, Less., Traite, I, 1831, 107.— Pucheran, Rev. et Mag. Zool. 1849, 26 

" Ephialites portoricensis ", Leot., Ois. Triuidad, 1866, 57. 

Kemakks. — This style, which prevails over Eastern South America 
(Brazil, Paraguay, and Buenos Ayres), is characterized mainly by the 
very sharp definition of the cross-bars on the lower parts, these being 
usually nearly pure black upon an almost pure white ground, and by 
the very distinctly orange-rufous bases of the feathers, this color show- 
ing conspicuously on the lower surface wherever the plumage is disar- 

Thirty specimens are before me, the localities represented being the 
following :— Brazil (13), Paraguay (1), Buenos Ayres (1), Ecuador 
(Napo 1), Columbia (Antioquia 2, Bogota 2), Costa Eica (9), and Gua- 
temala (1.) Six specimens from Costa Rica, collected by Mr. J. C. 
Zeledon, are almost undistinguishable from one another; the uniform- 
ity of their characters being indeed remarkable for this species. Two 
others which greatly resemble each other are one from Bogota, in 
Salvin and Godman's collection, and one in my own collection (No. 
2270) from Guatemala. These are almost exactly alike ; they have 
the upper parts of a dark grayish-brown color, very minutely and 
densely vermiculated with blackish, further relieved by occasional, 
inconspicuous lighter frecklings, and rather indistinct blackish mesial 
streaks, most obvious on the pileum ; the feathers of the lower surface 
are distinctly bright buff below the surface, while the blackish mark- 
ings — both the transverse and the longitudinal ones — are sharply defined 
and very distinct. In their general aspect, these specimens agree very 
nearly with typical examples of the '■^hrasiliamts^' style, but are darker 
in their general coloring above, w^here the mottliugs are finer and 

A typical specimen of the style is No. 1G431 (Nat. Mus.), from Para- 
guay. This has the lower plumage exactly like the two specimens 
described above, but the upper parts are lighter and more grayish, with 
the blackish mesial streaks in stronger relief. The Costa Kica speci- 
mens alluded to above greatly resemble this one, but are rather paler 
and more grayish. An extreme example is No. 12400 (Nat. Mus.), 
from Buenos Ayres. This has the lower parts as described above, 
except that the orange-buff of the basal portion of the feathers is 
brighter, and the black mesial streaks broader. Tbe upper parts 
are light tawny, or sandy clay-color (not rufous), with very minute 
and inconspicuous transverse vermiculations, the black mesial streaks 
broad and conspicuous, especially on the pileum, where they form 
continuous stripes, while on the dorsal region they each have one 
or two expansions, so as to form a bead-like series. Quite similar to 
this, but darker above and with narrower streaks beneath, is a male in 
Salvin and Godman's collection from Antioquia, Columbia. 


The most aberrant of the South American specimens before me is an 
example from Sta. Catarina, S. E. Brazil (Mus. Salvin and Godman). 
This has the upper plumage much as in the specimen last described, 
but the outer webs of the scapulars are bright buff, instead of white, 
and the pileum is suffused with blackish, the streaks of this color 
being thus rendered less distinct. It is the lower parts, however, which 
differ most: there is an entire absence of the usual sharply-defined, 
transverse, blackish markings, but in their stead exceedingly irregular 
and ragged markings of rusty rufous, into which the very obvious but 
ill-deflued broad mesial streaks gradually blend ; the whole pectoral 
region, the throat, and the face have a uniform rusty-buff ground-color, 
relieved by few markings. This individual apparently approaches the 
form named by Sclater S. ustus. 

Besides the above variations, there is another, involving the intensity 
of the buff on the basal portion of the feathers of the lower parts ; in 
many, this is so bright as to show conspicuously wherever the feathers 
are the least bit disarranged, while in others only the merest trace of it 
can be discovered by careful search. Between all these variations, 
however, there is every possible iutermediate condition in different 

Mr. Sharpe {I. o.) remarks that this race does not assume the bright 
rufous phase so common in the form named guatemalce. I have seen, 
however, a specimen from Bahia, an adult female, which is as brightly 
rufous as any specimen of guatemalce^ or, for that matter, even S. asio. 
The upper parts are deep brick-rufous, all the feathers with blackish 
shalt-streaks, these broadest on the pileum and back ; the upper tail- 
coverts and the sides of the neck only are without these streaks. The 
outer webs of the exterior row of scapulars are pure white; the feathers 
of the dorsal region show fulvous transverse spots on the basal portion, 
mostly concealed, except where the feathers are disturbed, and larger 
across the nape than elsewhere. Each feather of the sides, flanks, and 
abdomen has a mesial streak of blackish-brown (with here and there a 
slight external suffusion of paler and more rusty-brown), which color 
expands into two rather wide, transverse, externally pointed spots on 
the basal half of the feather, — the terminal half having two or three 
narrow, finely zigzag, transverse lines of dark brown, here and there 
mixed with rufous, — making an average number of four bars on each 
feather, of which the two anterior are wider and more rufous. 

This specimen resembles the rufous phase of " cassinV^ xery much 
more than that of " guatemalw '', but is very much larger in all its 

A young bird, from Costa Eica, in the collection of Messrs. Salvin 
and Godman, differs from the adult as follows : ground-color light- 
buff, deepest above, relieved by narrow transverse bars of dusky, 
equally distinct above and below. 


List of Speclmena Examined* 














F. S. 

? r. 


u. s. 

? g- 



? g- 


S. &G. 

— juv.b. 


S. &G. 


S. &G. 

— Sr. 

S. &G. 

— gr- 

S. &G. 

— br. 


ad. r. 


S. <fcG. 

ad. b. 


ad. g. 



d g. 



? r. 



? g- 



ad. g. 


U. S. 

ad. r. 


S. &G. 



S. &G. 



S. & G. 

ad. g. 


ad. g. 



ad. g. 



ad. g. 






juv. b. 


Buenos Ayres . 





Brazil (Babia) 



Brazil (St. Catherine's) . 



Brazil (Bahia) 

, do 

Southern Brazil 

Briiiiil (Pernambuco) ... 

Ecuador (Napo) 

Columbia (Medellina) . . . 


Columbia (Bogota) 


Costa Rica (San Jos6) . . 

Costa Rica 



June, 1859 
Aug., 1859 

6. 55 
6. 55 
6. CO 
6. 10 
G. to 



5. 20 









*In these tables, the initials in the column headed Museum stand for the following : " U. S.",=United 
States National Museum; "S. & G.",= Museum Salvin (fcGodman; "G. N. L.",= Museum of George N. 
Lawrence, esq. ; " M. C. Z.",=Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. ; " R. R.",= Museum 
of R. Ridgway. In the next column, the letters g, r, and h indicate the gray, rufas, and brown (or 
intermediate) phases respectively. The measurement of the culmen does not include the cere; the 
tail is measured to the extreme base of the coccyx, and the middle toe to the base of the claw. 

(3. atricapillus? 

tStrix atncapiUa, "Natt.", Temm., PI. Col. II, 1838, pi. 145. 

Scops atricapilla, Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool. XIII, pt. 2, 1826, p. 51, pi, 39.— Cuv., 

lihg. Anim. ed. 2, 1829, 347.— Bonap., Cousp. I, 18uO, 46.— Kaup, Coutr. Oru. 

1852, 112.— Stkickl., Orn. Syn. I, 1855, 202.— Burm., Tb. Bras. II, 1856, 128. 
EpMalites atricapilla, Gray, Genera B. I, 1844, 38, pi. 13, fig. 2 (bead). — Pelz., 

Orn. Bras. 1870, 9 (?). 
Megascops atricapilla, Kaup, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. IV, 1859,228. 
Asio atricapillus, Bonap., Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1854, 543. 
f Ephialites ivatsoiii, Cass., Pr. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pbila. IV, Dec. 1848,123; Journ. Phila. 

Acad. II, 1852, 95, pi. xii, fig. 1. 
Scojys tvatsom, Bonap., Cousp. I, 1850, 46.— Gray, Haud-1. 1, 1869, 47. 
Asio tvatsoni, Bonap., Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1(:54, 543. 

Diagnosis. — Adult maU, gray plime (Mus. O. S. & F. D. G,, Engento do 
Gama, Brazil, Aug. 18, 1S2G; batterer).— Wing, 0.80; tail, 4.00; cnlmen, 
.55; tarsus, 1.15; middle toe, .80. Facial circle, ear-tufts, and pileum 
sooty-blackish, on the latter broken by minute grayish and faint fulvous 
mottling, this prevailing on the forehead and eyebrows; outer webs of 
ear-tufts nearly uniform blackish, but inner webs conspicuously spotted 
or indented with pale fulvous and whitish. Orbital region dusky — con- 
spicuously so in front of and above the eye — the face growing paler on 
the cheeks, next the blackish facial ring, where the color is pale grayish, 


indistinctly undulated with darker. Occiput crossed by a quite con- 
spicuous light-colored band, the feathers of which have the basal portion 
Iiale fulvous and the terminal portion whitish, with irregular dusky bars. 
Upper parts in general finely mottled grayish-brown, with indistinct 
streaks and zigzags of dusky and minute mottlings of very pale ochra- 
ceous ; outer webs of scapulars whitish, more or less stained with buff. 
Tail dusky, with about seven bands of pale fulvous, each inclosing a 
narrower and more irregular dusky band ; outer webs of primaries 
marked with quadrate spots of dusky and pale fulvous, the latter 
smallest, growing deeper-colored toward the shaft, and having occa- 
sional dusky mottlings centrally, the former mottled with fulvous gray 
along the edges of the feathers. Lower parts uniform pale dull buif, the 
feathers with narrow, but distinct, dusky, mesial streaks, and with scat- 
tered, irregular cross-bars of the same color, the latter averaging about 
iico on each feather, and situated near the end ; on the breast these 
markings more numerous and irregular, and the general surface broken 
by irregular spots of white. Tarsi pale buff, with faint mottlings of 
rusty-brown on the outer side; under tail-coverts with a single faint 
spot at the end of each feather. 

Eemakks. — The appearance of this owl is peculiar from the dusky 
coloring of the face, especially around the eyes, the peculiar shade of 
the pale buff lower parts (which lacks the bright orange tint of other 
races), the sparseness of the markings below, and in the i»inkish tinge 
of the axillars and under wing-coverts. 

While it is all but certain that the specimen described above is the 
same as Epliialites watsoni, Cassin, there is considerable doubt as to 
its being equivalent to Strix atricapilla, Temm. The plate of the latter 
represents a much smaller bird, with altogether grayer tints above, and 
pure white, instead of fulvous, beneath. In fact, this plate calls instantly 
to mind the form described in this paper as >S'. cassini (see page 102), 
and were it not that the habitat of Temminck's bird is given, on 
good authority, as Brazil, I should not hesitate to identify it with the 
latter form. The writer examined some years ago the type-specimens of 
EphiaUtes icatsoni, in the museum of the Philadel[)hia Academy, and 
as he recollects them they correspond quite closely, if not entirely, 
with the specimen described above. Still, they may be somewhat dif- 
ferent. The figure given by Cassin in the "Journal " of the Academy 
(pi. xii, fig. 1) is extremely inaccurate as regards the details of colora- 
tion ; but it may be observed that the coloring represents almost exactly 
the peculiar shades which we consider one of the chief characteristics 
of the present form. The following is the original description of 
EpMalites watsoni, in full : — 

" Summit of the head black, with a few very minute pale spots, more 
numerous on the front and eyebrows. Shorter feathers of the ear-tufts 
black, others black also, but with their inner webs spotted or mottled 
with white. A semicircle above the eye, extending to the ear-tufts, 


black; rigid feathers at the base of the bill black, with pale grayish 
terminations; featbers immediately below the eye gray, mottled and 
broadly tipped with black. 

'' Discal feathers grayish white, many of them speckled, and all tipped 
with black, presenting a white and black semi-collar or rufl' on each side 
of the neck. Plumage of the throat with tine alternate bars of black 
and nearly white. 

" Neck above with a well-defined collar, the feathers composing 
which are strongly fulvous, terminated with white and speckled with 

" Back, rump, tail, and wing-coverts mottled and freckled with gray- 
ish white, upon a black ground, many of the feathers having about three 
to five very irregular transverse bands of whitish; on the wing-coverts 
and back some of the pale marks are almost circular with black centres; 
others are of irregular form also enclosing centres of black. 

" External webs of the primaries black, with subquadrate nearly white 
bars, nearly all of which have black centres, assuming, also, a more or 
less well defined square form. Internal webs of primaries with alter- 
nate baiuls of different shades of black. 

" Breast and entire inferior parts pale fulvous, every feather conspicu- 
ously marked on the shaft longitudinally^ with black, and with very 
irregular transverse bands and irregularly mottled with black; the 
black markings most numerous and most irregular on the breast. Many 
of the feathers on the breast with very pale, nearly white spots, having 
somewhat the appearance of being distributed in pairs. 

"Tail black, with about seven or eight narrow irregular grayish bauds,, 
many of which have central lines of black. 

"Tarsi feathered to the toes, pale fulvous white, mottled with black. 

" Bill horn color at the base, whitish at the tip. 

"Total length (of skin) about 9^ inches, wing 7, tail 3h inches. 

"Younger? Plumage above paler, with small spots aud minute 
freckles of grayish white, scarcely assuming the appearance of bands. 

" Breast with the dark markings predominating, and tending to form a; 
broad pectoral band ; lower parts of the body bright fulvous, with black 

" Ilah. South America. 

"This species bears some resemblance to EpMalitcs atricapilla, (iSiatt.) 
Temm. i)l. col. 145, but is much larger, and has only one nuchal collar. 
The general color above is also much darker; the fulvous colouring of 
the inferior surface of the body is also a striking difterence. 

"One specimen of this species in the Rivoli collection is labelled 'Ore- 
noque', and another in the collection of the Academy is probably from 
South America." 

The description given in the Journal of the Philadelphia Academy 
(vol. ii, p. 95) is essentially the same as the above. 

Proc. Nat. Mus. 78 7 Awgaast B5, HST8. 


■y. nsttis. 

Scops usta, ScL., P. Z. S. March 9,1858, 13'2 (Ega, Upper Jmazons.—Mus. Norwich); 
Trans. Zool. Soc. Loud. IV, 1859, 265, pi. Ixi.— Gray, Hand-1, 1, 18(39, 47.— Bouc, 
Cat. Av. 1876, 91.— Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S. 1866, 198 ; Ex. Orn. 102. . 
Scops brasUianus, subsp. a. Scojfs ustus, Sharpe, Cat. Strig. Brit. Mus. 1875, 111 
{Saraijacu and Chamicuros, E. Peru; Venezuela f). 

Habitat.— Um^er Amazonia (Ega; Scl., I. c; Chamicuros and Sara- 
yacu, E. rem, and Venezuela? ; Sharpe, I. c). 

This form I have never seen, and therefore have to give descriptions 
at second hand. Tlie original one (Sclater, I. c.) is as follows : — 

" Supra saturate castaneo-brunnea, plumis omnibus nigro subtilissime 
vermiculatis ; facie et gulapure castaneo-brunneis, hac pallidiore : linea 
post regionem auricularem,cornuum capitis extantium marginibus latis 
et pileo supero nigris : alarum pennis pallide castaneo brunneis nigro 
punctulatis, intus autem ochracenti-albidis, quinque et sex fasciis latis 
iu pogonio externo, raaculas quadratas efiicientibus, nigris trans-vitta- 
tus ; Cauda ex eodem colore sed fasciis nigris psene obsoletis : subtus 
clarius brunnea, lineis augustis longitudinalibus, scapus plumorum 
occupantibus, nigris parcenotata: tectricibus alarum inferioribus sor- 
dide albis : tarsis pallide fulvis : rostro et pedibus flavis. 
" Long, tota 8.5, alee 7.0, caudse 4.0, tarsi 1.2. 
" Hab. Ega, on the Upper Amazon (H. W. Bates)." 
Tlie above description, and the plate accompanying it, represent a form 
of Scops of which I have never seen typical examples. It seems clearly 
to belong to S. brasiUanus, of which it is probably a peculiar " strain '' — 
hardly to be called the rufescent extreme (since the latter is to be found 
in the bright rufous phase of '-' guatemakv''^), but rather showing a very 
highly-colored condition, in which the rufous tint is spread rather than 
intensified, so as to more or less completely obliterate the usual white 
markings. The case seems to be somewhat parallel to that of S. Icnnicotti 
as compared with 8. asio, and is probably more or less closely connected 
with climatic peculiarities of the district inhabited by the race ; for 
instance, an excessive rain fall and a prevalence of denser and darker 
forests than generally exist to the eastward. 
According to Mr. Sclater [l. c), this form " is distinguishable from 

every South American member of the genus by its rich brown 

coloring above and below, and by the longitudinal lines below not being 
crossed as in S. choliba and S. atricapiUa.^'' 

Among the .iumerous specimens of Scops brasiUanus in the series 
betore me, is one which seems to approach quite nearly to the characters 
of this race, being devoid of shari)Iy defined black bars below, where, 
in their place, are extremely irregular ragged zigzags of rusty rufous, 
the blackish shaft-streaks being unusually broad, and externally suifused 
with rufous; only the terminal half, or exposed portion, of the abdom- 
inal feathers is white, the entire breast, tibiir, and tarsus having a 
uniform deep ochraceous ground-color. Among other differences from 


typical brasiliatms may be mentioned the deep buff or ochraceous outer 
webs of the scapulars, inner webs of the eartufts, and indeed all the 
markings of the upper surface, which are white in that form ; these 
peculiarities being among the distinguishing features of the 'ustiis type. 
This specimen, however, is from Sta. Catarina, S. E. Brazil. It belongs 
to the collection of Messrs. Salviu and Godmau. 

In his description of this form, Mr. Sharpe describes what he terms 
its "gray phase", but which seems to be decidedly more brown than 
gray, and, to judge from the description, quite different from anything 
I have seen. I quote the essential parts of the descriptions of this 
form given by Mr. Sharpe: — 

'•''Adult male (gray phasi*)« Grcneral color above dull earthy brown, 
so finely vermiculated as to appear almost uniform at first glance, a 
few fulvescent cross markings more conspicuous on the scapulars and 
secondaries, very slightly indicated on the hind neck, and not forming 
a distinct collar; crown of head rather blacker than the back, the 
feathers infinicesimally freckled with sandy rufous, the ear-tufts blackish, 
scarcely vermiculated at all ; ear-coverts sandy brown, indis- 
tinctly barred across with blackish brown, and narrowly shaft-streaked 

with white ; rest of under surface ochraceous buff, thickly 

sprinkled with wavy lines and vermiculations of dark brown, especially 
on the side of the chest, some of the breast feathers streaked with 
black and barred across with white, the flanks scantily barred with 
dark brown, inclining to white near the tip, the markings scanty, as 

also on the under tail-coverts Total length 9.5 inches, wing 

6.0, tail 3.9, tarsus 1.3. 

'■^ Adult female (ru*'ous phase). General characteristics as in the gray 
phase, but rufous where the other bird is brown, and slightly more 
mottled on the upper surface with rufescent cross bars ; below nearly 
uniform rufous, deeper on the chest, some of the feathers slightly 
streaked with black, more narrowly on the breast and abdomen ; on the 
chest a few dull brown vermiculations, the abdomen indistinctly barred 
with fulvous. Total length 9 inches, wing 6.55, tail 3.4, tarsus 1.3. 

" Obs. The principal characteristics of this race are the uniformity of 
its upper surface, and the comparative absence of streaks ; scapulars 
fulvescent, not white. These remarks apply both to the brown and 
rufous phases, neither of which shows any collar on the hind-neck. 

" Rab. Upper Amazons." 

6. guafcmalw. 

" Scojjs hrasiJianus", Lawr., Ann. Lye. N. Y. IX, 1868, 132 (San Jose, Costa Eica). — Sal- 

viN, P. Z. S. IdTO, 21G ( Vtragua). 
Scops brasilianus, subsp. /?. Scops guatimalw, Sharpe, Cat. Strig. Brit. Mus. 1875, 112, 

pi. ix, both phases (6'!m/e?na/a; A coyapa, Nicaragua ; Costa Bica; Veragua), 
Scops guatemala;, Bouc, Cat. Av. 1870,91 (Central America). 

Eemarks. — In Central America, from Veragua to Guatemala, a form 
prevails which, in the absence of extralimital specimens or of examples 


ferruginous, with of the other styles, I s' ' 

iu the middle port^Pecies. This style is ' ^ .....i\^ , ..Ji;. ;.. . ^ 

are white, with th^I'^ (^- ^•)» ^^ which probuv^.y as many as 90 per ct"' 
streaks are render^oughtlrom those countries may be referred. It hap- 
Re'^ardiuo- the '^ ^^^^ absolutely typical specimens of the " hrasili- 

p 1X4)- ^^ f^'O both these countries, specimens of typical 

"The rufous ph'pc^r 11 -izil, thus annulling the importance of geo- 
that I have seen ftions; 'e, as a further proof of specific identity, 
color with the head'^^ns ' cannot be referred to either one or the 

to a blackish patch ;^orm^ hich are in every respect intermediate, 

black, as is also the'- 

tious of bars." As ^^"^^ "iety are, a confusedly-mottled, '^^ ' 

sometimes assume t)> lo i§^e, and a darker upper surfac '; 

■^ A specimen in tl'? ^^ mess and clearness of all the u '^'' 

i'^^'Oca* Mus. Salvin 1^*^ form; the bright orange-buff bases 

of ms described abovO^' ' ^o usual {hut not constant) iu typical 

spc^-^k shaft-streaks an' '^^> ^^ ^''^o absent in all the specimens 

I havvjQfi tiiroat, the c(?f 'ty» the individual variations in ''gua- 

lemahiQ r^jjjj ^he paler ta\ ^tb as to the shades of coloration and 

the paij-gd \ifith a rufous ^'^ rincipal of these are the following: — 

Gray -ences are ^^'^ 'ivin & Godman, Coban, "^'"c" ^ i'' 

Jan. — ^o- pi : -Prt'^ S mg color above pale bro. Jic^ii, .e," 
coarsely i pale buff and grayish-white, and with larger and 

very irre s'prts of blackish, these nowhere assuming the form of 

shaft-str ven on the crown; sides of the forehead or "eyebrows" 

appreci j,.iUt not abruptly, paler (mottled whitish). Face, throat, 
sides of fieck, and jugulum dirty whitish, finely and quite regularly 
undulat'-l transversely with brownish, the dusky facial circle not dis- 
tinct. BiSt of lower parts soiled white, the whole surface relieved by 
iiery irregtdar^ ragged, and confused zigzag lines of dusky brownish, the 
feathers showing very irregular, but quite distinct, mesial, blackish 
streaks, with which the transverse markings unite. 

The above description is of a specimen representing the extreme gray- 
ish phase, so far as shown by the series before me; others, in Messrs. 
Salvin and Godman's collection, exhibit a gradual transition to the 
rufous i)hase, sc-arcely two specimens being alike in the precise shade 
of brown, while positively none agree in the details of pattern. Thus, 
two males from Yeragua ("Arce, 2401", and "Arce, 1806") have the 
upper parts so nearly devoid of coarse mottlings as to appear of a nearly 
uniform light umberbrown. On the other hand, a specimen from Vera 
Paz ("O. S. 2348") has the general dusky coloring above relieved by 
very conspicuous, large, and, in places, regularly-oblong, transverse 
spots of pale fawn-color. In the latter specimen, the white on the outer 
■web of the scapulars is broken by transverse wide bars of mottled fawn 
and dusky, while in nearly all the others this white is unbroken, having 
only the terminal blackish border common to nearly all the species of the 


typical hrasiliamis may be dii as to the markings c 

webs of t^'^*^, scapulars, iunei -oiis, and extremely r, 

IT" equently appearing u ^u confused ; in two sp' 
one from Choctum, Yera Paz, tbe other from Bahia, ] 
the transverse markings are much fewer, ivider 
regular, the average interval being, in the l-^aaer spf 
.25 of an inch ! pe 

The most aberrant specimen in the series dtjne fro 
1873"), which, however, appears, from th, quitureof 
a young bird. In this all the markings Arts of ^y fin 

tions, there being no longitudinal strea or ( ^' 

■^'^fr^ the feathers of the breast, ^f^l color al of ( j 

so fii ..with those of others in the s almost ui / 

fe iy)ecimen of gray plumage from /conspicuoiMe- f 

i*xus.; John Xantus), agrees strictlyn the hind CI i- 

scribed above in the markings of thtther black s- ,'ts 

are grayer, with conspicuous mesial st,indy rufora' lite 

form, agreeing exactly in this respect . . ear-cc^e ,>i«s" 

from Pernambuco, Brazil, in the coUeown, ani ' ,jpara- 

tive Zoology (Xo. 7805). , surtac< 

•^, '"'s^ extreme rufous phase is repre; Julatio'i.' , . ^ ) speci- 

,u . \±^^ 'juatemala (belonging to... Bot ;,^ Natural 

History). These are bright brick-rufous above, t) ,./ >s of the 

scapulars pure white, in strong contrast, and the feat\ieio e pileum 

with mesial streaks of black, — thus very closely resemb' le corre- 

sponding phase of 8. asio. The face, throat, and jugulu.u 'so of a 

paler, but quite uniform, rufous, relieved by few or no marking s of any 
kind ; the rest of the lower parts are white, the feathers with i distinct 
mesial streaks of dusky brownish and faint and ragged cro^^ bars of 
pale rufous. These specimens resemble the extreme rufous phase of 
^''hrasilianus^\ as described above, except that there are no distinct 
blackish streaks on the back, where also the feathers are devoid of the 
basal fulvous spots, while the bars on the lower surface are much less 
distinct and regular. 

Two other specimens of this phase in the collection of Messes. Salvia 
and Godman are quite different. One, from Coban, Vera Paz, is a 
young bird, with remnants of the immature plumage. The new dress 
however, largely prevails. In this example, the whole dorsal region is 
varied by an exceedingly faint, yet obvious spotting of a paler rufous, 
and narrow blackish shaft-streaks, and the lower parts are much more 
distinctly and regularly barred, the bars being, moreover, of a consid- 
erably darker shade. It thus approximates quite closely to the rufous 
specimen of " hrasilianus^^ above referred to. The other specimen is from 
Las Salinas, Vera Paz (" March, O. S. 2349"), and is still more different. 
The upper parts are so dark as to be almost chestnut, while the back 
is distinctly spotted with black. The breast is nearly uniform dark 


face } 
the diffei 


distinct and wide blackish shaft- streaks, and broken 
ion by whitish bars; the retnaiuderof the lower parts 
e transverse bars of blacMsh so broad that the mesial 
ed nearly obsolete, 
iufous phase of this variety, Mr. Sharpe remarks (/. c. 

ase of S. guatemalcc is quite different from anything 

rom South America, being entirely of a foxy rufous 

{ never darker than the back or showing any approach 

the back is generally rather narrowly streaked with 

head ; and there are in some examples slight indica- 

stated on p. 94, however, the Brazilian bird does 

his bright '• foxy rufous" phase. 

le bright rufous phase from Jalapa (S. E. Mexico; 

& Godman) differs from the two Guatemala speci- 

i in the paler rufous of the pileum (where the usual 

a almost entirely absent), the paler rufous of tlie 

^arser and more ragged markings of the lower 

rsi. In otber respects, however, it is identical. 

.pecimen of S. cassini, from the same locality, 

much more conspicuous. The latter is more like the 

lase of S. harbarus, being distinctly variegated above 

with paler spotting and numerous blackish shaft-streaks, and the pictut^w 
of the lower parts more distinct. 



of Siiecimena Examined. 

26 L. 

— L. 
2401 Arc6. 
2,}5-2 0. S. 
2348 O. S. 


Guatemala ;.... 

do J.... 

Chitra, Veragua.J 

Cobau, Vera Paz J 

Vera Paz, Guateniala. 
Choctum, Vera I/az .. 
Calovcvoro, Veragua . 

CLiriqui I 

Bahia, Brazil 


— ,'i8C9 
— , I860 


S. & G . . . . 

— 9- 

— 9- 

d g. 

— 9- 

— 9- 

— 9- 
d br. 

Juv. gr. 
Ad. gr. 
Ad. red. 
Ad. red. 
Ad. red. 
Ad. red. 
Ad. gr. 
Ad. red. 
Ad. gr. 

6. 55 
0. -20 

3. 8G 

. 55 







1873 Aroe. 


— , 1862 

— , 1868 .... 

.do .. 


2349 0. S. 

La Saiiuas, Vera Paz . 

Cuban, Vera Vaz 



— , 1860 
— , 1859 

Bost. Soc. 







Mazatlan, "W. Mex . . . 



E . Mexico (Jalapa) . . . 
Costa Rica 

— , 1872 


e. cassini. 

" Scops atricapillus (Natt.) Steph.", Eidgw., in B. B. & E. Hist. N. Am. B. Ill, 1874, 48 

Scops brasilianus, ^. cassini, Eidgw., MS. 

Habitat — Eastern Mexico (Mirador ; Jalapa). 

Diagnosis.— Wing, 5.80-G.lO; tail, 3.20-3.50; cnlmen, .45-.50 ; tar- 
sus, 1.20; middle toe, .80. 

Gray phase ; adult. — Above grayish-brown, finely mottled with lighter 
and darker shades, the general dusky brownisb hue interrupted by two 
conspicuous lighter bauds, one across the mi^e, and the other across 


the occiput, where the pale browuish buff spots are very targe and the 
darker markings correspoudiugly reduced in size. Beneath whitish, 
the feathers with ragged mesial streaks of blackish and transverse ver- 
miculations of the same. 

Eufous phase; adult. — Above cinnamon-rufous, with blackish shaft- 
streaks. Beneath white, with blackish mesial streaks and irregular 
transverse base of rufous and blackish. 

Eemabks. — This very distinct race, which I refer somewhat doubt- 
fully to 8. hrasilianus, so closely resembles 8. maccalU, both in size and 
colors, that, were it not for the perfectly naked toes, certain specimens 
of the two could scarcely be distinguished. From S. barharus, with 
which it agrees in the nakedness of the toes, it may be readily distin- 
guished by the much stouter feet (both relatively and absolutely), as well 
as by certain well marked differences in the coloration. Of the other 
races of hrasilianus, it most closely resembles the one we have described 
under the name of atricapillus (see p. 95), having, like that style, a very 
distinct lighter nuchal collar. It is considerably smaller, however, and 
presents well-marked differences in coloration, which may be expressed 
as follows : — 

S. ATRICAPILLUS. — Wing, 6.80 ; tail, 4.00 ; tarsus, 1.15 ; middle toe, 
.80. Ground-color below pale buff; face and crown nearly uniform 
dusky. Hub., Brazil. 

S. CASSINL— Wing, 5.80-6.10; tail, 3.20-3.50; tarsus, 1.20; middle 
toe, .80. Ground-color below white; face grayish or brownish white, 
coarsely barred with dusky ; crown coarsely spotted with blackish, pale 
brown, and grayish-white. Hab., Eastern Mexico. 

It will be seen by the above, that while eassini has the wing and tail 
very much shorter than in atricapillus, the feet are, on the other hand, 
actually longer, the two birds thus having quite different proportions, 
in view of which fact it may ultimately prove advisable to recognize in 
S. eassini a distinct species. Compared with S. barbarus, which is 
sometimes exceedingly similar in plumage, the difference in the feet is 
still more striking; while the only other form which resembles it — 8. 
maccalli — has the toes distinctly bristled, whereas in the present form 
they are perfectly bare. 


u. s 


Gr. ad. 
Gr. iid. ? 
Enf. ad. 

Mirador, Mexico 

Jalapa, Mexico . . 

Nov. — , 1863 
Apr. 9,1869 







" Scops flammeola", Salvin, Ibis, 1801, 355 {nee Licht.). 

Sco2)s barharus, ScL. & Salv., P. Z. S. 1668, 57 : Ex. Orn. 1, 1668, 101, pi. li ; Norn. Neotr. 

1873, 117 (G«a<maZ«).— Gray, Hand-1. I, 1869, 47.— Sharpe, Cat. Strig. Brit. 

Mu8. 1875, 107 {Sta. Barbara, Vera Paz, Guatemala).— Bovc, Cat. Av. 1876, 91. 

Habitat. — Guatemala. 

Diagnosis.— Wing, 5.25-5.60; tail, 2.90-3.10; culmen, .45; tarsus, 
1.00-1.05 ; middle toe, .70-.75. Shafts of the auriculars produced into 


long, slender, hair-like bristles, forming a conspicuous ruff round the face, 
the anterior siile coucave. Gray phase (adult) : — Above browu, tbickly 
spotted with bh\ck, the black prevailing on the pileum; outer webs of 
scapulars white, bordered terminally with black. Beneath whitish, the 
feathers marked with transverse bars and mesial stripes of" black, the 
white of opposite webs having the form of roundish or oblong spots. 
Rufous phase [adult): — Above cinnamon-rufous, all the feathers (except 
upper tail-coverts) with wide and distinct mesial streaks of black. Be- 
neath white, the feathers witli shaft-streaks of black and wide cross- 
bars of rufous having black borders. 

Eemarks. — This very distinct species is apparently most nearly 
related to 8. flammeolus, with which it agrees in the extreme weakness 
of the feet. It differs, however, from that form in being of much stouter 
build, more "flufly" plumage, the head appearing larger and the body 
stouter in consequence of the greater length and looseness of the feathers. 
The plumage also is quite different, the markings being altogether coarser. 
The differences between the two have been more precisely expressed on 
a preceding page. From S. cassini, which it sometimes very closely 
resemlles in colors, it may be immediately distinguished by its much 
weaker feet and different proportions, as follows:* — 

iScops BARBARUS. — Wing, 5.25-5.G0 ; tail, 3.10 ; tarsus, 1.00-1.05 ; 
middle toe, .70-75. Hah., Highlands of Guatemala. 

Scops cassini.— Wing, 5.80-0.10 5 tail, 3.20-3.50 ; tarsus, 1.20; mid- 
dle toe, .80. Mab., Eastern Mexico (V^era Cruz, etc.). 

U.S. Ad. 

S. &G. 
S. & G. Ad. r. 

Central Guatemala 

Vera Paz, Guatemala — 
Sta. Barbara, Guatemala. 


, 186-3 

Apr.— ,1860 














.70. [Type] 

.70. [Type.] 


"Strix flammeola, Light., MS., in Mus. Berol., uncle." 
EphialUes flammeola, Light., Nom. 1854, 7. 

Megascops flammeola, Kaup, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. IV, 1859, 228. 
Scops flammeola, Sgl., P. Z. S. 1868, 96.— Sciileg., Mup. P.-B. Oti, 1862, 27 ; Rev. Ace. 
1873, 14.— ScL. & Salv., p. Z. S. 1868, 57 ; Ex. Orn. VII, July, 1868, 99, pi. 1. ; 
Nom. Neotr. 1873, 117 {Mexico ; Guatemala). — Gray, Hand-l. I, 1870, 47.— El- 
liot, Illustr. Am. B. I, 1869, pi. xxviii. — Coues, Key, 1872, 203 ; Check List, 
1873, 6.5, No. 319.— RiDGW., in B. B. & R. Hist. N. Am. B. Ill, 1874, 58, lig. 
{Guatemala; Mexico; Sierra Nevada, n. to Ft. Creole, Cal., where breeding); 
Field &. Forest, June, 1877, 210 {Boulder Co., Col; March.— "Iris umber- 
browu"!); Orn. 40th Par. 1877, 335, in text {Nevada, Cal.?).— Uesshaw, Orn. 
Wheeler's Exp. 1874,135 (30 m. souih of Apache, Ariz. ; Sept. 11).— Sharpe, 
Cat. Strig. Brit. Mus. 1875, 105 {Duenas, Guat.; W. Mexico; Valley of Mexico). — 
Bouc., Cat. Av. 1876, 91 {Mexico). 

Flammnlated Owl, Coues, I. c. 

Feilner'n Owl, B. B. & R., I. c. 

Habitat. — Highlands of Guatemala and Mexico, north to latitude 40^ 
in the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains of the United States. 

* Sgops flammeolus.— Wing, 5.10-5.60 ; tail, 2.60-3.00 ; tarsus, .90-1.00 ; middle toe, 
..60-.68.— i?a6.. Highlands of Guatemala, Mexico, and Western United States north to 
about 40°. 


Diagnosis.— Wing, 5.10-5.G0 ; tail, 2.60-3.00; calmen, .35-.40; tar- 
sus, .90-1.00; middle toe, .G0-.(J8. Adult. — Above finely mottled gray- 
ish, the feathers with irregular blackish shaft-streaks. Outer icehs of 
scapulars more or less strongly washed with orange-rvfous on a white 
ground ; outer webs of lower middle wing-coverts white, forming con- 
spicuous spots. Groundcolor below white, the feathers with very 
distinct mesial black streaks, from which proceed narrower transverse 
lines, mostly toward the end of the feathers. Juv. — Above finely-mot- 
tled grayish, but the mottlings all transverse and the shaft-streaks 
wanting ; below coarsely and rather dimly barred with dark grayish 
on a dull whitish ground, and with no longitudinal markings. Iris 
uniherbroicn ! [fide Mrs. M. A. Maxwell). 

Eemaeks. — Specimens vary chiefly in the amount of rufous wash on 
different parts of the plumage. A wash of this color is usually present 
on the pileum, while it sometimes spreads over the face, throat, and 
back ; Mr. Sharpe [I. c.) even mentions a specimen, from Guatemala, 
which is entirely orange-rufous above, and strongly pervaded by the 
same color on the lower surface, especially on the throat, where it 
forms a large patch. He also mentions " a perfectly gray bird, on 
which scarcely a tinge of orange coloring remains, either above or 
below, while the whole appearance of the specimen is dingy, owing to 
the closeness and frequency of the vermiculations." I have never seen 
a specimen representing either of these extreme phases, all the speci- 
mens before me (seven in number) being of average coloration. 


u. s. 



u. s. 

d juv. 



M. A. M. 


S. &G. 


S. &G. 



S. &G. 


Orizaba, Mex 

Foit Crook, N. Cal 

30 mi I PS S. of Apacho, Ariz 

Boulder, Colorado* 

Buenas, Guatemala 

do , 

Valley of Mexico 

Feb. 3. 186.5 
Aug. 23, lt^60 
Sept. 11, 1873 

Jan. — , 1863 

5. .50 





' Iris umberbroivn ! 

C. — Toes partly covered ivith hair -like, bristly feathers, the terminal 
scutellw only completely naked. 

In this group are included only S. asio, 8. trichopsis (?), and ;S^. cooperi, 
all of which belong to the country north of the Isthmus of Panama, 
there being, so far as known, no South American species with hairy toes. 
The species of this group may be distinguished as follows : — 

S. ASio. — Bars of the lower surface coarse, and frequently double, 
especially on the flanks. Hab., Whole of the United States ; south to 
Guatemala; north to Sitka. 

S. TRICHOPSIS ? — Bars of the lower surfjice fine, nearer together than 
in 8. asio, and more uniformly distributed. General aspect paler, with 
much finer vermiculations. 

S. cooPERi. — B^rs of the lower surface in form of dense, fine, zigzag 


The differences between Scojis ado and the species here called *S^. tri- 
chopsis do not, it is true, seem to be very great, according to the charac- 
ters given above. It is not the amount of difference, however, between 
these two forms which has induced me to recognize them as distinct 
species, but the constancy of the differences pointed out; 8. asio having 
in every one of its numerous geographical and local races the bars of 
the flanks, etc., coarse and frequently double, while all the specimens 
of S. tricliopsis which have come under my notice hav'e these bars much 
finer and denser, with no disposition to be arranged in pairs. Mr. 
Sharpe also lays stress upon the same differential characters. 


Strix asio [ = rufous jj/trtsej, Linn., S. N. I, 1766, 132 (based on Noctiia aurita minor, 
Catesl)., Carol. I, 73. — Asio scops caroUnensis, Briss., Oru. I, 497). 

Scops ncBvia I = gray phase], Gmel., S. N. I, i, 1788, 289 (based on Mottled Owl, Arct. 
Zool. II, 1785, 231, no. 118, t. xi). 

Bubo strlatus \_ = gray phase], Vieill., Ois. Am. Sept. I, 1807, 54, pi. 21. 

f " Ephialites ocreata, Light., in Mus. Berol." 

/3. maccalli. 

Scops McCallii, Cass., Ulustr. B. Cal. Tex, «S:.c. July, 1854, 180; in Baird's Birds N. Am. 

1858, 52. 
Scops asio, var. enano, " Lawr., MS.", Eidgw., Bull. Essex Inst. V, Dec. 1873, 200. 

y. kennicotti. 

Scops kennicottii, Elliot, Pr. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila, 1807, 69 ; Illustr. Birds Am. 1869, p. 
xxvii, pi. ii. 

6. floridanus. 

Scops asio, var. floridanus, Eidgw., Bull. Essex Inst. V, Dec. 1873, 200. 

f. viaxweUiw. 

Scopis asio, e. maxwelliw, Eidgw., Field and Forest, June, 1877, 210, 213. 

The chief differential characters of the several geographical races of 
this widely distributed owl may be expressed as follows : — 

Colors smoky-brown or dusky umber, and pale fulvous, with little or none of pure 
white. Outer webs of scapulars pale fulvous. Never bright rufous. 

1. Wiug, 6.85-7.60 ; tail, 3..'^,0-4.50. Apparently not varying to rufous ^aft.. The 

Northwest coast, from Oregon to Sitka; Idaho -y. kennicotti. 

Colors much lighter, some shade of ashy-gray or grayish-brown above, pure white 
beneath. Outer webs of scapulars pure white. Sometimes bright rufous, with 
white and black markings. 

2. Wiug, 6.10-7.80 ; tail, 3.30-4.35. Varying, in the Eastern, hit not in the Western, 

Province, to bright rufous. In the rufous phase, white prevailing on the lower 
surface, where the red markings are not broken into transverse bars. Hab., 
Whole of the United States, except the high western mountains, and the Gulf 
coast a. asio. 

3. Wing, 5.50-6.00 ; tail, 2.75-3.10. Varying to bright rufous ; in the rufous phase, 

red prevailing on the lower parts, where the markings are much broken into 
transverse bars. Mab., Florida and S. Georgia 6. floridanus. 


4. Wing, 5.50-5.90 ; tail, 2.80-3.50. Varying to bright rufous ; gray pbase like that 

of asio and jloridanus, but the mottling above much coarser, and the nape 
with a strongly indicated collar of rounded white spots, in pairs, on opposite 
webs. Red phase much more spotted above than that of asio or jloridanus. 
Hah., E. Mexico and highlands of Guatemala /?. viaccalli. 

5. Wing, 6.80-6.90 ; tail, 3.90-4.10. Not varying to rufous. General aspect much 

paler than any of the preceding ; above pale ash-gray, or very pale cinnamon- 
gray, the white of the outer webs of the lateral scapulars very conspicuous, 
the white spots of the outer webs of the primaries sometimes confluent. 
Beneath pure white, much more sparsely marked than in asio and other races. 
Hah., Mountains of Colorado «. maxwellia. 

The characters given above are sufficient to distinguish typical speci- 
mens of several well-marked geographical forms of Sco^ys asio. It is of 
course understood that specimens possessing intermediate characters 
frequently occur ; but it is equally true that a very large majority of the 
specimens from either one of the regions indicated above are typical of 
the form characteristic of the locality. 

The Little Owl, Catesby, Carolina, 1, 1731-'48, 7, pi. 7. 
Koctiia aurita mi)wr, Catesb., /. c. 
Asio scops caroUnensis, Bkiss., Oru. I, 1760, 497. 
Le Petit Due de la Caroline, Briss., I. c. 

Strix asio, Linn., S. N. I, 1766, 132 (based on Noctua aurita minor, Catesby, Carol. I, 7. — 
Asio scops caroUnensis, Briss. I, 497).— Gmel., S. N. I, i, 1788, 287. — LATH.,Ind. 
Orn. I, 1790, .54; Gen. Hist. 1, 1821,314.— Daud., Tr. Orn. II, 1800, 216.-Siiaw, 
Gen. Zool. VII, 1809, 229.— Wils., Am. Oru. V, 1812, 83, pi. 42, fig. 1.— Temm., 
PI. Col. II, 1838, pi. 80 (gray phase).— Bonap., Ann. Lye. N.Y. II, 1826, 36 ; Synop, 
1828, 36; Isis, 1832, 1139.— Jakd., ed. Wilson, I, 1831, 307.— AuD., Orn. Biog. I, 
1832, 486 ; V, 1839, 392, pi. 97.— Nutt., Man. 1, 1832, 120.— Buewer, ed. Wilson, 
1852, 687.— Hobs., Nat. 1855, 165. 

*Scoj)s asio, Bonap., Comp. List, 1838, 6; Consp. I, 1850, 45.— Less., Traitd, I, 1831, 
107.— Kaup, Contr. Orn. 1852, 112.— Cass., Illustr. B. Cal. Tex. &e. 1854, 
179; in Baird's B.N.Am. 1858, 51.— Heerm., Pacific R. R. Rep. II, 1855, 3.5.— 
Strickl., Orn. Syn. I, 1855, 199.— Brewer, N. Am. Ool. 1857, 65.— Baird, 
Cat. N. Am. B. 1859, no. 49.— ? Schleg., Mus. P.-B. Oti, 1862, 27; Rev. Ace. 
1873, 9.— Gray, Hand-1. I, 1369, 46.— Cooper, Orn. Cal. I, 1870, 420.— Mayn., 
Naturalist's Guide, 1870, 131 (Mass.).— Coves, Key, 1872, 202; Check List, 
1873, 65, no. 318.— B. B. & R., Hist. N. An:. B. Ill, 1874, 49.— Sharpe, Cat. 
Strig. Brit. Mus. 1875, 114 {Dclatvare ; Toronto} — Ridgw., Bull. Essex Inst. 
Oct. 1874, 172 {Sacramento, Cal.) ; Orn. 40th Par. 1877, 336, 389, 518, .571 (Sa- 
cramento and Nevada, Cai.).- D'Hamondv., Ois. Eur. 1876, — {Europe). — 
Bouc, Cat. Av. 1876, 91. 

Buho asio, Vieill., Ois. Am. Sept. I, 1807, 53, pi. 21.— AuD., Synop. 1839, 29 ; Birds 
Am. I, 1840, 147, pi. 40.— DeKay, Zool.N. Y. 1844, pi. 12, figs. 25, 26.— Giraud, 
Birds L. 1. 1844, 28.— Max., J. f. 0. 18.58, 23. 

Otus asio, Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool. XIII, ii, 1826, 57.— Sculeg., Fauna Japon. 
1845, 25. 

Asio asio. Less., Man. Orn. I, 1827, 117. 

Ephialites asio, Gray, Genera B. 1, 1844, 38 ; List B. Brit. Mus. 1844, 96.— Woodh., 
Sitgreaves's Exp. 1853,62. 

Megascops asio, Kaup, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. IV, 1859, 228. 


St7-ix assio, capite auriio, corpore ferriigineo, the Utile screech oul, Bartkam, Travels, 1791, 

Bed Oivl, Penn., Arct. Zool. II, 1785, 231, pi. xi, fig. 1. 
Mottled Owl, Penn., t. c. pi. xi, fig. 2. 

Strix nana, Gmel., S. N. I, i, 1788, 289.— Lath., lud. Orn. 1, 1790, 55 ; Gen. Hist. 1, 1821, 
321.— DAUD.,Tr. Oru. II, 1800, 217.— Shaw, Geu. Zool. VII, 1809, 230.— Wils., 
Am. Orn. Ill, 1M12, IG, pi. 19, fig. 1. 
Jsio ncema. Less., Man. Orn. I, 1827, 117. — Bonap., Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1854, 543. 
Otus ncevius, Cuv., Reg. Anim. ed. 2, 1829, 241. 
Surnia jicnia, James., ed. Wils. I, 1831, 96, 99. 
Btiho siriaius, Vieill., Ois. Am. Sept. 1, 1807, 54, pi. 21. 
" Ephialites ocreata, Light., in Mus. Berol." 

" Scops asio ya.T. viaccalli", Hexshaw, Orn. Wheeler's Exp. 1874, 135 (GiZa R., Camp 
Grant, and San Pedro, Arizona) ; ib. 4to Rep. 1875,405 {Arizona and New Mexico). 

Without repeating here a detailed description of the plumages of 
this form, for which the reader is referred to the " History of North 
American Birds" (vol. iii, pp. 49-51), a few remarks concerning local 
and. geographical variations may sufiBce. The most noteworthy point 
in this connection is the apparently established fact that while this 
bird very frequently varies to bright lateritiousrufous in the East- 
ern Province of the United States (this erythrismal phase even very 
largely predominating in some localities*), it seems never to assume this 
plumage in the Western States and Territories. At the same time, 
there seems to be no difference whatever in specimens of the gray phase 
from the Atlantic States and California, as well as other of the Western 
States and Territories, if we except those districts inhabited by different 
races {i. e., kennicotti, maxivellicv, etc.). There are now before me the fol- 
lowing specimens representing the adult of this phase, belonging to my 
own collection: a pair from Nicasio, California, a male from Sacramento, 
a male from Arizona (San Pedro Eiver), a female from Southern Illinois, 
a male from the District of Columbia, and another from Virginia. Of 
these, the two California specimens and the examples from Illinois and 
Virginia are so precisely similar that were their labels taken off or inter- 
changed it would not be possible to distinguish them by colors and 
markings. The Arizona example differs solely in being of a purer ash- 
gray shade, the others being of a more brownish-gray; the Sacramento 
specimen is similar to those from Nicasio, only lighter-colored, being a 
midsummer specimen, in faded plumage, while the others were killed in 
October, and consequently in possession of the new fall dress. The 
skin from the District of Columbia differs from the others in having a 
very decided cinnamon cast to the plumage, thereby exhibiting a ten- 

* Whether the relative number of specinieus of the two phases in a given locality 
has anything to do with geographical or climatic considerations, I have not the mate- 
rial to enable me to determine. Certain it is, however, that while in the States 
bordering the Atlantic the gray phase is generally quite as common as the other, it is 
so extremely rare in the Lower Wabash Valley that I have seen there but two indi- 
viduals in the course of many years' observation, the red specimens constituting 
fully 95 per cent, of all. This has also been the experience of others whom I have 
questioned regarding the matter. 


dency toward the rufous phase; all the markings, however, are as iu the 
grayish birds. The measuremeuts of these specimens are as follows : — 


cT ad. 

K. R. 

? ad. 



d ad. 


R. R. 

d ad. 

R. R. 

? ad. 



d ad. 



d ad. 

Nicasio, Marin Couuty, Cal 


Sacramento, Cal 

San Pedro River, Arizona . 

Mount Carmel, S. Ill 

Fairfax Couuty, Virginia. . 
District of Columbia 

Mar. 2,1877 

Mar. 2, 1877 
June 21, 1867 

Oct. 4, 1873 

Oct. 7, 1876 

Nov. 4, 1876 

Dec. 7, 1874 



Three specimens iu the rufous phase, also in my collection, measure 
as follows : — 



d ad. 



d ad. 


R. R. 

9 ad. 

Mount Carmel, 111 . . . 

District of Columbia 

May 1,1869 5.90 3.20 
July 30, 1870 6. 00 3 00 
Nov. 8, 1860 6. 50 I 3. 60 

The first of these specimens inclines very decidedly, both in measure- 
ments and plumage, to var. Jioridanus ; and, in view of the fact that 
typical specimens of Ortyx virginiamis Jioridanus, Tinnunculus sparve- 
rius isahellinufi, and other Southern forms occur in the same locality, 
may be perhaps best referred to that form. 

/3. maccalli. 

Scojjs McCaUii, Cass., Illustr. B. Cal. Tex. &c. July, 1854, 180 (Texas ; Northern Mexico) ; 

in Baird's B. N. Am. 1858, 52; ib. ed. 1860, pi. xxxix (part). — Baikd, Mex. 

Bound. Survey. II, pt. iv, Birds, 1859, pi. 1; Cat. N.Am. B. Ib58, no. CO.— 

Strickl., Oru. Syn, I, 1855, 200.— Scl. & Salv., Ibis, 1859, 220.— Gray, Hand-1. 

I, 1869, 47. 
"Scops trkhopsis", Grav, Hand-1. I, 1869, 47 (Sharpe).— Scl. & Salv., Norn. 1873, 117 

(Mexico; Guatemala). 
Scops asio var. enano, "Lawr.", Ridgw., Bull. Essex Inst. V, Dec. 1873, 200 (E. Mexico; 

Guatemala); in B. B. & R., Hist. N. Am. B. Ill, 1874, 48 (do.). 
Scops enano, Bouc, Cat. Av. 1876, 91 (Mexico). 
Scops asio, subsp. y. Scops enano, Sharpe, Cat. Strig. Brit. Mus. 1875, 118 (Mexico; 

TV. Mexico).' 

Habitat. — Eastern and Northern Mexico; Guatemala; Texas (Cctssm). 

Diagnosis.— Wing, 5.60-5.90; .tail, S.lO-S.ot); culmen, .45-.50; tar- 
sus, 1.00-1.15; middle toe, .70-.75. Gray phase {adult). — Similar to the 
gray adult of S. cassini, but toes bristled, the occipital collar nearly 
obsolete, and the nuchal collar less distinct. Red phase (adult).* — 
Above dull rusty, much broken across the nape by a collar of pale ochra- 
ceous spots, the whole surface elsewhere being also more or less mortled 
with paler rusty than the ground-color, and relieved by ragged mesial 
streaks of black. Lower parts pale rufous, each feather crossed near 
the end by a wide white bar, and with two to three narrow, somewhat 
irregular lines of blackish. 

Young. \ — Above brownish-gray, transversely mottled with darker 
and paler, and tcithout dusky shaft-streaks. Below grayish-white, with 

* DueBas, Guatemala. In Mus. Stlviu & Godman. 
t Coban, Vera Paz. In Mus. Salvin «fc Godman. 


badly-defined bars of pale grayish-brown, the feathers somewhat ochra- 
ceous beneath the surface. Wings and tail as in the adult. 

Eemakks. — The gray phase of this form is exceedingly similar in gen- 
eral appearance to that of S. cassini, not only above but also on the 
lower surface. The upper parts are more coarsely mottled, however, 
and the pale bands across the lower part of the nape and occiput are 
less conspicuous, especially the latter. The rufous phase is more like 
that of ;S'. harbarns, the upper parts in particular being quite similar. 
On the lower parts, however, there is more rufous, while the black cross- 
lines are more distinct as well as more numerous. The species may be 
distinguished from all the other Mexican and Tropical American species 
(except from S. cooperi, from Costa Rica) by the distinctly bristled 
toes. In the latter feature, it agrees with >S*. asio of the United States, 
but is considerably smaller, while the red phase is very diflerent from 
the corresponding plumage of that species. It is also smaller, unless 
compared with the small race bird distinguished os \ar. JJoridanus, w:hich 
differs in colors and markings, as explained in the remarks respecting 
that form on page 113. 

The Scojjs McCalUi of Cassin seems to be the present form rather than 
what has been so called by most subsequent writers (/. e., true asio and S. 
trichopsis ?), the description corresponding exactly, while the habitat is 
nearly the same — i. c.j Texas and "Northern Mexico". 

S. McCallii is described as follows : — 

" In form and general appearance like the preceding, (>S'. asio), but 
mncli smaller ; short and robust; wing with the fourth quill longest; 
tail short, slightly curved inwards; tarsi rather long, fully covered; 
toes partially covered with long hair-like feathers. Adult. Male. — 
Much resembling in color the adult of the species immediately preced- 
ing, [i. e.j 8. asio,] but darlcer ; entire plumage above ashy brown, nearly 
every feather with a longitudinal stripe of brownish black, and with 
numerous irregular transverse lines and points of the same; under 
parts, ashy white, every feather with a longitudinal stripe of brownish 
black, and with well defined but irregular transverse lines of the same; 
flanks and sides tinged with pale fulvous; quills brown, with several 
transverse bands of pale reddish-white, assuming the form of quad- 
rangular spots on the outer webs, and pale reddish ashy on the inner 
webs; tail ashy brown, with about ten narrow transverse bands on all 
except the two central feathers, well-defined on the inner webs; scapu- 
lar feathers and some of the greater coverts of the wings, edged with 
white; bill greenish horn-color, light yellowish at the tip; irides yellow. 

" Dimensions. Total length, 7^ to 8 inches; wing, G; tail, 3 inches. 

"Had. Texas (Mr. Schott) ; Northern Mexico (Lieut. Couch). Spec. 
in Mus. Acad. Thilada., and Nat. Mus., Washington City. 

"Obs. This species very considerably resembles the adult or gray 
plumage of the Scops asio, but is uniformly much smaller and darker 


in color. The transverse lines on the under surface of the body are 
better defined and more numerous." 

In the above description, those characters which fit ^^enano^\ and not 
" tricliopsis ", I have taken the liberty to italicize. 

In the "Birds of North America" (p. 53), a rufous specimen is de- 
scribed, which renders it still more certain that Cassiu's Sco^s McCallii 
is the form which we have hitherto called '''■enano''\ The specimen 
there mentioned as in the National Museum from Florida is not this 
form, but has since been made the type of 8. asio \?iv. floridanus* 

Boston Soc. 

S. & G 


Gray ad. 
Gray ad. 
Gray ad. d". 
Eiif. ad. 
Gray juv. 
Gray ad. 


San Bernardo, Guatemala, 
V. do Fuego, Guatemala. 

Dueuas, Guatemala 

Coban, Vera Paz 



Oct. —,1862 
Jan. — , 1874 

























y. kennicottii. 

f Scops asio, Coop. & Suckl., Pacific E. E. Eep. XII, ii, 1860, 155 {Washington Terr.). — 

Lord, Naturalist in Vancouver I., II, 1866, 292. 
Scops hennicottii, Elliot, Pr. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1867, 69 ; lllustr. Birds Am. 1869, p. 
xxvii, pi. 11 (Sitka, Alaska ; March, i8G6). — Dall & Bannist., Tr. Chicago 
Acad. I, ii, 1869, 273 (do.).— Baikd, id.'Sll, pi. xxvii (do.).— Gray, Haud-1. 1, 
1869,47, no. 492.— FiNSCH,Abh. Nat. Brem. Ill, 1872, 28 (^Zasfca).— Bouc, Cat. 
Av. 1876, 91. 
Scops asio var. kennicotti, Ridgw. in Coues' Key, 1872, 203. — CouES, Check List, 
1873, 65, no. 318 a.—B. B. & E., Hist. N. Am. B., Ill, 1874, 48, 53 ("from Cohmhia 
Biver northward ; Idaho"). 
Scoi)s asio, b. kennicottii, Coues, Birds N. W. 1874, 303. 

Scops asio, fiuhs}). a. Scops kennicotti, Sharpe, Cat. Strig. Brit. Mas. 1875, 117 (Fan- 
couver I. ; " w. side Rocky Mts."). 
KennicotVs 0.wl, AucT., Z. c, 

Habitat. — The Northwest coast district, from Oregon to Sitka; Idaho ; 
Yancouver Island (Sharpe) ; British Columbia (Sharpe). 

DiAG-sosis.— Adult {S, 59,847, Sitka, Alaska, March, 186G; Ferd. 
Bischoff. Elliot's type) : — Above nmber-bown, with a slightly reddish 
cast ; feathers confusedly mottled transversely with dusky, and showing 
rounded spots of rufous, most conspicuous on the nape ; each feather 
with a conspicuous mesial, broad, ragged stripe of black, these stripes 
most conspicuous on the forehead and scapulars; outer webs of scapu- 
lars light rufous, bordered terminally with black. Wings of a more 
grayish cast than the back, but similarly variegated ; lower feathers of 
the middle and secondary wing-coverts each with a large, oval, pale 
rufous spot, covering most of the lower web. Secondaries crossed by 
six narrow, obscure bands of pale rufous ; primaries with seven, some- 
what rounded, quadrate spots of the same on the outer webs, forming 

* Since the above was put in type, I have t-een, through the coui'tesy of Dr. E. Coues, 
a series of this species collected in Southern Texas (by Mr. G. B. Sennett), and conse- 
quently the true S. maccalli. They agree exactly with typical "»s'. enano ", which fact 
therefore settles the question of the i^roper name of this form. 


as many transverse series ; each light spot with a central dusky mot- 
tling. Tail more finely and confusedly mottled than the wings ; the 
bands, though present, so indistinct as to be scarcely traceable, and so 
irregular or badly defined as to be of uncertain number. Ear-tufts black 
and rusty, the former along the shafts, and in transverse spots ; ou the 
outer webs the black predominating, ou the inner, the rusty. 

Lores and basal half of the frontal bristles white, the terminal half 
abruptly blaSk ; eyebrows about equally blackish and paler, the former 
bordering the feathers; eye surrounded by dark snuff-brown; cheeks 
and ear-coverts pale rusty, transversely barred with deeper rusty ; 
facial circle not well defined, black. Chin and lores only white. 

Ground-color of the lower parts dilute-rusty, becoming white on the 
flanks; each feather of the throat, jugulum, breast, sides, and flanks 
with a broad mesial stripe of black, this throwing oft' very narrow, 
rather distant, bars to the edge; the spaces between these bars alter- 
nately paler and deeper dilute-rusty; the black marks broadest on the 
sides of the breast, where they have an external deep rusty suffusion ; 
the abdomen medially and the anal region scarcely maculate rusty- 
white; the lower tail-coverts each with a central, cuneate, longitudinal 
stripe of black. Tibite, tarsi, and lining of the wing plain deep rusty. 
Wing-formula, 3 = 4, 5-2, 6-1 == 9. Wing, 7.40; tail, 4.00; culmen, 
.65 ; tarsus, 1.50 ; middle toe, .80, 

No. 59,068 (Idaho ; Dr. Whitehead), is considerably darker than the 
type, the groundcolor above approaching snuff-brown ; it differs, 
however, in no other respect as regards coloration ; the size (as might 
be expected) is considerably smaller, measurements being as follows: 
Wing, 6.80; tail, 3.50; culmen, .60; tarsus, 1.20; middle toe, .80. 
Wing-formula the same as in type. 

No. 4,530 (Washington Territory ; Dr. Geo. Suckley) is just interme- 
diate, in all respects, between typical Icennicotti and asio, being refer- 
able to either with equal propriety, though perhaps inclining rather 
more to the former. 

A very obvious character of this race is the smaller size, more quad- 
rate form, and more rufous color, of the spots ou the primaries, and the 
greater indistinctness of the bauds on the tail ; but this is merely in 
consequence of the greater extension of the brown markings, thus 
necessarily contracting the lighter spots. In these respects only, does 
the Washington Territory specimen differ from the two typical examples 
before me, having the larger, more whitish spots on the primaries, and 
more distinct bauds on the tail, as in asio. 

There is a wonderfully close resemblance in general aspect between 
this form of Scops asio and 8. semitorqiies (Schleg.) of Japan, caused by 
the exceeding similarity in size, form, and coloration, both as regards 
tints and pattern. Indeed, the only very obvious difference consists 
in the distinctly white jugulum and well-defined lighter occipital and 
nuchal collars of semitorques, which has also the pencillings of the 


lower surface niirrower or more delicate. The differences between the 
two may be tabuhited as follows : — 

S. SEMITORQUES.* — A Well-defined nuchal collar, of mottled pale 
ochraceous; jugulutn immaculate white centrally. Feathers of the 
lower parts with their transverse pencillings growing fainter toward 
the middle line, which is unvariegated white from the central jugular 
spot to the anal region. Wing, 6.60-7.25 ; tail, 3.60-3.85 ; culraen, .60; 
tarsus, 1.25-1.40; middle toe, .80-90. Hah., Japan. 

S. KENNIOOTTI. — No Well-defined nuchal band ; jugulum closely 
barred centrally ; feathers of the lower parts with their transverse 
pencillings not growing fainter toward the middle line, which is unva- 
riegated white only on the abdominal portion ; the medial black streaks 
to the feathers of tbe lower surface much broader, and transverse pen- 
cillings rather coarser. Wing, 6.90-7.30 ; tail, 3.50-4.50 ; culmen, .60- 
.65; tarsus, 1.35-1.45 ; middle toe, .80-.90. ^a6., North Pacific coast of 
North America from Sitka to Washington Territory, and Western Idaho. 

6. jioridanus. 

" Scops asio", Allen, Bull. M. C. Z. II, 1871, 338. 

Scojis asio var. Jioridanus, Ridgw., Bull. Essex Inst. V, Dec. 1873, 200 {Indian E., Flo- 
rida) ; in B. B. & R., Hist. N. Am. B. Ill, 1 874, 48, 51. 

Scops asio, subsp. /3. Scops floridanus, Shakpe, Cat. Strig. Brit. Mas. 1875, 118. 

Scops floridanus, Bouc, Cat. Av. 1876, 91. 

Rabitat. — Florida and Lower Georgia. 

Diagnosis. — Similar to var. asio, but much smaller, and the colors 
deeper. The gray stage very similar to that of var. asio, but the red 
phase very appreciably different, there being a greater amount of rufous 
on the lower parts, the breast nearly uniformly colored, and the rufous 
broken elsewhere into transverse broad bars, connected along the shaft. 
Wing, 5.50-6.00; tail, 2.75-3.10. 

This extreme Southern form is much smaller than the more Northern 
ones, being about the same in size as S. maccalli of Guatemala and East- 
ern Mexico, and S. cassitii, also from the latter country. The colors are 
also darker and richer. 

In the collection of the National Museum are two specimens of this 
race, one in each phase of plumage. The red one (No. 5,857, Indian 
River) measures, wing, 5.50; tail, 2.70; culmen, .55; tarsus, 1.05; mid- 
dle toe, .65. The colors are much darker than those of Northern and 
Western specimens; the rufous of the neck, all round, shows indistinct, 
darker, transverse bars ; the black border to the white scapular spots 
is restricted to the tip of the feathers; the inner webs of the ear-tuft 
feathers are scarcely paler than the outer; the neck and face are deeper 
rufous, while on the lower parts this color predominates, and is disposed 
chiefly in transverse rays ; and the tibise and tarsi are plain rufous. 
Only the middle of the abdomen and the anal region are pure white. 

* Otus semitorques, Schleg., Fauna Japon. Aves, 1845, 25, pi. 8. 

Scops seviitorqties, Bonap., Consp.1,1850,46.— Sharpe, Cat. Strig. Brit. Mus. 1875,83. 

Proc. Nat. Mus. 78 8 August 15, 1878. 


£. maxwellke. 

"Scops asio", EiDGW., Bull. Essex lust. Nov. 1873, 1P5 (Colorado). 

Scops asio, e. maxwelUa', RiDGW., Field aud Forest, June, 1877, 210, 213 (Boulder Co., Colo- 
rado; resident; breeding). 
Mrs. MaxiveU's Owl, Ridgw., /. c. 

Habitat. — Mouutaius of Colorado (Boulder Co.; resident aud breed- 
ing ; Mrs. Maxwell). 

Diagnosis. — Ground-color above pale gray or gray isb -brown, relieved 
by the usual ragged mesial streaks of black, and irregular mottliugs 
and vermiculations of lighter and darker shades. The groundcolor, how- 
ever, never inclining strongly to reddish, and not darker in shade than 
a very light ash-gray or brown. The white spots on outer webs of the 
primaries frequently confluent, the darker spots, in extreme cases, being 
hardly visible on the basal portion of the quills when the wing is closed. 
Face grayish-white, with faint vermiculations of darker grayish. No 
rusty gular collar, but in its stead sparse, narrow bars of brown or 
rusty on a white ground. Wing, G.80-6.90; tail, 3.90-4.10; culmen, .60; 
tarsus, 1.45-1.50; middle toe, .80-.85. 

The characteristics of this form are remarkably constant, a series of 
a dozen or more specimens affording no instance of notable variation. 


fScops tricliopsis, Wagl., Isis, 1832, 276 (Mexico).— BoissAV., Consp. I, 1850, 46.— 
Strickl., Oru. Syn. I, 185.5, 201.— Salvin, Ibis, 1874, 314.— Bouc, Cat. Av. 
1876, 91 (Mexico). 
Ephialites trichojisis. Gray, Genera B. I, 1844, 38. 
Megascops irichopsis, Kaup, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. IV, 1862, 227. 
Asio trichopsis, Bonap., Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1854, 543. 

Scops asio, subsp. 6. Scops tricliopsis, Sharpe, Cat. Strig. Brit. Mus. 1874, 119 (W. 
"Ephialites choliha", Lawr., Ann. Lye. N. Y. VI, 1853, 4 (nee Vieill.). 
Scops asio yur. maccalli,(JouES, Key , 1872,203; Check List, 1873, 65, no. 318 ft.— Ridgw., 
in B. B. & R. Ill, 1874, 49, 52. 

Habitat. — Western Mexico, and the extreme southwestern portion of 
the United States (Texas; Cassin. New Mexico; Nat. Mns. Stockton, 
Cal.; Mus. G. N. Latvrence.) 

Diagnosis.— J.c7tt/^ (No. 9,147, New Mexico, Feb. 10, 1854; Kennerly 
and Mollhauseu) : — Above light ash-gray, minutely vermiculated with 
dusky and grayish-white, each feather with a distinct mesial stripe of 
blackish, showing in strong relief ; these stripes broadest on the fore- 
head. Outer webs of the exterior row of scapulars white, without 
black terminal borders ; outer webs of two or three lower, middle, and 
greater wing-coverts also white ; outer webs of primaries marked with 
transverse series of white spots, these forming about eight bands across 
the larger quills. Tail crossed by about eight narrow, pale bands. Ear- 
coverts, cheeks, throat, and jugulum finely and uniformly barred trans- 
versely, or vermiculated, with dusky and grayish-white; the facial 
circle interrupted across the throat, where, in its place, is a series of 


longitudinal, black dashes. Lower parts grayish- white, with numerous, 
very narrow, transverse bars of dusky, each feather with a mesial 
stripe of black, these stripes forming on the breast conspicuous spots; 
tibite and tarsi dull soiled-white, spotted with dark brown ; crissum 
immaculate white. Wing, G.50; tail, 3.30; culmen, .55 ; tarsus, 1.15 ; 
middle toe, .70. 

Young, in down, hut nearly full-grown (No. 10,932, Cape St. Lucas, 
Lower California ; J. Xantus) : — Remiges and rectrices as in the adult. 
Eest of the plumage, above and below, including the head, narrowly 
barred with dusky and grayish-white, the former predominating above, 
the latter prevailing below ; eyebrows and lores white ; wing-coverts 
finely mottled transversely with dusky and white, the latter forming 
spots on the lower feathers ; tibiae and tarsi with numerous dusky bars. 

Remarks. — An adult from Stockton, California (E. S. Holden), kindly 
loaned me by Mr. Geo. N. Lawrence, and the only United States example, 
besides the one described above, that I have seen, differs from the 
specimen from New Mexico in having the general tint of the plumage 
rather more brownish, and the mesial blackish streaks of the upper parts 
less distinct. It measures, wing, 0.20 ; tail, 3.10. 

The form of Scops-owl represented by the specimens described above, 
as well as by those from which Mr. Sharpe's descriptions are drawn, is 
certainly to be distinguished from the several styles of S. asio treated 
in the foregoing pages; but whether it is a distinct species, or merely 
another geographical race of asio, cannot be decided without additional 
material. For the present, however, I keep it separate, on account of 
the different pattern of the markings on the lower plumage, which in 
S. asio is exactly the same in all the several races. 

There is also considerable doubt as to the name this form should bear. 
Wagler {I. c.) describes an owl from Mexico which may be this bird, 
but the only pertinent character which I am able to glean from his 
description is that the toes are bristled ; it is, therefore, either this bird 
or one of the forms of asio ; but in identifying the Scops trichopsis of 
Wagler with the bird under consideration, I merely adopt the determi- 
nation of that name as made by Messrs. Sclater and Salvin, and, sub- 
sequently, by Mr. Sharpe. 

That this is the bird which Mr. Sharpe describes as Scojjs asio, "snbsp. 
d. Scops trichopsis'''' [l. c), there can be no doubt, his description fitting 
perfectly the example described above, while his additional remarks 
on pp. 120, 121, show that he fully appreciated the character of the 
diflereuces between it and true asio. We transcribe Mr. Sharpe's 
remarks : — 

" Ohs. This is a small race of S. Icennicotti [qu. lapsus calam. for 
asio f] ; but, as far as can be determined, it has only a grey phase and 
no brown one. Its measurements distinguish it at once ; and it may 
also be told by its narrowly barred under surface, every feather being- 
streaked with black, and barred with the same, from the chin to the 


lower abdomen and flanks. It is larger than Scops enano [i. e., maccalUl 
and differs from that bird also in not having a rufous phase; the cross- 
barring of the under surface in the latter is of the same character in 
8. enano as in 8. asio : that is to say, the bars are often double, whereas 
in 8. trichoims they are single and very distinct." 

The specimens in the British Museum, two in number, are both from 
Western Mexico; and it would seem that the species is mainly confined 
to the Pacific slope of that country, though ranging sparingly into the 
Southwestern United States, where, however, true 8. asio is much 

more common. 


Scops coopp.ri, Ridgway, MS. 

Habitat. — Costa Rica. 

gp. cH. — Very similar to the grayish style of 8. brasilianus, but with 
he toes very distinctly bristled. 

9 ad. (No. 74,207, Santa Ana, Costa Rica, Sept. 4, 1875, Jos6 C. Zele- 
don) : — Above grayish umber-brown, very finely vermiculated with 
dusky, the feathers of the pileum and back having mesial, chain-like 
streaks of blackish ; outer webs of exterior scapulars somewhat varied 
with white spotting; outer webs of primaries marked with quadrate 
spots of pale fulvous, bordered with blackish, there being about ten of 
these spots on the longest quill (the filth); tail crossed with narrow 
bauds of the same color, likewise bordered with a narrower dusky bar, 
these light bands about 10-1.'? in number. Face brownish- white, finely 
but distinctly barred with dusk^ brown ; superciliary region lighter and 
more coarsely mottled ; face bordered laterally or posteriorly by a distinct 
narrow band of dusky spots. Lower parts white, densely marked with 
blackish and umber-brown zigzags, imparting a light brownish apj)ear- 
ance to the whole surface ; feathers of the tibia? and tarsi light rusty- 
umber, thickly barred with deeper brown. " Iris lemon-yellow ; cere, 
bill and feet, yellowish green." Wing, 7.00; tail, 3.75; culmen, .02; 
tarsus, 1.25 ; middle toe, 1.00. 

9 juv. (No. 74,552, San Jos6, Costa Rica, May 10, 1866 ; Jose C. Zele- 
don) : — Toes distinctly bristled, excepting on the two or three terminal scu- 
tellfe. General color above light grayish-brown, relieved by very minute 
and ratlier indistinct, transverse vermiculations of dusky, and larger, but 
still inconspicuous, transverse marks of white, these larger and more 
obvious on the lower webs of the middle wing-coverts. Remiges and 
rectrices pale grayish-brown, minutely vermiculated with dusky, and 
distinctly banded with pale reddish-fulvous (color of sulphate of man- 
ganese). Lower parts dirty- whitish, crossed everyicliere with transverse 
vermiculations, or ragged, narrow lines of dusky, stiongly suffused with 
brownish across the jugulum, where the vermiculations are minute and 
confused ; flanks and crissum with the bars broad and distinct, the inter- 
spaces nearly pure white, and wider than the mottled-brownish bars. 
Bill pale horn-color, yellowish at the end; "iris yellow"; claws very 


pale born-color, darker terminally. Culuien, .60; tarsus, 1.30; middle 
toe, .88* 

Eemarks. — It is very difficult to express, by a mere description, the 
points of difference in coloration between this new species and thegrayish 
phase of Scojys hrasiUanns. Specimens of the latter, collected in Costa 
Kica, by Mr. Zeledou, are hardly appreciably different at a casual glance. 
Upon close comparison, however, it may readily be seen that the lower 
parts of S. cooperi are much more densely vermiculated,t the legs much 
more rufescent and more distinctly barred, the white variegation of the 
outer scapulars far less conspicuous, and the light bars on the remiges 
and rectrices narrower and more numerous. Compared with one of these 
specimens of S. hrasiUamts, having the wing the same length (7.00 
inches), it is found that the tail of IS. cooperi is much shorter, its length 
being only 3.75 instead of 4.25; this shortness of the tail in the present 
species causes the legs to appear proportionately longer, the claws reach- 
ing considerably beyond the end of the tail, while in >S'. brasiUanus they 
do not reach to within half an inch of the tip. This greater elongation 
of the legs is not merely apparent, however, the tarsi being absolutely 
longer and the toes both longer and stouter ; the claws in particular are 
decidedly stronger than in IS. brasiUanus. 

It is not necessary, however, to make a minute comparison of 
markings and proportions in order to distinguish between these two 
species, the single character of the toes, being strongly bristled in 8. 
cooperi and absolutely naked in 8. brasiUanus, being sufficient for the 
purpose. 8. cooperi is, moreover, the only bristly-toed member of this 
genus found south of Guatemala, so there is no need of confounding it 
with any other species of the same group. 

I have named this species, at the request of Mr. Zeledon, the collector 
of the type-specimens, after Mr. Juan Cooper, of Cartago, Costa Rica, 
a particular friend of his, to whom he is much indebted for many inter- 
esting contributions to his collections. 

* Being a very young bird, and the remiges and rectrices but partly develoj)ed, 
measurements of the wing and tail would of course be of no value. 

tNot more so, however, than in some specimens typical of the var. (juatemalw, 



By JAIWES C. MERBIE/L., Assistant Surgeon U. S. Army. 

The post of Fort Brown, Texas, iu tbe immediate vicinity of which 
most of the following observations were made, is at the extreme 
southern point of the State, in latitude 25° 53' IG", longitude 97° 
13'. It adjoins the town of Brownsville, on the left bank of the Rio 
Grande, and across the river is Matamoras, in the Mexican State of 
Tamaulipas. The nearest part of the Gulf coast is about eighteen miles 
distant. The surrounding country is level, and mostly covered with 
low chaparral; towards the coast this becomes more sparse, and gives 
place to extensive prairies, broken by shallow, brackish lagoons and 
sand ridges, with a scanty growth of cactus and yucca. The average 
annual temperature is about 73° Fahrenheit; snow and ice are unknown, 
and slight frosts are rare. But little rain falls from March to Septem- 
ber. This region offers an excellent field for the ornithologist. Besides 
a very large number of northern migrants that either remain throughout 
the winter or pass farther south, there are many forms characteristic of 
the river valley, and other Mexican species, either regular summer vis- 
itors or stragglers that are new to the United States fauna. A number 
of the latter class were obtained within our limits for the first time,* and 
others by Mr. G. B. Sennett; but there are doubtless many more yet to be 

Of the localities mentioned in this list, Brazos and Padre Islands are 
the parts of the Gulf coast nearest the fort; they are long, narrow sand 
ridges, almost destitute of vegetation. A similar formation is seen in 
the outer beach on the south shore of Long Island. Santa Maria and 
Edinburgh (now Hidalgo) are on the river, about twenty-eight and sixty 
miles respectively above the Ibrt by road. Here the character of the 
country changes; the trees are much higher, and near the last-named 
settlement the laud begins to rise. The avifauna, too, is somewhat dif- 
ferent, and three species J in particular stop abrujjtly there. As a matter 
of local interest, an asterisk is prefixed to those species that are known 
to breed within the limits of the fort and government reservation. 

* Thryothorus ludovicianus var. berlandiet-i, Vireosylvia flavoviridis, Cyanospiza versicolor, 
Myiarchus erythrocercm var. cooperi, Amazilia fuscicaiidata, J. yucatajiensis, Nyctidromus 
albicolUs, Sturnella magna var. viexicana, Moloilwus aneus, Buteo alblcaudatus, Parra 
(jymnostoma, aud Podiceps dominicus. 

t Several species of Parrots are found about Vittoria, ninety miles south of Fort 
Brown, gome of which must occasionally cross the Rio Grande. During the summer 
of 1877, two specimens of a Trogon were killed north of the river, one near Ringgold 
Barracks, the second at Las Cuevas, some miles lower down. They were described 
to me by the persons who shot them, but unfortunately they were not preserved. [Un- 
doubtedly T. ainhiyuus, Gould. — R. R.] 

tCamprjlorhynclius hrmineicapiJlKs, Juriparus flaviceiis, and CaUipepla sqitamata. 


I desire to express my indebtedness to Dr. T. M. Brewer and Mr. E. 
Ridgway for their assistance in many ways, and for their notes, which 
add so much to the value of the present paper. 

1. Turdus fuscescens, Stephens. 
January 1, 1877. 

2. Turdus migratorius, Linn. 

Occurs rather sparingly during the winter months. — (Dresser, Ibis, 


3. *Harporhyiichus rufus vat: longirostris, ( 

This fine songster is a common resident, frequenting shady thickets 
and rarely seen in the open. In habits, it scarcely differs from the 
Eastern var. rufus, and the large number of nests found here were quite 
as well built as those found in New England. The usual number of 
eggs is three, often two, more rarely four: the groundcolor varies from 
greenish to reddish-white, more or less thickly sprinkled with reddish 
and brownish dots and spots. One set is sparingly covered with large 
clouded blotches, giving the eggs an appearance unusual in this genus. 
Fifty-two eggs average 1.08 by .82, the extremes being 1.13 by .86 and 
.97 by .75. In some adult specimens, there is a decided tendency to 
whitish tips to the outer tail-feathers, as in var. rufus.— {R. rufus longi- 
rostris, Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 3.) 

4. *Harporhynchu8 curvirostris, (Swains.) 

This Thrush is about as common as the preceding species, and is resi- 
dent. They are not often seen together, however, as this bird prefers 
more open and sunny localities, especially sparse chaparral, where the 
prickly pear grows. Here it passes much of its time on the ground, run- 
ning rapidly about in search of small land-shells and insects, I cannot 
confirm the praises of the song of this bird given by Couch and Heer- 
mann : it seems to me to be one of the most silent of the song Thrushes. 
Its alarm note is a sharp ivhit-iohit. The nests are usually placed among 
the fleshy joints of the prickly jiear, or in some of the many thorny and 
almost impenetrable bushes found in Southern Texas : they are often 
seen in the dense prickly hedges that surround most Mexican jacals. 
Tbey are, as a rule, readily distinguishable from those of the Texas 
Thrasher and Mocking-bird by the almost invariable lining of yellow 
straws, giving a peculiar appearance to the nest. They are also more 
compactly built, are well cupped, and often have the edges well guarded 
by thorny twigs. The eggs are usually four iu number : the ground- 
color is a deep greenish-blue (more rarely pale yellowish), rather sparsely 
sprinkled over the entire surface with very fine brown dots. They 
average 1.13 x .80: extremes 1.18 x .83 and .94 x .72. — (Dresser, Ibis, 
1865, 482.— Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 4.) 

5. *Mimus polyglottus, (Linn.) 

A very common resident. By the 20th of May, many pairs have eggs 


of tbe second brood.— (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 481.— Sennett, B. Rio 
Grande, 3.) 

6. Galeoscoptes carolinensis, (Liun.) 

A few seen during the migrations : some pass the winter here. 

7. Sialia sialis, (Lino.) 

Uncommon. Two pairs, seen at Edinburgh in Maj', 1876, were un- 
doubtedly breeding. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 475. — Sennett, B. Rio 
Grande, 6.) 

8. Regulus calendula, (Linn.) 

Found in some abundance from November to March. — (Dresser, Ibis, 
1805, 470.) 

9. Polioptila c^rulea, (Liuu.) 

Abundant during the migrations, a few passing the winter and a con 
siderable number remaining to breed. A nest taken April 24, 1877, was 
placed on a dead lichen-covered branch of an ebony-bush about six feet 
from the ground.. It was supported by three upright twigs, and was 
so well concealed that I did not notice it till the female flew off, though 
I had been standing with my head within a foot of it. It contained five 
eggs that would have hatched within a few days. — (Dresser, Ibis, 
1865, 485.— Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 6.) 

10. * Lophophanes atricristatus, Cassin. 

A common resident. The usual notes of the species are like those of 
the Eastern Chickadee : it has, in addition, a loud whistling song, much 
like that of the Cardinal. A nest found near Edinburgh, April 26, 
1876, was in a decayed branch, about fifteen feet Irom the ground, and 
contained six nearly fledged young : the males had well-developed 
crests. The nest proper was composed of various soft materials like that 
of Pariis atricapillus. About four weeks later, the same pair were mak- 
ing preparations for a second brood in an old Picns scalaris excavation 
just above my tent, but I was obliged to leave before any eggs were 
laid. A nest found about the middle of May of the following year was, 
I am confident, of this species. It was in a vertical hole in a stump, 
enabling the five eggs to be plainly seen : these seemed somewhat 
larger than eggs of P. atricainUus, but otherwise were similar. An the 
parents were not seen, I left, intending to return in a short time, but 
was prevented from doing so for several days, when the eggs had been 
destroyed by some animal. Another nest, found April 18, 1878, was 
placed in a deep crack in the trunk of a tree : it contained several 
young.- (Dresser, Il)is, 1865, 485.— Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 6.) 

Note, — A.n unidentified egg from Matamoras, but not distinguishable 
from one identified by Mr. Sennett as of this species, measures .62 by 
.48, is of an oval shape, has a white ground finely sprinkled over with 
purplish-brown dots. These are more abundant about the larger end, 
and form a ring around the latter. Fine, indistinct shell markings give 
a purplish cast to the ground, which is, however, of a pure white, — T. M. B, 


11. Auiiparus flaviceps, (Sund.) 

I have not observed this species iu the immediate vicinity of Fort 
Brown, but it was rather common at Edinburgh in April and May, fre- 
quenting mostly amargosa chaparral. Several of its curious nests were 
found placed on horizontal branches of ebony and amargosa bushes 
about five feet from the ground. The outside w^as cou)posed of thorny 
twigs well interlaced: the inside was warmly lined with fur and feath- 
ers. The entrance was at one side, barely large enough to admit the 
bird, and somewhat projecting, giving the entire nest an oval shape. 
The birds were excessively shy, and were obtained with difficulty. — (Sen- 
NETT, B. Rio Grande, 6.) 

12. * Thryothorus ludovicianus rar. berlandieri, Conch. 

A rather common resident, and Ibund in ail situations. Its song and 
habits are probably not diflerent from those of the Great Carolina Wren. 
Although several pairs breed each year within the fort, I did not succeed 
in finding their nests, which I think were placed in some thick brush 
piles and lences. At least two broods are raised, and the scarcely 
fledged young show the characteristic rufous of the under parts. A 
set of four eggs of this variety now before me, taken near Edinburgh in 
an old Woodpecker's excavation, average .73 X .54. In three, the ground- 
color is white with a reddish tinge, thickly dotted with reddish and pale 
lilac, especially at the larger end. The fourth has the ground color a 
warm reddish, like many eggs of the House Wren. A young brood fre- 
quented a pile of brush near camp at Edinburgh : they were very tame, 
coming into my tent and examining its contents with the greatest inter- 
est, not minding my presence in the least. The notes are loud and 
varied, but I am not able to say how much they may differ from those 
of var. ludomcianus. — {T. ludovicianus berlandieri, Sennett, B. Rio 
Grande, 8.) 

13. *Thryomanes bewicki rar. leucogaster, Baird. 

Thryothorus hewicki, Sch.,F. Z. S. 1659,372 (Oaxaca) ; Catal. 1861,22, No. 141 
(part).— SCL. As SALV.,Nom. Neotr. 1873, 7, No. 11 (Mexico).— CouES & 
Sennett, Bull. U. S. Geol. aud Geog. Survey Terr. vol. iv, No. 1, Feb. 1878, 
9 (Brownsville and Hidalgo, Texas).* 

Thryothorus heu-icki var. leucogaster, Baird, Keview, 1864 127 (Sau Autonio 
and Ringgold Barracks, Texas ; Sta. Rosalia, Tamaulipas, aud New Leon, 

* Mr. Sennett's specimens having been compared with the extensive series, embrac- 
ing the several races of this species, in the National Museum collection, prove to be 
the var. leucogaster of Baird, and not the true bewicki. The National Museum ])ossesses 
two specimens of the latter from Waller County and Brazos, Texas, but none from the 
Rio Grande, where probably only the var. leucogaster occurs, while it also probably 
does not penetrate farther into the State. The two specimens of true bewicki alluded 
to above were captured December 13 aud 14, 1876, aud were perhaps merely winter 
visitors. They are absolutely typical of the race, and, when compared with Mr. Sen- 
nett's specimens, the great difference in coloring is at once apparent. — R. R. 


A common resident about Fort Brown, but fifty or sixty miles higher 
up the river it becomes less abundant. Few birds have a greater vari- 
ety of notes than this species, and I have frequently been led by a 
strange song through dense chaparral only to find this little bird 
perched upon tbe topmost twig of an amargosa bush apparently enjoy- 
ing my disappointment. Their principal song is much like that of the 
Song Sparrow, but sweeter. It probably raises three broods, as I have 
seen it leading fully fledged young as early as March 27. Its nests are 
placed in a variety of situations. I have found them in an old Wood- 
pecker's nest, placed between three or four joints of the prickly pear, 
forming a bulky structure, and among the twigs of various dense 
thorny bushes. A set of six eggs, now before me, average .G8 x .50, 
I have no eggs of var. bewicJcli at hand with which to compare them. 
A second set of five, taken on the 2d of May from a nest among the 
joints of a cactus, are smaller than the preceding, averaging .02 x .50 ; 
the markings are much fainter and finer, and the two sets are quite 
different in appearance. Three other sets taken subsequently vary 
greatly in size and markings. In some, the latter are very fine and in 
conspicuous; in others, there are heavy markings of reddish and lilac. 
Thirty eggs average .63 by .45, the extremes being .70 by .52 and .60 
by .46. 

Note, — The eggs of T. leucogaster, as compared with those of hewicki 
and spilurus, exhibit many points in common, and do not vary more than 
the eggs of the same species are often found to differ. Nine eggs of 
the Texan form, leucogaster, are, in size, a trifle the largest, and all of 
them are much more deeply marked with larger and more confluent 
blotches of reddish-brown. In size, six eggs of hewicki, from Mount 
Carmel, III,, collected by Mr. Ridgway, are not quite equal to leucogaster 
and a little less strongly marked, the spots being nowhere confluent. 
Five eggs of spilurus from California are still less in size, and their 
markings are smaller, fewer, and of a lighter color, one being of an 
almost immaculate white, — T. M. B. 

14. Troglodytes aedon, Vieill. 

Rather uncommon during the winter months. 

15. Troglodytes aedon rar. parkmanni.Aud. 

A single specimen of this variety was taken in the autumn of 1877. 

16. Telmatodytes palustris, (Wils.) 
One obtained December 16, 1876. 

17. Anthus ludovicianus, (Gmel.) 

Very abundant from October to March. I have seen a few as late as 
April 28.— (Deesser, Ibis, 1865, 476.) 

18. Mniotilta varia, (Linn.) 

Common during the migrations; a good many pass the winter. — 
(Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 476.) 


19. Helmiiithophaga chrysoptera, (Linn.) 

Several specimens taken in the spring. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 478.) 

20. Helminthophaga pinus, (Liuu.) 

One specimen taken at Edinburgh (Hidalgo) in May. 

21. Helminthophaga ruficapilla, (Wils.) 

A male obtained in April approaches the supposed " var. ocularis " in 
the restriction of the yellow of throat. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 478. — 
Sennett, B. Kio Grande, 12.) 

22. Helminthophaga aetata, (Say.) 

Rather common during the colder months. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 
478. — Sennett, B. Eio Grande, 12.) 

23. Helminthophaga peregrina, (Wils.) 
Less common thau the preceding. 

24. Parula americana, (Linu.) 

Occurs during the migrations. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 476.— Sen- 
nett, B. Rio Graude, 11.) 

25. Parula nigrilora, Coues. 

Arrives about the third week in March, and passes the summer among 
thick woods and near the edges of lagoons where there is Spanish moss. 
Here they are quite common, and their song is constantly heard. A nest 
found July 5, 1877, was in a small bunch of the moss about eight feet 
from the ground: with the exception of four or five horse-hairs, there 
was no liniug. It contained three young. — (Coues & Sennett, Bull. 
U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr. vol. iv, Feb. 5, 1878, 11.) 

26. Dendroeca aestiva, (Gmel.) 

Not uncommon during the migrations. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 478.) 

27. Dendroeca coronata, (Linu. ) 

This is perhaps the most common of the winter residents, and is found 
in the greatest abundance from the latter part of October to April. 
About the latter part of March, there is an arrival of males from the 
south in nearly full breeding plumage. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 478. — 
Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 13.) 

28. DendrcBca maculosa, (Gmel.) 

Rather rare in the spring. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 478.) 

29. Dendroeca blackburniae, (Gmel.) 

A female taken May 3 nt Edinburgh.— (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 478.) 

30. Dendroeca dominica rar. albilora, Ridg. 

One of the first migrants to return in the autumn, when it is not rare. 


A few pass the winter. — {D. svperciliosa, Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 478. — D. 
dominica albilora, Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 13.) 

31. DendrcBca pennsylvanica, (Linn.) 
Several seen in April and May. 

32. Dendroeca striata, (Forst.) 

A single specimen taken in August. 

33. DendrcEca castauea, (Wils.) 

Not rare in the spring migration. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 478,) 

34. Dendrceca virens, (Gmel.) 

Taken in May and November. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 477. — Sen- 
nett, B. Rio Grande, 13.) 

35. Siurus naevius, (Bodd.) 

Rather common in the spring and fall. — (S. novehoracensis, Dresser, 
Ibis, 1805, 477.) 

36. Siurrs motacilla, (Vieill.) 

Marcli 31, 1877.— (Sennett, B. Eio Grande, 13.) 

37. * Geothlypis trichas, (Liuu.) 

Found throughout the year. Summer birds approach var. melanops, 
and are perhaps referable to that variety. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 476.) 

38. Geothlypis Philadelphia, (Wils.) 

A female taken within the fort on September 7, 1877. — (Dresser, 
Ibis, 1865, 476.) 

39. *Icteria virens, (Linn.) 

A common summer resident, arriving at Fort Brown about March 26. 
Here it is much more common than higher up the river. Individuals 
breeding in Southern Texas are decidedly smaller than those taken in 
New England, bearing about the same relation to them that Icterus var. 
affinis does to var. spurius. Thirty-three eggs average .87 x .64. — (Sen- 
nett, B. Rio Grande, 13.) 

40. Myiodioctes mitratus, (Gmel.) 

Several specimens taken in April, 1876. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 478.) 

41. Myiodioctes pusillus, (Wils.) 

Abundant during the migrations, returning in autumn about the 10th 
of August. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 478.) 

42. Myiodioctes canadensis, (Linn.) 

May 2, 1877.— (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 478.) 

43. Setophaga ruticilla, (Linn.) 

Not rare iu spring and fall.— (Dresser, Ibis, 1865. 479.— Sennett, 
B. Rio Grande, 14.) 


44. Progne subis, (Linn.) 

Occurs during the migrations. I have seen them as early as Janu- 
ary 2i).—{F. purpurea. Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 479.) 

45. Petrochelidon lunifroiis, (Say.) 

Very common from early in April until the latter part of August. It 
is one of the most abundant of the summer visitors, and is the only Swal- 
low that breeds here. I have not been able to detect P. swainsoni, Scl., 
of Mexico. — (Sennett,B. Rio Grande, 15. — Hirwndo /., Dresser, Ibis, 
1865, 479.) 

46. Hirundo erytlirogaster var. horreorum, Barton. 

The latest Swallow to arrive in the spring and the earliest to return 
in the autumn ; first seen about April 12, or earlier, and August 9. — 
{R. horreorum, Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 479. — Sennett, B. Kio Grande, 15.) 

47. Tachycineta bicolor, (Vieill.) 

Common during the migrations. Some of this species must pass the 
winter at no great distance from here, as I have frequently seen small 
flocks in November, December, and January, after a few warm days. — 
(Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 15.) 

48. Cotyle riparia, (Linn.) 

Not rare during the migrations. One of the latest Swallows to return 
in the autumn. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 479.) 

49. Vireosylvia olivacea, (Linn.) 

May. — ( Vireo o.. Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 480. — Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 

50. Vireosylvia flavoviridis, Cassiu. 

Vireosylvia flavoviridis, Cassin, Pr. Phila. Acad. V, Feb. 1851, 152 ; VI, pi. ii 
(Panama).— Scl., P. Z. S. 1656, 298 (Cordova); 1859, 375 (Oaxaca ; 
April); Catal. 1862, 44, No. 264 (Guatemala).— SCL & Salv., Ibis, I, 
1859, 12 (Guai emalal ; Nom. Neotr. 1873, 11, No. 3 (Mexico to Panama).— 
Baird, Review, May, 1866, 336 (Monterey, Mazatlan, and Eosario, near 
Colima, Mexico ; San Jos^, Costa Rica ; Isth. Panama). — Sumichrast, 
Mem. Boston Soc. I, 1869, 547 (Orizaba ; Alpine Reg.).— Boucard, Cat. 
1876, 215, No. 6665 (" N. America ")• 
Vireo flavoviridis, Baird, B. N. Am. 1658, 332. 
Phyllomanes flavoviridis, Caban., Journ. 1861, 93 (Costa Rica). 

A single specimen, a male, taken within the fort, August 23, 1877. 

51. Vireosylvia gilva, (Vieill.) 

October 2, 1877. — {Vireo gilvus, Dresser, Ibis, 1865,480.) 

52. Lanivireo solitarius, (Wils.) 

August 23, 1S17.— {Vireo s., Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 481.) 

53. *Vireo uoveboracensis, (Gmel.) 

A common resident, breeding abundantly. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865,, 
481.— Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 16.) 


54. Vireo belli, Aud. 

A single specimen taken.— (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 481.— Sennett, B. 
Eio Grande, 16.) 

55. Ampelis cedrorum, (Vieill.) 

Seen in small flocks during the migrations ; doubtless pass the winter 
here.— (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 480.— Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 16.) 

56. Collurio ludovicianus rar. excubitoroides, (SwaiDS.) 

Abundant from about the first of September until April. I do not 
think that any remain to breed. — (C ludovicianus excuhitorides, Sen- 
nett, B, Rio Grande, W.—Collwio ludovicianus, Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 


57. *Pyranga eestiva, (Gmel.) 

Not rare during the migrajtions ; a few remain here all summer. — 
(Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 479.— Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 14.) 

58. Chrysomitris tristis, (Linn.) 

Not rare during the winter months. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 479.) 

59. Passerculus savanna rai: alaudinus, Bon. 

February. — (P. alaudinus, Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 487.) 

60. Pooecetes gramineus rar. confinis, Baird. 

Spring and autumn. — (P. gramineus, Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 487 — P. 
gramineus confinis, Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 17.) 

61. Coturniculus passerinus, (Wils.) 
January. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 487.) 

62. Chondestes grammica, (Say.) 

This species is most abundant during the migrations in April and 
September ; but a tew pass the winter, and some remain to breed. In 
this vicinity, they appear to build indifferently on the ground or in 
bushes. When in the latter situation, the nest externally is rather 
bulky, but is neatly finished inside with hairs and rootlets. — (Dresser, 
Ibis, 1865, 488 —Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 19.) 

63. Zonotrichia leucophrys, (Forst.) 

Abundant during the colder months. — (Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 19.) 

64. Zonotrichia intermedia, Ridg. 

This variety seems to be about as common during winter as the pre- 
ceding. — [Z.gambeli, Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 488.) 

65. Zonotrichia albicollis, (Bon.) 

On May 11, 1877, 1 heard the unmistakable song of this species within 
the fort. 


66. *Amphispiza bilineata, (Cass.) 

Much more commoa in summer than winter. The nests are placed in 
low, thick bushes, rarely more than two feet from the ground. The eggs, 
when fresh, have a decided bluish tinge. — (Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 
IS. — Poospim &., Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 488.) 

67. SpizeUa socialis, (Wils.) 

April. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 489. — Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 19.) 

68. SpizeUa pallida, (Swains.) 

Very abundant during the winter months, but I do not think that 
any remain to breed. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 489.— Sennett, B. Rio 
Grande, 19.) 

69. Melospiza melodia, (Wils.) 

February and December. 

70. Melospiza lincolni, (Aud.) 

Very common in winter. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 489. — Sennett, B. 
Rio Grande, 18.) 

71. Peucaea arizonas, Eidgw.* 

Found in some abundance on a salt prairie about nine miles from 
Fort Brown, but obtained with difiQculty, as they could rarely be flushed 
from among the tall grass. Its notes were frequently heard, and are 
quite pleasing. A nest found June 16, 1877, was placed among the 
roots of a tussock of grass : it was made of blades and stems of grasses, 
and was rather deep, but so frail that it fell to pieces on removal. The 
eggs, four in number, were quite fresh. They are unspotted white, 
strongly tinged with greenish-blue, and measure .82 by .63. 

* The great variation iu size and color between the set of eggs of P. arizonce and 
those of P. cestivalis appears to me to be inconsistent with their belonging to birds of 
the same species. In North American Birds, I speak of the color of a'stivalis as being a 
pure, almost brilliant, white, and their size .74 by .60. This is probably a little smaller 
than the average. An egg taken by Dr. Bryant in Florida measures .76 by .61. 
Three eggs, taken by Dr. Gerhardt in Northern Georgia, measure .80 by .62, .78 by .61, 
and .72 by .60. Their color is crystalline white, similar in brilliancy to the eggs of a 
Woodpecker. On the other hand, the four eggs of P. arizonce measuie .>-5 by .64, .83 by 
.64, .82 by .65, .80 by .62, averaging .82| by .63f, the average of cestivalis being .77 by .61. 
The eggs of 2^ cassini have the same crystalline whiteness as those of cestivalis, while 
those of P. carpalis correspond in color with those of arizonce, and average .73 by .58. 
The color of the eggs of P. arizonce is of a very light blue, with just a tinge of green, 
but to some eyes it appears to be a greenisb-white. — T. M. B. 

[Without specimens of this form in good plumage, it is quite impossible to determine 
the question of its relationship to P. cestivalis by the skins alone. All the specimens I 
have seen are, unfortunately, iu the greatly worn and faded midsummer plumage, and, 
though resembling examples of P. a'stivalis in corresponding dress, are easily distin- 
guishable. Considering the latter fact, iu connection with the radical difference in 
their eggs, as insisted on by Dr. Brewer, I think, upon the whole, that the bird may 
yet prove to be a distinct species. — R. R.] 



72. Peucaea cassini, (Woodh.) 

Arrives about the middle of March, its sweet song attracting atten- 
tion at once. Found in ratlier open chaparral, but usually keeping iu 
thick bushes, where alone it permits a near approach. It usually sings 
while hidden in some bush, and, I think,. rarely utters its notes on 
the wing unless the female is sitting. Its nest is difficult to find ; tLree, 
taken April 28, and May 4 and 22, 1877, respectively, were placed at tbe 
foot of small bushes and scarcely raised from the ground. They were 
composed of dried grasses, lined with finer ones and a few hairs, but 
were very frail. Thirteen eggs taken from these nests are pure white, 
and average .74 by .57. Feet and legs are peculiarly light yellowish- 
white; bill pale horn-color, darker above; iris light hazel. — (Dresser, 
Ibis, 1865, 489.— Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 18.) 

73. Embernagra rufivirgata, Lawr. 

A common resident, frequenting thickets and brush-fences, and per- 
mitting a close approach. The only note I have heard, besides a chij) 
of alarm, is a repeated chip chip chip, begun slowly, but rapidly increas- 
iug till the notes run into each other. I have found the nests with eggs 
at intervals from May 9 to September 7. These are placed in low 
bushes, rarely more than three feet from the ground : the nests are 
rather large, composed of twigs and straws, and lined with finer straws 
and hairs; they are practically domed, the nests being placed ratber 
obliquely, and the part above the entrance being somewhat built out. 
The eggs are from two to four iu number : thirty-two average .88 by 
.65, the extremes being .97 by .67 and .81 by .61 ; they are pure white. 
Two, and probably three, broods are raised in a season. — (Sennett, B. 
Rio Grande, 22.) 

74. Calamospiza bicolor, (Towns.) 

liither common during the winter months. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 

75. Euspiza americana, (Gmel.) 

Common during the spring migration of 1877. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 
490. — Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 19.) 

76. *Guiraca caerulea, (Liuu.) 

A rather common summer visitor, four or five pairs having nests in 
patches of tall weeds on the reservation. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 491. — 
Goniaphea c, Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 19.) 

77. Cyanospiza cyanea, (Liun.) 
Not rare iu April and May. 

78. Cyanospiza versicolor, (Bonap.) 

First taken April 23, 1877. This beautiful species seems to be rather 
abundant in this vicinity, frequenting mesquite chaparral. Its song has 
some resemblance to that of the Indigo-bird, and is constantly uttered. 
I did not succeed in finding any nests. 


79. Cyanospiza ciris, (Linn.) 

A not uucommoii summer visitor. — (Dressee, Ibis, 1865, 491.— Sen- 
NETT, B. Eio Grande, 20.) 

80. * Spermophila moieleti, (Puch.) 

This curious little Sparrow is not uncommon (luring the summer 
months, and I am inclined to think that a few may pass the winter. 
During the breeding season the male has a very sprightly song, much 
resembling that of the Indigo-bird, but sweeter; this it frequently 
utters while perched on the topmost twig of a bush. They are usually 
seen in patches of briers and low bushes, at no great distance from 
water ; they are very tame, and will permit a person to approach very 
closely. At least two pairs built within Fort Brown during the season 
of 1877. One of these nests, found nearly finished early in May, was 
in a bush about three feet from the ground : it was not pensile, but was 
placed on a small branch between three or four upright twigs, and was 
entirely composed of a peculiar yellow rootlet : it was destroyed by a 
violent storm before eggs were deposited. A second nest, found May 
25, in a young ebony-bush, four feet from the ground, was deserted im- 
mediately after completion. It is a delicate little nest, supported at the 
rim and beneath by twigs, and built of a very fine, dried grass, with 
which a few horse-hairs, a leaf or two, and a small rag are interwoven: 
it is 1.70 wide by 1.50 in depth. Both these nests are open and trans- 
parent. It is worthy of remark that none of the males seen or killed 
here were in the typical adult plumage, but in that described by Mr. 
Lawrence as S. albogularis. 

The stomachs of the specimens killed were filled with small seeds. 

A third nest, found May 5, 1878, was attached to a hanging rim about 
four feet from the ground. The nest was partly pensile, and was built 
of delicate rootlets. It contained three young. 

81. Pyrrhuloxia sinuata, Bon. 

Of this species I cannot say much. At times abundant, particularly 
in the spring, it often escaped observation for mouths; and though it 
probably breeds here, I was unable to find any nests. The birds are 
usually seen in thickets and about brush-fences, and females are more 
frequently seen than males. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 491. — Sennett, B. 
Eio Grande, 21.) 

82. *Cardinalis virginianus, (Briss.) 

A common resident. Some summer specimens approach var. cocdneus 
in the almost entire absence of grayish borders to the feathers of the 
back and rump. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 491. — Sennett, B. Eio Grande, 


83. Eremophila alpestris var. chrysolaema, (Wagl.) 

Common during the winter months. I am confident that this species 
breeds rather plentifully on a prairie within ten miles of Fort Brown. 
Proc. Nat. Mus. 78 9 Sept. 30, 1878. 


Many pairs were seen May 1(5 and June 2 and 16, 1877, though no nests 
were found.— (i7. cormtta, Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 48G.—E. al2)esiris cliry- 
solcema, Sennett, B. Kio Grande, 9.) 

84. Molothrus ater, (Bodd.) 

Very common during winter, arriving early in September and leaving 
in April. The males frequent the stables and picket-lines in large flocks, 
with three or four other species of Blackbirds: the females are much 
less common. — (ili. 2>ecoris, Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 492.) 

85. * Molothrus ater rar. obscurus, (Gni«l.) 

Common during summer, replacing var.r)ecoris when it leaves. I have 
found the eggs or young in nests of Pyrocephahis var. mexicaiuis, Vireo 
novehoracensis, Icteria vircns, Ampliuxiiza hilineata, Embernagra rnfivir- 
gata, Icterus cucullatus, I. var. affinis, and Agelcens lilioeniceus.* Fifteen 
eggs now before me average .78 by .61, which is considerably larger than 
the measurements given by Dr. Brewer.t — [M. ater obsciirus, Sennett, 
B. Kio Grande, 22.) 

86. * Molothrus aeneus, (Wagl.) — The Red-eyed Cowbird. 

Psarocolius wneus, Wagl., Isis, 1829, 758.— Bonap., Consp. I, 1850, 426. 

Molothrus (vneKS, Caban., Mus. Heiu. I, 1851, 192.— Scl., P. Z. S. 1856, 300; 
1859, 365 (Jalapa), 381 (Oaxaca) ; Catal. 1861, 135, No. 819 (Jalapa;.— 
Sol. & Sai.v., Ibis, 1860, 34; Nom. Neotr. 1873, 37.— Owkn, Ibis, 1661, 
61 (Guatemala; descr. eggs).- Cass., Pr. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1866, 18 
(Mazatlan, Manzanillo, and Jalapa, Mexico; Yucatan; Nicaragua; 
Costa Rica ; Panama). — Sumichr., Mem. Bost. Soc. I, 1869, 552 (Vera 
Cruz; hot and temperate regions. Vulg. : " Tongonito" ; "^Enmante- 
cado"). — Salvin, P. Z. S. 1870, 191 (Cbitra and Calobre, Veragua). — 
Lawr., Ann. Lye. N. Y. IX, 1868,104 (Costa Rica); Mem. Bost. Soc. 
II, 1874, 281 (Mazatlan, Manzanillo Bay, and Mts. of Colima, W. 
Mexico. Habits) ; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 4, 1876, 24 (Tapana, Isth. 
Tehuantepec; April. — "Iris red"). — Merrill, Bull. Nutt. Oru.Club, 
I, Nov. 1876,88 (Ft. Brown, Texas; very abundant); ib. II, Oct. 1877, 
85 (habits ; descr. of eggs and young. — " Iris blood-red " in adult ; 
brown in young). — CouES & Sennett, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. 
Surv. Terr. Feb. 1878, 23 (Fort Brown, Tex. — Syu, diag., remarks). 

Molothrus robustus, Caban., Mus. Hein. I, 1851, 193 ; J. f. O. 1861, 81. 

/3. armenti. 

Molothrus armenti, Caban., Mus. Hein. I, 1851, 192; J. f. O. 1861, 82. — Cass., 
P. A. N. S. March, 1866, 18 (Damarara ; Savanilla, New Granada). 

* On June 13, 1877, I found an egg of this variety in a nest of Amphispiza bilineata 
that contained three young and two addled eggs. The Cowbird's egg was cracked 
almost entirely across the middle, and in it was one of the addled Sparrow's eggs. This 
must have been done by some idle Mexicaii. 

t Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, North American Birds, ii, 157. 


Sp. ch. — Adult male: Head, ueck, back, and lower parts soft, silky 
brouzoblack, of a peculiar shade, baviug a brassy greeuisb olive cast, 
much like the plumage of the body iu Quiscalus mieus ; the feathers 
violet-black immediately beneath the surface, the basal portion of the 
feathers slaty-graj'ish; scapulars and rump more violet; wings in gen- 
eral, tailcoverts, and tail lustrous silky steel-blue, the tail-coverts and 
upper wing-coverts more violaceous, the primaries and rectrices more 
greenish in certain lights; tibiae and anal region silky black; lining of 
the wings silky violet. Bill and feet deep black; iris blood-red. Wing, 
4.G0-4.80; tail, 3.70-3.80; culmen, .85-.90; tarsus, 1.15-l.-'5; middle 
toe, .85-.95. Young male : Uniform dull black, with a faint violet lustre 
on the back and rump, and a slight gloss of bottle-green on the wings 
and fail. Adult female : Uniform brownish-gray, darker above, where 
very faintly glossed with dull bluish, and paler beneath, many of the 
feathers of the wings and tail showing indistinctly paler edges, and 
feathers of the breast exceedingly indistinct darker shaft- streaks. Wing, 
4.10; tail, 3.25; culmen, 0.75; tarsus, 1.05; middle toe, 0.85. 

Hab. — Mexico and Central America, from the Eio Grande Valley (iu 
the United States) to the Isthmus of Panama. 

1 have nothing of importance to add to the following notes, which 
appeared in the October (1877) number of the Bulletin of the Nuttall 
Ornithological Club, pp. 85-87 : — 

" The occurrence of this species north of Mexico was noted in the 
Bulletin of November, 1876 (Vol. I, p. 88). It is now more than a year 
since it was first observed, and during that time I have had ample op- 
portunity to study its habits, a short account of which may be of interest. 
This Cowbird is found in Mexico, Guatemala, and Veragua, as well as 
in Southern Texas; how far it penetrates into the latter State I am 
unable to say. My first specimens were taken at Hidalgo, on the Rio 
Grande, seventy miles northwest of Fort Brown, where, however, they 
are not so abundant as lower down the river. Here they are common 
throughout the year, a small proportion going south in winter. Those 
that remain gather iu large flocks with the Long-tailed Grackles, com- 
mon Cowbirds, and Brewer's, Eed-wiuged, and Yellow-headed Black- 
birds ; they become very tame, and the abundance of food about the 
picket-lines attracts them for miles around. M. wneus is readily distin- 
guishable iu these mixed gatherings from the other species by its blood - 
red iris and its peculiar top-heavy appearance, caused by its habit of 
pulfing out the feathers of the head and neck. This habit is most 
marked during the breeding season and in the male, but is seen through- 
out the year. 

"About the middle of April the common Cowbird, Brewer's, and 
Yellow-headed Blackbirds leave for the North ; the Long tailed Grackles 
have formed their colonies in favorite clumps of mesquite trees; the 
Redwings that remain to breed have selected sites for their nests; the 
dwarf Cowbirds {Molothrus ater var. ohscnrus) arrive from the South, 


and 31. ceneus gather in flocks by themselves, and wait lor their victims 
to build. The males have now a variety of notes, somewhat resembling 
those of the common Cowbird, but more harsh. Duriu<; the day they 
scatter over the surrounding country in little companies of one or two 
females and half a dozen males, returning at nightfall to the vicinity of 
the picket lines. While the females are feeding or resting in the shade 
of a bush, the males are eagerly paying their addresses by puffing out 
their feathers, as above noted, strutting up and down, and nodding and 
bowing in a very odd manner. Every now and then one of the males 
rises in the air, and, poising himself two or three feet above the female, 
flutters for a minute or two, following her if she moves away, and then 
descends to resume his puffing and bowing. This habit of fluttering in 
the air was what first attracted ray attention to the species. In other 
respects their habits seem to be like those of the eastern Cowbird. 

" My first egg of 31. mieus was taken May 14, 1877, [*] in a Cardi- 
nal's nest. A few days before this a soldier brought me a similar egg, 
saying he found it in a Scissor-tail's (Milvulus) nest; not recognizing it 
at the time, I paid little attention to him, and did not keep the egg. I 
soon found several others, and have taken in all twenty-two specimens 
the past season. All but tw^o of these were found in nests of the Bul- 
lock's, Hooded, and small Orchard (i. yar. affinis) Orioles. It is a curious 
fact that although Yellow- breasted Chats and Eed- winged Blackbirds 
breed abundantly in places most frequented by these Cowbirds, I have 
but once found thelatter's egg in a Chat's nest, and never in a Red-wing's, 
though I have looked in very many of them.[t] Perhaps they feel that 
the line should be drawn somewhere, and select their cousins the Black- 
birds as coming within it ; the Dwarf Cowbirds are not troubled by 
this scruple, however. Several of these parasitic eggs were found under 
interesting conditions. On six occasions I have found an egg of both 
Cowbirds in the same nest ; in four of these there were eggs of the right- 
ful owner,! who was sitting; in the other two the Cowbirds' eggs were 
alone in the nests, which were deserted : but I have known the Hooded 
Oriole to sit on an egg of M. (eneus which was on the point of hatching 
when found; how its own disappeared I cannot say. Once two eggs of 
ceneus were found in a nest of the small Orchard Oriole (var. affinis). 
Twice I have seen a broken egg of ceneus under nests of Bullock's Ori- 
ole on which the owner was sitting. 

" Early in June a nest of the Hooded Oriole was found with four eggs 
and one of 3L ceneus, all of which I removed, leaving the nest. Hap- 
pening to pass by it a few days later, 1 looked in, and to my surprise 
found two eggs of ceneus., which were taken : these were so unlike that 

*Iu the Bulletin misprinted 1876. 

t Since vs-riting this, I have found this Cowbird's egg in a deserted Redwing's nest. 

X " It would be interesting to know what would have become of the three species in 
one nest, and had the latter been near the fort, where I could have visited them daily, 
I should not have taken the eggs. It is probable, however, that M. ceneus would have 
disposed of the young Dwarf Cowbird as easily as of the young Orioles." 


they were probably laid by dififerent birds. Still another egg, and the 
last, was laid in the same nest within ten days. But the most remark- 
able instance was a nest of the small Orchard Oriole found June 20, con- 
taining three eggs of ceneus, while just beneath it was a whole egg of 
this j)arasite, also a broken one of this and of the Dwarf Cowbird. Two 
of the eggs in the nest were rotten ; the third, strange to say, contained 
a living embryo. As the nest was certainly deserted, I can only account 
for this by supposing that the two rotten ones were laid about the first 
week of June, when there was considerable rain, and that the other 
was deposited soon after, since which time the weather had been clear 
and very hot. On one occasion I found a female ameus hanging with a 
stout thread around her neck to a nest of the Bullock's Oriole. The nest 
contained one young one of this Cowbird, and it is probable that its pa- 
rent, after depositing the egg, was entangled in the thread on hurriedly 
leaving the nest, and then died ; it had apparently been dead about two 
weeks. This case supports the view that the eggs or young of the 
owner are thrown out by the young parasite, and not removed by its 
parent, though I could find no trace of them beneath this nest. 

" Twenty-two eggs of 31. ceneus average .90 by .70, the extremes being 
.95 by .75 and .82 by .65. The color is a greenish white, unspotted, 
soon fading to a dull opaque white. There is more than the usual vari- 
ation in shape. Some are almost perfectly elliptical, others are nearly 
round ; some are quite pointed at the smaller end, while others still 
are there abruptly truncate. 

"The young, soon after leaving the nest, have the plumage uniform 
dull black; cheeks and sides of head bare; iris brown."* 

87. ^Agelaeus phoeniceus, (Linn.) 

A common resident, breeding abundantly. The nests and eggs are 
smaller than the average of those found in more Northern States. — 
(Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 492. — Sennett, B. Eio Grande, 24.) 

88. Xanthocephalus icterocephalus, (Bonap.) 

Rather rare during winter, and 1 do not think that any breed, in this 
immediate vicinity at least. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 492. — Sennett, B. 
Eio Grande, 24.) 

89. * Sturnella magna, (Linn.) 

Common during winter. — (Sennett, B. Kio Grande, 24.) 

*In the Ibis of January, 1861, pp. 61, 62, are the following notes by R. Oweu 
on the supposed eggs of this species: — " The eggs are pale greenish white, and measure, 
axis 1 inch, diam. .75. A few eggs of the 'Tordito', taken from the nests of the 
' Chorcha' (Icterus) and the 'Cien-Sante Mejicano' (Minnis gracilis). The Indians here 
all identify these eggs as those of the 'Tordito'. However, personally, I have never 
surprised the bird on the nest of any other species. At ihe same time I may add that 
I have never seen it either building or occupied in any other domestic occupation what- 
ever, which somewhat confirms the statement aforesaid. The eggs are f.;und most 
commonly in the nests of the ' Choicha' and the ' Cieu-Sarjte Mejicano ', and occasion- 
ally in that of the largest species of ' Chaiillo' {Pitaugus derhianuH)." — T. M. B. 


90. Stiirnella magna var. mezicana, Scl. 

" Sturnella magna ", Swains., Philos. Mag. I, 1827, 436. 

"Sturnella Jiipjjocrepis", Sci.., P. Z. S. 1856, 30,301; 1859, 58, 365, 381.— Scl. & 

Salv., Ibis, 1859, 19 ; 1860, 34.— Lawr., Ann. Lye. N. Y. VIII, 1865, 177 

(David, Veragua). 
Sturnella mexicana, Scl., Ibis, 1861, 179; P. Z. S. 1864, 175 (City of Mexico); 

Catal. 1861, 139, No. 842 (Jalapa).— Cass., Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila. 

1866, 24 (Mexico; Guatemala).— Salvin, P. Z. S. 1867, 142 (Veragua). 
" Sturnella ludoviciana ", Salv., P. Z. S. 1870, 191 (Veragua). 
Sturnella magna var. mexicana, B. B. & R., Hist. N. Am. B. Irl, 1874, 172 (Mexico ; 

Central Am.).— Lawk., Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 4, 1876, 24 (Barris and 

Sta. Efigenia, Islb. Tebuantepec ; Sept., Feb.). 
Sturnella magna, a. mexicana, CouES, Birds N. W. 1874, 190. 

Summer specimens of the Meadow Lark found at Fort Brown have 
been identified by Mr. Ridgway as typical mexicana. Its notes and 
habits, as observed there, do not seem to differ essentially from those of 
S. magna. It is abundant from April until October. 

[This Southern form may be easily distinguished from true .nagna by 
its smaller general size (including the bill) and much larger legs and 
feet, which are not only relatively, but absolutely, longer and stouter than 
in S. magna. The two specimens examined by me were obtained at 
Fort Brown, August 21 and September 13, 1877. They agree exactly 
with Mexican examples. — R. E.] 

91. Icterus auduboni, Giraud. 

This fine Oriole is found in moderate abundance, and is the only spe- 
cies that is resident. During the summer months, it is usually found in 
deep woods at some distance from houses, but during the winter it is 
less shy and retiring. They are frequently captured and offered for sale 
by Mexicans in this vicinity, but several I have kept would not sing at 
all in captivity. When free, their usual song is a prolonged and repeated 
whistle of extraordinary mellowness and sweetness, each note varying in 
pitch from the preceding. If once heard, it can never be forgotten. I 
have not succeeded in finding any nests. There is considerable varia- 
tion in the extent of white edging to the wings and tail, some specimens 
closely approaching var. melanocephalns. — (Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 26.) 

92. Icterus cucuUatus, Swains. 

This is perhaps the most common Oriole in this vicinity during the 
summer, arriving about the last week in March. It is less familiar than 
Bullock's Oriole, and, like the preceding species, is usually found in woods. 
The nests of this bird found here are perfectly characteristic, and can- 
not be confounded with those of any allied species; they are usually 
found in one of the two Ibllowing situations : the first and most fre- 
quent is in a bunch of hanging moss, usually at no great height from 
the ground ; when so placed, the nests are formed almost entirely by 
hollowing out and matting the moss, with a few filaments of a dark hair- 
like moss as lining; the second situation is in a bush (the name of 


which I do not know) growiug to a height of about six feet, a nearly 
bare stem throwing out two or three irregular masses of leaves at the 
top; these bunches of dark green leaves conceal the nest admirably ; 
it is constructed of filaments of the hair-like moss just referred to, with 
a little Spanish moss, wool, or a few feathers for the lining ; tliey are 
rather wide and shallow for Orioles' nests, and, though strong, they ap- 
pear thin and delicate. A few pairs build in Spanish bayonets [Yucca) 
growing on sand ridges in the salt prairies ; here the nests are built 
chiefly of the dry, tough fibres of the plant, with a little wool or thistle- 
down as lining ; they are placed among the dead and depressed leaves, 
two or three of which are used as supports. A large series of eggs 
now before me are quite characteristic, and can readily be distinguished 
from eggs of our other Orioles by the absence of irregular blotches and 
pen-marks and by the white or very slightly bluish ground-color. The 
markings are chiefly at the larger end in an irregular ring of spots of 
varying shades of brown and lilac. Some sets are precisely like large 
Vireos' eggs. The average size is .82 by .59, with comparatively little 
variation. — (Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 25.) 

93. * Icterus bullocki, Swains. 

Common summer visitant. The breeding habits of this bird are 
quite unlike those of the Hooded Oriole. Instead of concealing its nest 
admirably in bunches of leaves or hanging moss, it is conspicuously 
placed at the extremity of an upper branch of a mesquite or ratama tree, 
usually at the edge of a prairie or near houses. One set of eggs has 
the groundcolor a beautiful pinkish buff.— (Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 25.) 

94. Icterus baltimore, (Linn.) 

Two specimens taken in April. I think that Mr. Dresser is in error 
in stating in the Ibis that this Oriole breeds at Matamoras. — (Dresser, 
Ibis, 1865, 493.) 

95. * Icterus spurius var. afiinis, Ijawr. 

This small race of the Orchard Oriole is found rather plentifully from 
the latter part of March until August. Nests found here are much 
smaller than Eastern ones ; in size and shape, they are more like Vireos'. 
This species and Bullock's are frequently found breeding in small, irregu- 
lar colonies composed of both species ; the Hooded Oriole does the same, 
but with individuals of its own species only. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 
493. — Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 25.) 

96. Scolecophagus cyanccephalus, (Wagl.) 

Brewer's Blackbird is very abundant from about the first week in 
October until April.— (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 493.— Sennett, B. Rio 
Grande, 27.) 

97. * Quiscalus macrurus, Swains. 

This handsome Grackle is a very common resident, and large numbers 


breed on the reservation. Early in April, after several weeks of noisy 
courtship, they begin to build in irregular colonies, and by the middle 
of the month have eggs. The nests are perhaps most frequently placed 
near the top of one of the main upright branches of a young mesquite- 
tree. They are strongly built of straws, leaves, and grasses, mud being 
used freely. Where Spanish moss is plentiful, the nests are sometimes 
composed entirely of it, and I have found them among tule-reeds where 
several species of Herons were breeding. 1 have also found their nests 
either supi)orted by the lower part of the nest of the Caracara Eagle or 
in the same tree. The eggs, usually three in number, vary greatly in 
appearance; the ground color is usually a greenish white or purplish- 
brown, more or less heavily spotted and dashed with several shades of 
brown and black. These markings are apt to be heavier at the smaller 
end, which frequently has a much darker ground color than the larger ; 
and this is so often the case as to be rather characteristic. Forty -five 
eggs now before me give the following measurements: — average, 1.26 
by .85; largest, 1.44 by .91 ; smallest, 1.16 by .82. The annual moult takes 
place in August. Unlike the Boat-tailed Grackle, the males of this race 
do not leave the females while incubating, but are jealous of intruders, 
and take their share of feeding the young. The various notes of this 
bird are quite indescribable, and must be heard to be appreciated. The 
long and heavy tail of this Grackle makes it easily recognizable at a long 
distance, but is rather inconvenient when there is much wind. At such 
times, the birds are obliged to " head up" wind, like so many sloops at 
anchor. They have a frequent and curious habit of throwing their heads 
up and far back, so that the reversed bill is almost parallel with the 
back.— (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 493.— Sennett, B. Eio Grande, 27.) 

98. Xanthura luxuosa, Less. 

The Kio Grande Jay is a common resident about Fort Brown and 
higher up the river, but does not seem to pass much into the interior of 
Texas. It is a noisy and gaudy species, soon making its presence known 
by its harsh cries or by its green and yellow plumage, seen for a moment 
as it moves about. Though at times shy, it is often very tame and bold, 
entering tents and taking food off plates or from the kitchen whenever 
a good opportunity offers. Large numbers are caught by the soldiers 
in traps baited with corn, but the plumage is their only attraction as a 
cage-bird. Its eggs and nest were first described in vol. i, p. 89, of the 
Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club. Since that time, I have 
found several other nests, but they do not affect the statements above 
made in regard to their breeding habits.— (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 495.— 
Sennett, B. Eio Grande, 29.) 

99. Sayornis fuscus, Gmel. 

Not uncommon from October until April.— (Dresser, Ibis, 1865,473.) 

100. Sayornis sayus, Bouap, 

More abundant than the preceding during the winter months. — 
(Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 473.) 


101. Contopus borealis, (Swains.) 

Not rare during the migrations. — (Drfssee, Ibis, 1865, 474.) 

102. Contopus virens, (Linn.) 

Breeds; a few pass the winter. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 474. — Sen- 
net, B. Rio Grande, 33.) 

103. Contopus richardsoni, (Swains.) 

August.— (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 474.) 

104. Empidonax minimus, Baird. 

September. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 474. — Sennett, B. Bio Grande, 33.) 

105. Empidonax acadicus, (Gmel.) 

Two specimens taken in the spring. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 475.) 

106. Empidonax pusillus car. trailli, (And.) 

August 7, 1876. — {U. trailli, Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 474.) 

107. Empidonax flaviventris, Baird. 

A single specimen taken. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 475.) 

108. Tyrannus carolinensis, (Gmel.) 

Rather common during the migrations, arriving about the first week 
in April and September. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 472. — Sennett, B. Rio 
Grande, 31.) 

109. * Milvulus forficatus, (Gmel.) 

Common summer visitor, arriving about Maich 20 and leaving in Sep- 
tember and October. Several pairs of this exquisite Flycatcher build 
in the low trees surrounding the parade-ground of the fort. The nests 
resemble those of the Kingbird, but are smaller, and, as a rule, are not 
more than six or seven feet from the ground. The eggs are from three 
to five in number, and are deposited by the latter part of April. The 
annual moult takes place in July and August. About the middle of 
October, 1876, just before sunset, a flock of at least one hundred and 
fifty of these birds passed over the fort : they were flying leisurely 
southward, constantly pausing to catch passing insects ; and in the rays 
of the setting sun their salmon-colored sides seemed bright crimson. — 
(Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 472.) 

110. Myiarchus crinitus, (Linn.) 

Taken in March and April. I am confident that none of this variety 
remain to breed. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 473. — Sennett, B. Rio 
Grande, 32.) 


111. Myiarchus erythrocercus var. cooperi. 

fTyrannus cooperi, Kaup,* P. Z. S. Feb. 11, 1831, 51 (" Northern America and 


Myiarchus cooperi, Baird, Birds N. Am. 1858, 180 ; Catal. N. Am. B. 1859, 
No. 132.— SCL., P. Z. S. 1859, 384; Catal. 1861, 232, No. 1428 (Mexico; 
Guatemala).— SCL. & SALV.,Ibis, 1859, 122, 440; 1870, 837 (coast Hon- 
duras). — Lawr., Ann. Lj-c. N. Y. ix, 1869, 202 (Yucatan). 

Myiarchus crinitus, c, var. cooperi, CouES, P. A. N. S. July -J, 1872, ()7 
(Tehuantepec, Mazatlan, and Guadalajara, S. W. Mexico; Guate- 
mala ?). 

Myiarchus crinitus var. cooperi, B. B. & R., Hist. N. Am. B. II, 1874, 331 
(Mazatlan, Tehuantepec, and Yucatan). — Lawr., Bull. U. S.Nat. Mus. 
No. 4, 1876, 28 (Tapana and Sta. Efigenia, Isth. Tehuantepec ; April ; 
? Tyrannus mexicanus, KAUP.t P. Z. S. Feb. 11, 1851, 51 {loc. incog.). 

Myiarchus mexicanus, Lawr., Ann. Lye. N. Y. IX, 1869, 202 (Yucatan); 
Pr. Boston Soc. June 7, 1871 (Tres Marias Islands, W. Mexico). — 
SuMiCHR., Mem. Boston Soc. I, 1869, 557, 560 (Vera Cruz ; hot re- 
Myiarchus yucatanensis, Lawr., P. A. N. S. Nov. 21, 1871, 235 (Yucatan, Mus. 

G. N. L.=M. mexicanus, Ann. Lye. N. Y. IX, 1869, 202!). 
Myiarchus crinitus erythrocercus, Couks & Sennett, Bull. U. S. Geol. and 

Geog. Surv. Terr. vol. iv, No. 1, Feb. 1878, 32 (Ft. Brown, Texas). 
Alguacil de Moscas, Tres Marias vernac. (Jide Lawr., /. c). 

The occurrence of this variety within our limits was noted in the April 
(1878) number of the Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club. Since 
that time I have paid particular attention to the species, and find that it 
is the only one of the genus that breeds on the Lower Rio Grande, which 
it does in considerable numbers. In its notes and habits, it appears to 
closely resemble the M. crinitus. Seven identified sets of thirty two 
eggs average .93 by .66, the extremes being 1.03 by .73 and .82 by .65. 
With one exception, no snake-skins were used in the construction of any 
of these nests. They were composed of felted locks of wool and hairs, 
and were placed not far from the ground, either in old Woodpeckers' 
holes or in natural hollows in decayed trees or stumps. 

Note. — The eggs of the Myiarchus, as a genus, have a very remark- 
able family resemblance. They are of a rounde<i-oval shape, in some 
instances the relation of the axis to the diameter being as 8.} to 7^, and 
averaging about 8^ to 7. The ground-color varies from a light buff to 
a dark cream-color; over these are distributed two sets of markings, all 
of them having a longitudinal direction, often narrow lines, leaving 
broad, unmarked spaces between them, and not unfrequently expand 

* "With shorter wings than mcxicana, but with lunger bill, like crinita ; throat and 
over breast light gray, not so dark as iu crinita; the black stripe along the weba 
of the tail-feathers is broader, like stolida." [Type iu Brit. Mus. J 

t "With short wings; all the wing-feathers, except the first, with rufous margins; 
breast light ash-gray ; above lighter." [Type la Brit. Mus.] 


ing into broad and confluent patches about the larger end. This genus 
is represented in my collection by the present species, and 3L crinittis, M. 
mexicanus, 31. cooperi^ and M. validus, of Jamaica. In all these, except 
the last, the two very distinct colorations are more or less noticeable ; 
these are a deep shade of reddish-brown and a lighter marking of dark 
stone-color or slate, with slight tinge of purple or lilac. In the Myiarchus 
crinitus, the dark brown is the predominant color 5 in M. erythrocercus, 
the stone-colored markings are much more abundant than in any of the 
others ; in ill. validus, on the contrary, these are wholly wanting. The 
set of eggs identified by Dr. Merrill, five in number, range from .99 to .94 
of an inch in length and from .69 to .74 in breadth, averaging .97 by .72i. 
Another set of three, not identified, but undoubted, average 1.02 by .72. 
A third set, from the collection of the late Dr. Berlandier, and hitherto 
supposed to belong to M. mexicanus, are marked with stone-colored 
dashes that are much darker and have a decidedly purplish tinge. These 
average .95 by .74. 

A set of five eggs, from California, of M. mexicanus, average .84 by .69, 
and another set .84 by .68. In these, the markiugsof both kinde are fewer, 
and the greater part of these in slender lines, the purplish-slate being 
about as abundant as the reddish-brown stripes. Five eggs of M. cri- 
nitus average .95 by .71f , are deeply marked, and chiefly with the brown 
stripes. The eggs of M. cooperi average .91i by .73, and are very simi- 
lar to those of M. mexicanus, except in size. The egg of M. validus is 
marked by but one kind of colored stripe, a combination of lilac and 
red-brown. The ground-color is more distinctly a deep and warm shade 
of cream : measurement, .84 by .69, — T. M. B. 

Note by R. E. — The proper name of this species has been a sub- 
ject of much discussion and diflerence of opinion, but it seems now 
generally settled that it is to be known as erythrocercus, Scl. & Salv. 
Admitting that two races may be distinguished (a smaller Southern, and 
a larger Northern, with grayer colors), it is less easy to decide what name 
the Northern race should bear, — the Southern one being, of course, the 
tj^^pical erythrocercus. As to point of date, the choice evidently lies 
between Tyrannula mexicana and T. cooperi (1857), both these names first 
occurring on the same page, but mexicana first, and therefore entitled to 
priority. The difficulty is that neither of the brief diagnoses accompa- 
nying these names give any character of even the least importance, and 
are therefore no aid whatever in determining what species is meant. 
The types of both these birds are said to exist in the British Museum ; 
and Dr. P. L. Sclater, who has examined that of T. mexicana, says that 
it is the same as the bird called 21. cooperi (Kaup) by Professor Baird, 
in Birds N. Am. 18.58, 180. If this be true, it raises the question as to 
whether Professor Baird's identification of Kaup's T. cooperi was correct, 
since it seems strange that the latter author would, on the same page, 
describe different specimens of the same bird as distinct species ! It 


seems to be generally conceded, however, that Professor Baird was right 
in this determination ; therefore, as Dr. Cones snrmises (Pr. Ac. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. 1872, p. 68), Tyrannula mexicana, Kaup, and T. cooperi, Kaup, 
must have been based upon variations of one species — the one under con- 
sideration ! 

In attempting to determine to which of the two forms of the species Dr. 
Merrill's specimens belonged, I found it necessary to carefully examine all 
the material available. This consisted of twenty-four specimens, belong- 
ing chiefly to the collection of the National Museum. After taking care- 
ful measurements of every specimen, and submitting all to the closest 
scrutiny and comparison, I found myself forced to a conclusion different 
from that reached by Dr. Coues (see Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. 
Terr. IV, No. 1, pp. 32, 33), in whose opinion regarding the matter I had 
previously coincided. I now find, that (1) while extreme exami)les of 
var. cooperi are astonishingly different from erythrocercus proper, such 
individuals form a very small proportion of the whole, and are chiefly 
from Western and Southwestern Mexico, where several other species of 
birds, notably Pyranga cestiva (var. cooperi, Ridgw.), attain the same 
great development of the bill (and, in fact, all the measurements); that 
(2) nearly all specimens from Mexico and Guatemala should be referred 
to cooperi, examples referable to erythrocercus on account of dimensions 
and shades of color being comparatively rare. Besides averaging larger 
than var. erythrocercus, var. cooperi has usually a grayer cast of plum- 
age, in this respect corresponding to the Mexican race of Tyrannus 
melancholicus (var. couclii, Baird), Myiarchns knvrencii, and numerous 
other birds of similar geographical distribution. The only satisfac- 
tory test, however, which I have been able to apply in determining to 
which race doubtful specimens should be referred is that of size, as 
follows : — 

Var. ERYTHROCERCUS. — Wing, 3.40-3.95 (average, 3.77) ; tail, 3.60- 
4.00 (average, 3.82); bill, from nostril, .55-68 (average, .61); tarsus, 
.85-.88 (average, .86).* Eah. — Eastern Tropical America, from Para- 
guay to Southern Mexico, but chiefly southward of the latter country. 

Var. COOPERI.— Wing, 3.85-4.45 (average, 4.15); tail, 4.00-4.60 faver- 
age, 4.25); bill, from nostril, .00-.82 (average, .69); tarsus, .88-.95 (av- 

Six specimens, as follows : — 


? ad. 

— ad. 

d ad. 

— ad. 
d ad. 

TJ. S. 
U. S. 

U. S. 



"Brazil " 


Co.sta Rica 

Merida, Yucatan 

. -do 

Sta. Eflgenia, Tehuan tepee. 

Aug. — , l^fiO I 3. (i.j 
May — , 1809 , X I'l 
....' I 3. 90 

May 90,1805 I 3.95 
Apr. 9, 1865 3. 4') 
Dec. 18, 1868 i 3. 95 


erage, 92).* Hob. — Mexico (including Lower Kio Grande Valley in 
Texas) and Guatemala. 

The principal references to var. erythrocerciis are the following : — 

fTyrannula irritdbilis, Boxap., Consp. I, 1850, 189. Supposed to belong here from 
quotation of Azara. " South America." Not Tyrannus irritahilis, Vieill. ! 
Myiarchus crinitus, b. var. irritahilis, CouES, P. A.N. S.July 2, 1872, 65 (Central and 
South America, Paraguay, Eio Parana, Bahia, Venezuela, Yucatan, Guate- 
mala, Costa Rica). 
Myiarchus crinitus var. irriiaMlis, B. B. & R., Hist. N. Am. B. II, 1S74, 331 (Paraguay 
to Costa Rica). 
Myiarchus erythrocercus, Scl. & Salv., P. Z. S. 1868, 631, 632 (Venezuela); Norn. Neotr. 
1873, 52.— ? Semper, P. Z. S. 1871, 271 (Sta. Lucia, W. I.!) ; 1872, 650. 
Pyrocephalus erythrocercus, Gkay, Hand-list, I, 1869, No. 5522 (s. g. Myionax. Quotes 
"crinitus, p., Hartl. ; irritahilis, p., Bp. ; ferox $ , Burm."). 
Pippei'ie gran-hois, St. Croix vernac. {fide Semper, I. c). 

112. Myiarchus cinerascens, Lawr. 

Only two specimens of this variety were taken. — (If. mexicanus, Dres- 
ser, Ibis, 1865, 473.) 

113. Pyrocephalus rubineus var. mexicanus, Sclat. 

Eesident, but more abundant in summer than in winter. During the 
breeding season, the male frequently utters a peculiar twittering song 
while poised in the air about thirty feet from the ground ; during the song, 
it frequently snaps its bill as if catching insects. Its note of anger and 
alarm is a mew. Except during the breeding season, the birds are 
decidedly shy. The nests are usually placed upon horizontal forks of 
ratama-trees, growing upon the edge of a prairie, and rarely more than 
six feet from the ground. They bear considerable resemblance to nests 
of the Wood Pewee in appearance and in the manner in which they are 
saddled to the limb ; the bottoms are made of small twigs, over which 

* Eighteen specimens, as follows : — 






— ad. 

— afl. 

— ad. 
d ad. 
d ad. 

— ad. 
d ad. 
? ad. 
d ad. 
d ad. 

— ad. 
cf ad. 
d ad. 

— ad. 
9 ad. 
d ad. 

— ad. 


R. R. 
U. S. 

" Mexico " (If. cooperi, Baird, B. N. Am.). 


Tres Marias, Western Mexico 

Mazatlan, Mexico 

.. -do 

Tehuantepec, Southern Mexico 







Guadalajara, Southern Mexico 

Fort Brown, Texas 


Central Guatemala 

Jan. — , 1865 

Dec. 18,1868 
Dec. 24,1868 
Dec. 16, 1868 
May 5,1869 
Apr. 27, 1869 
Oct. 8, 1869 
Apr. 11,1871 
May 27, 1871 
May 27, 1871 

May 10, 1877 
Apr. 1, 1876 





. 75 





are various soft materials felted together ; a few hairs or a little wool 
form the liDing; the rims are covered with lichens; the cavity in slight;, 
varying from .8 to 1.25 iuch iu depth by 2 in width, aud the whole 
structure is easily overlooked. The usual number of eggs is three ; the 
ground-color is a rich creamy-white, with a ring of large brown and 
lilac blotches at the larger end. Fourteen eggs now before me average 
.73 by .54. A nest of this species, found May 19, 1877, contained a 
young Dwarf Cowbird and three addled eggs, which latter I removed. 
On revisiting the same nest ten days later, I found three fresh eggs, on 
which the female was sitting. As the young Cowbird could not have 
been fledged by this time, it would seem as if the Flycatchers, on find- 
ing that their eggs had been removed, had thrown out the parasite and 
laid again. — (P. ruhinens, Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 475. — P. ruhineus mexi- 
canus, Sennet T, B. Rio Grande, 34.) 

114. Ceryle alcyon, (Liuu.) 

Not common from October until April. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 471. — 
Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 36.) 

115. Ceryle americana rar. cabanisi, (Tschudi.) 

Two specimens, obtained in May and October respectively. The 
scarcity of Kingfishers on the lower Rio Grande is doubtless due to the 
muddy water, that renders it difficult for them so see their pr^y. — (0. 
americana, Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 472.) 

Genus NYCTIDROMUS, Gould. 

Nyctidromus, Gould, Icon. Av. II, 1838. (Type, N. derhyanun, Gould.)— Gray, List Gen- 
era B. ed. 2, 1841, 10; Gen. and Subg. 1855, 11 ; Hand-list, I, 1869, 60.— Ghay 
& Mitch., Genera B. I, 1849, 48.— Cassin, P. A. N. S. 1851, 179.— Scl., P. Z. S. 
1866, 144.— Sol. & Salv., Norn. Neotr. 1873, 97.— Boucard, Cat. Av. 1876, No. 

ISucapripodiis, Lesson, 1843 {Jide Gray). 

Lucapripodus, Lesson, 1847 (Jide Gray). 

Cn. — Similar to '■^Antrostomus ", but having the tarsus longer than the 
middle toe, and completely naked ; the tail about equal to the lengthened 
wing (instead very much shorter), and the third instead of the second 
primary longest; lateral toes less than half as long as the middle toe, 
including the claw. 

The characters given above are all that I am able to discover as dis- 
tinguishing the present form from the species referred by most writers 
to the so-called genus Antrostomus, Gould. After very careful compari- 
sons of species of true Caprimulgus (as restricted) with those of the 
so-called genera Antrostomus and Stenopsis, I am at alot-s to find charac- 
ters of generic importance between them. A. carolinensis, the type of 
the former genus, differs, it is true, from all the others in possessing 
lateral filaments to the rictal bristles, while A. nuttalli is aberrant in 
other respects. There is such a difference in the details of form between 
almost every two species, however, that it is seriously questionable 


wlietbor tbey should not all be included under Caprimiilgiis. The only 
alternative seems to be a further subdivision of one or more of the so- 
called genera, especially '■'■Antrostoiims''\ leaving A. carolinensis as the 
typical and only species, referring A. vocifcrus to Caprimulgus, and insti- 
tuting a new genus for A. nuttaUi. The following scheme may serve to 
show the nature of the differences between the three North American 
species usually included in Antrostomus and the genus Nyctidromus ; — 

A. — Tarsus featliered in front almost to the toes, aud shorter tbau the middle toe ; first 
quill longer than the fourth. 

1. Caprimulgxis. — Rictal bristles without lateral filaments. Sexes with the tail 

differently marked. Tail rounded. (Including C. vociferus.) 

2. "Antrostomus." — Rictal bristles with fine lateral filaments. Sexes with the 

tail diff'erently marked. Tail rounded. (Including only the type, A. caroli- 
B. — Tarsus entirely naked in front, and longer than the middle toe ; first quill^ shorter 
than the fourth. 

3. — Tail even, much shorter than the wing. Sexes with the tail not difi"erently 
marked. Plumage with a peculiarly soft, velvety surface. (('. nuttalU only.) 

4. Nyctidromus. — Tail rounded, equal to the wing. Sexes with the tail differently 

116. * Nyctidromus albicollis. — Pauraque Goatsucker. 

Monlvoyan de la Guyane, Buff., Hist. Nat. des Ois. VI, 1779,549. 

Crepaud-volant ou Tette-Chevre roux, de la Guiane, Buff., PI. Enl. 733 (=$ ). 

Wliite-throaied Goatsucker, LiATU., Synop. II, pt. ii, 1785,596, No. 7. 

Guiana Goatsucker, Lath., t. c. 598, No. 9. 

Caprimulgus albicollis, Gmei.., S. N. I, ii, 1788, 1030 (ex Lath., I. c.).— Lath., Ind. 
Orn. II, 1790, 575, No. 7.— Vieill., Enc. M6th. 1823, 536, No. 4.— Light., 
Verz.Doubl. 1823, 59, 606.— D'Orb., Guerin's Mag. 1837, 67.— IIartl., Ind. 
Azara, 1847, 20, 310.— D'Orb. & Lafr., Rev. Zool. 1837, 67.— Caban., in 
SCHOMB. Guiana, III, 1848, 710, No. 204. 
Nyctidromus albicollis, Burm., Th. Bras. II, 1856, 389, No. 1.— ScL., P. Z. S. 1866, 
124 (fig. of bones of foot), 144 (S. Mexico to S. Brazil).— ScL. & SALV.,i& 
193(Ucayali, E. Peru); 1867, 752 (Iluallaga, E. Peru), 978 (Upper Ama 
zon) ; 1869, 252 (Maruria, Venezuela), 598 (Conispata, Peru) ; 1870, 782 (S 
of Merida, Venezuela), 837 (coast of Honduras); 1873, 186 (Peru), 290 (E 
Peru); 1875, 237 (Venezuela); Nom. Neotr. 1873, 97 (Central America; S 
Am. to Brazil).— Lawr., Ann. Lye. N. Y. IX, 1869, 204 (Yucatan); Pr 
Boston Soc. 1871, — (Tres Marias Islands, W. Mexico; common); Mem 
Boston Soc. II, 1874, 291 (Mazatlan, Colima, and Trcs Marias, W. Mexico); 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 4, 1876, 31 (Isth. Tehuantepec).— Wyatt, Ibis, 
1871, 375 (L. Paturia, New Granada).— Lee, Ibis, 1873, 134 (Buenos 
Ayres).— Layard, i7>. 389 (Parii).— Merrill, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, I, Nov. 
1876,88 (Fort Brown, Texas, April and May; not rare; breeding). 

Caprimulgus (juianensis, Gmel., S. N. I, ii, 1788, 1030 (based on Buff., PI. Enl. 
733).— Lath., Ind, Orn. II, 1790, 586, No. 8.— Max. Beitr. Ill, 1831, 318, No. 4. 
Nyctidromus guianensis, Cass., P. A. N. S. 1851, 183, 189 (Cayenne ; Surinam); 
Catal. Caprim. Mus. Phila. Acad. 1851, 12.— Burm., Syst. IJeb. II, 1856, 
391.— SCL., Catal. Am. B. 1862,281, No. 1690 (Orizaba ; Bogota; Vera Paz; 
Esmeraldas, Ecuador ; Trinidad) ; P. Z. S. 1864, 176 (City of Mexico).— 
Tay^lor, Ibis, 1864, 90 (Trinidad).— Lawr., Ann. Lye. N. Y. VII, 1861,290 
(Isth. Panama).— ScL. «t Salv., P.Z.S. 1864,364 (Isth. Panama).- Pelz., 
Orn. Bras. 1871, 13.— Salvin, P. Z. S. 1870, 204 (Veragua). 


IMyau, AzAKA, Apuut. 1801, No. 310. 

Nyctidromus americanus, Cassin, Pr. A. N. S. 1851, 179, 180; Catal. Caprim. Mus. 
Phila. Acad. 1H51, 12 (Nicaragua).— ScL., P. Z. S. 1856, 285; 1859, 367 
(Jalapa, E. Mexico).— Scl. &, Salv., Ibis, 1859, 125, 173 (Guatemala).— 
Caban. & Heine, Mus. Hein. Ill, 1860, 92 (Jalapa; Porto Cabello ; Guiana; 
Brazil).- Lawr., Aun. Lye. N. Y. VII, 1861, 290 (Isth. Panama).— Salvin, 
Ibis, 1806, 203 (Guatemala).— CouES & Sennett, Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv. 
Terr. vol. iv. No. 1, Feb. 1878, 34 (Brownsville, Texas). 

Nyctidromus affinis, Gray, List B. Brit. Mus. II, 1844, 11, No. 2. 

Nyctidromus derhyanus, Gould, Icon. Av. II, 1838, pi. 2. — Gray «fc Mitch., Genera 
B. I, 1849, 48.— BoNAP., Consp. I, 1850, 62. 

Caprwmlgus grallarius, Wied, Mus. Lugd. {teste Bonap., Consp. 1, 1850, 62). 

Nyctidromus grallarius, Bonap., Consp. 1, 1850, 62 (Brazil). — Cassin, P. A. N. S. 
1851, 179, 183 ; Catal. Caprim. Mus. Phila. Acad. 1851, 12 (Bogota).— Burm., 
Th. Bras. II, 1856, 392. 

Caprimulgus laiicaudatus, Drapiez, Diet. Class. Hist. Nat. VI, 1824, 169 (/este Cassin). 

Sp. CH. — Adult male: Wing, G.75; tail, C.75; tarsus, 1.10; middle toe, 
.80. Tarsus and beel-joint completely bare. Above, finely mottled 
brownish-gray, tbe crown with a central series of black, longitudinal 
dashes, the scapulars beautifully variegated with black and creamy-buff 
or ochraceous, in large, somewhat \/si»fiped, markings; wing-coverts 
with large terminal spots of creamy-buff or ochraceous. Basal portion 
(sometimes almost the basal half) of tbe exposed portion of the larger 
primaries white, including both webs, and forming a conspicuous patch ; 
remainder of the quills uniform plain dusky. Outer tail-feather (on 
each side) nearly plain blackish throughout ; next feather chiefly white, 
with the greater portion of the outer web blackish ; third feather chiefly 
white, with the outer web margined more or less with dusky ; four middle 
tail-feathers without any white, the ground -color being mottled grayish, 
variegated by ragged, badly defined "herring-bone"' blotches of black- 
ish along the shaft. Lower parts deep buff or creamy-ochraceous, the 
throat crossed by a distinct collar of pure white, the remaing portions 
transversely barred or " rayed " with dusky, these bars wider apart 

Adult female: Wing, 6.00-6.30; tail, 5.80-6.00. Generally similar to 
the male, but smaller, the colors less pure, the markings less sharply 
contrasted, and the white areas of the primaries and rectrices more re- 
stricted. General hue of the plumage decidedly more brownish ; white 
patches on the primaries situated rather farther toward the ends of the 
feathers, occupying only the outer four (instead of six) quills; of smaller 
extent than in the male, and more or less tinged with ochraceous. White 
of the rectrices occupying only the terminal portion (from 0.75 of an 
inch to 1.75 inches) of the inner web of the second and third tail-feathers 
(counting from the outer), the blackish portions of these feathers broadi.-y 
though somewhat irregularly barred and mottled with ochraceous. 
White gular collar less distinct than in the male. 

With a somewhat close general resemblance to the Whip-poor-will 
[Caiwimulgus vociferus), this species may be at "once distinguished by 


the wholly naked tarsi, the white patch across the primaries, which are 
also destitute of ochraceous spots, by the much longer aud differently 
marked tail and other features. It is, in fact, a far handsomer bird, and, 
not excepting even the ^'■Antrostonius^^ nuttaUi, is by far the most beau- 
tiful of the Capriniulgid(v which occur in the United States. It is a species 
of very wide distribution, its range comprising the whole of the inter- 
tropical portions of America on both sides of the equator, with the ex- 
ception of the West India Islands, from none of which it has thus far 
been recorded. It is subject to considerable variations of color, which 
have given rise to a number of synonyms, as may be seen by reference 
to the citations given above, but the variations seem to be of an individual 
and sexual nature, rather than geographical. — R. R. 

This interesting addition to the avifauna of the United States proves^ 
to be a rather common summer visitor, arriving early in March, at least 
a month before any others of the family, and remaining as late, at least, 
as November 16, on which date I have taken two specimens. My first 
specimen was shot on the 1st of April, 1876, and its capture noted in 
the Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club, vol. i, p. 88. Since that 
time, I have taken quite a number of specimens, and found several sets 
of eggs. The habits and eggs of this species, in addition to its anatomi- 
cal characters, show its alBnity with the Whip-poor-wills rather than 
the Nighthawks. It frequents shady thickets and copses (where these 
can be found), and when tiushed dodges rapidly and silently among the 
bushes, but soon alights, only to repeat the short flight when again ap- 
proached. The eggs are deposited in such a situation, usually at the foot 
of a bush; the parent, when started from her eggs, makes no attempt to 
decoy one away, but flying a few yards alights to watch the intruder, 
frequently raising herself on her legs and nodding in a curious manner, 
uttering at the same time a low, whining sound. Their notes are among 
the most characteristic night sounds of the Lower Rio Grande, and are 
constantly heard at evening during the summer months. They consist 
of a repeated whistle resembling the syllables whew-whew-icJiew-ivlieic- 
iche-ee-e-etv, much stress being laid upon the last, which is prolonged. 
The whole is soft and mellow, yet can be heard at a great distance. 
The preliminary tcJiewsvary somewhat in number, and late in the season 
are often omitted altogether. The eggs are a rich creamy-buff color, 
sparingly marked with a deeper shade of the same and with lilac. 

Specimens average 1.25 by .92 inches. 

On the 15th of May, 1876, 1 found a set of eggs near camp at Hidalgo, 
and on returning in about fifteen minutes to secure the parent, who had 
disappeared among the thickets, I iound that she had removed the eggs, 
although they had not been touched. At least two pairs breed annually 
within Fort Brown, part of the reservation afibrding them the shade 
and shelter they always seek. 

117. Antxostomus carolin-^nsis, (Gmel.) 

A few taken during the migrations. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 470.) 
Proc. Nat. Mus. 78 10 Oct. % 18T8. 


118. Antrostomus vociferus, (Wils.) 

Rather uncommon in spring and autumn. 

119. Chordeiles popetue, (Vieill.) 

A])ppars to be a ratber rare visitant in spring and autumn. — 
(Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 471.) 

120. Chordeiles popetue var. henryi, Cassiu. 

Abundant during the summer months, arriving about the 1st of 
April, and leaving in September. Deposit their eggs near the edges 
of prairies. Specimens said by Ridgway to be smaller than typical 
henryi. — (C. henryi, Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 471.) 

121. * Chordeiles acutipennis var. texensis, Lawr. 

Common summer visitor, arriving early in April. While var. henryi 
is usually found about prairies at some distance from houses, the pres- 
ent species is most plentiful just outside of Brownsville, and I have found 
several sets of eggs within the fort. These are usually deposited in ex- 
posed situations, among sparse chaparral, on ground baked almost as 
hard as brick by the intense heat of the sun. One set of eggs was placed 
on a small piece of tin, within a foot or two of a frequented path. The 
female sits close, and when flushed flies a few feet and speedily returns 
to its eggs. They make no attempt to decoy an intruder away. I have 
lidden up to within five feet of a female on her eggs, dismounted, tied 
my horse, and put my hand on the bird before she would move. This 
species is more strictly crepuscular than var. henryi or popetue, and is very 
seldom seen on the wing during the day. The notes are a mewing call, 
and a very curious call that is with difiSculty described. It is somewhat 
like the distant and very rapid tapping of a large Woodi^ecker, accom- 
panied by a humming sound, and it is almost impossible to tell in what 
direction or at what distance the bird is that makes the noise. Both 
these notes are uttered on the wing or on the ground, and by both sexes. 
The eggs vary considerably, but exactly resemble the surface on which 
they are placed. The ground color is usually clay : some are very spar- 
ingly dotted with brown; others mottled with light-brown and obscure 
lilac; others still are so thickly marbled with brown and lilac on a dark 
ground as togive them a granite-like appearance. They average 1.07 
by .77. — (C. texensis, Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 471. — Sennett, B. Eio 
Grande, 34.) 

122. Chaetura pelagica, (Linn.") 

Not uncommon during the migrations, arriving about March 20 and 
returning in September. 

123. Trochilus colubris, Linn. 

Abundant during the spring and autumn migrations, but I was not 
able to satisfy myself that any remained to breed or to pass the winter, 


though I have seen them as late as December 7 aud as early as March 9. — 
(Dresser, Ibis, 18G5, 470. — Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 35.) 

124. Amazilia fuscicaudata. 

TtocMlus fuscicaudatus, Eraser, P. Z. S. Feb. 11, 1840, 17 (Chachapoyas, Peru). 

Hylocharis fuscicaudatus, Gray & Mitch., Genera B. I, 114, sp. 26. 

Saucerottia fuscicauda, Keichenb., Troch. Euuiu. 1855, 8, t. 696, figs. 4552-'o3. 

TrocMlus riefferi, Bourcier, Auii. Sci. Pbys. et Nat. Lyon, 1843, 45; Rev. Zool. 

1843, 103 (Fusagasuga, New Granada). 

Amazilius riefferi, Bonap., Consp. I, 1850,78; Rev. Zool. 1854,254. — Scl., 

P. Z. S. 1856, 140; 1657, 16 (Bogota); 1659, 145 (Pallatanga, Ecuador). 

Amazilia riefferi, Reichenb., Av. Syst. Nat. 1849, pi. 39 ; Aufz. der Colibr. 

1853, 10 ; Trocbil. Euum. 18.55, 8, t. 775, figs. 4798-'99.— Gould, Monog. 

Trochilid. V, 1853, pi. 311.— Scl., P. Z. S. 1859, 145; 1860,94 (New 

Granada), 283 (Bababoyo, Ecuador), 296 (Esmeraldas, Ecuador) ; 

Catal. Am. B. 1862, 314, No. 1878 (Cuban, Vera Paz ; Baranquilla, 

New Granada ; Esmeraldas, Ecuador). — Scl. & Salv., Ibis, 1859, 130 

(Guatemala); 1860, 40 (Dueuas, Guatemala); 1864, 365 (Panama); 

Nora. Neotr. 1873, 92 (Mexico; Central America; New Granada; 

Ecuador).— Salvin, Ibis, 1860, 195, 270 (Coban, Vera Paz); P. Z. S. 

1867, 156 (Veragua) ; Ibis, 1872, 320 (Nicaragua).— Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, 
378 (San Nicolas, New Granada ; alt. 3,000 feet). 

Polytmus riefferi, Gray & Mitch., Genera B. I, 1849, 108, No. 72.— Gray, 
Hand-list, I, 1869, 132, No. 1680 (S.Mexico; Guatemala; "Andes."- 
Subg. Amazili). 

Pyrrhophccna riefferi, Caban. &, Heine, Mus. Hein. Ill, 1860, 36. — Gould, 
Introd. Trochilid. 1861, 158 (" Southern Mexico, Guatemala, aud along 
the Andes to Ecuador ") ; P. Z. S. 1870, 803 (Citado, Ecuador).- Lawr., 
Ann, Lye. N. Y. Oct. 23, 1865, 184 (Greytown, Nicaragua) ; ib. IX, 

1868, 127 (Costa Rica) ; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 4, 1876, 33 (Guichi- 
covi, Isth. Tehoantepec). — Merrill, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, I, Nov. 
1876, 88 (Ft. Brown, Texas, June, 1876 ; 2 specimens). 

Eranna riefferi, Heine, J. f. O. 1863, 188 (New Granada). 
T)-ocMlus aglaiw, BouRC. & Muls., Ann. Soc. Phys. Sc. Lyon, 1846, 329 ; Rev. 

Zool. 1846, 316 {hab. incog.).— Mvj.s., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mouch. I, , 319. 

Polytmus aglaice, Gray & Mitch., Genera B. I, 1849, 109, sp. 73. 
Amazilius aglaice, Bonap., Consp. I, 1850, 71. 
Saucerottia aglaice, Reichenb., Aufz. der Colibr. 1853, 10. 
Chloresfes aglaio!, Reichenb., Troch. Enum. 1855, 4. 
Hemithylaca aglaice, Caban. & Heine, Mus. Hein. Ill, 1860, 38, note 13. 
Ornismya amazili, Delattre, £cho du Monde Sav. No. 45, June 15, 1843j col. 1069. 
" TrocMlus arsiuoides, Sauc, in Mus. of Berlin " (Gould). 
Trochilus dubusi, BouRC, Soc. Agric. Lyon, 1852, 141. 

Amazilia dubusi, Reichenb., Aufz. der Colibr. 1853, 10 ; Trochil. Enum. 1855, 

8, pi. 778, figs. 4809-'10 
Eranna dubusi, Heine, J. f. O. 1863, 188 (Veragua; Guatemala; Costa 

Rica ; S. Mexico). 
Amazilius dubusi, Bonap., Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1854, 2.'^4. — Scl., P. Z. S. 

1856, 287 ; 1859, 386 ; 1860, 296. 
Pyrrhophwna dubusi, Caban. & Heine, Mus. Hein. Ill, 1860, 36. 
Eranna jucunda, Heine, J. f. 0. 1863, 188 (Babahoyo aud Esmeraldas, Ecuador). 
Pyrrhophwna sauvis, Caban. & Heine, Mus. Hein. Ill, 1860, 38 (Cartagena, New 
Eranna sauvis, Heine, J. F. O. 1863, 188 (Cartagena). ■- 

Sp. CH. — Above metallic grass-greeu (varying to golden-green), more 


bronzy on the crown and rump; longer ui)per tail-coverts cinnamon- 
rufous. Tail deep chestnut-rufous, the feathers tipped and edged for a 
greater or less distance from their ends with metallic greenish-bronze, 
glossed with purple; wing-coverts metallic green, like the back; rest of 
the wing uniform dusky slate, with a distinct violet purple gloss in cer- 
tain lights. Side of the head bronzy- green, the lores bright cinnamon- 
rufous. Throat, jugulum, breast, and sides metallic green, most brilliant 
on the breast and jugulum, where bright emerald in certain lights, duller 
and more bronzy on the sides ; throat-feathers grayish-wljite beneath 
the surface, this color showing wherever the feathers are disturbed. 
Abdomen pale mouse-gray ; crissum deep cinnamon rufous; anal tufts 
and thighs cottony-white. Bill reddish at the base for a greater or less 
distance (pale brownish in the dried skin), the terminal portion black- 
ish; feet blackish. Wing, 2.00-2.35; tail, 1.45-1.70; culmen, .70-.90. 
Sexes alilce in color. Young similar to the adult, but with the plum- 
age duller, the rump more extensively tinged with rufous and the fore- 
head washed with rusty. 

With very numerous specimens before me, representing various loca- 
lities, from Eastern Mexico to Guayaquil, Ecuador, I am unable to dis- 
cover any differences coincident with locality, even in specimens from 
the most remote districts. There is a considerable range of individual 
variation, involving the amount of blackness of the maxilla (some speci- 
mens having the upper mandible wholly b!ackish except the extreme 
base, while in others only the end is dark-colored), length of wing and 
bill, etc. These differences, however, appear to be purely individual, 
and not at all, so far as I can see, local. — R. R. 

The occurrence of this species within our limits was noted in the Bul- 
letin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club, vol. i, p. 88. I have nothing 
to add to the brief note there jiublished. The specimen was captured 
by a soldier and brought to me. After describing the bird, I returned 
it to him, as he wished to keep it, but it escaped in a day or two. 

Found from Southern Texas to Ecuador. 

125. *Amazilia yucatanensis. 

Trochilus yucatanensis, Cabot, Pr. Boston Soc. N. H. 1845, 74. (Yucatan.) 

Amazilia yucatanensis, Gould, Monog. Trochilid. V, 1853, pi. 308. — MuLS., 
Hist. Nat. Ois. Mouch. I, , 295. 

Fyrrliopluma yucatanensis, Gould, Introd. Troch. 1861, 157. 

Eranna yucatanensis, Heine, J. f. O. 1863, 187 (Yucatan). 
Amazilius cei-viiiivenfris, Gould, P. Z.S. June 10, 1856, 150 (Cordova, Mexico). — 
SCL., ib. 287 (Cordova); 1857, 17. 

Amazilia cerviniveyitris, Gould, Monog. Troch. V, 18.53, pi. 319 (Cordova). — 
SCL., Cutal. Am. B. 1862, 314, No. 1877 (Tlacotalpam, S. Mexico).— ScL. 
& SALV.,Noai. Neotr. 1873,92 (Mexico).— Boucard, Catal. Avium, 1876, 
350, No. 10,966 (Yucatan).- Merrill, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, II, Jan. 
1877, 26 (Fort Brown, Texas, Aug. 17, 1876).— Coues & Sennett, Bull. 
U. S. Geol. & Geog. Surv. Terr. vol. iv, No. 1, Feb. 1878, 35 (Browns- 
ville. Texas). * 


Pyrrhophwna cervlnivenins, Caban. & Heixe, Mus. Hein. Ill, 1860, 36 
(note). — Gould, Introd. Trochilid. 1861, 157 (Cordova). 

Eranna cervinirentris, Heine, J. f. O. 1863, 187 (Cordova). 

Polytmus cervinirentris, Gray, Hand-list, I, 1869, 132, No. 1079 (Mexico. — 
Subg. Amazili), 

Sp. CH. — Above metallic grass-green, varying to golden-green, duller 
on the crown and more bronzy on the uj^per tail-coverts, which are 
sometimes slightly tinged on the edges with rufous. Tail cinnamon- 
rufous, the intermediae more or less filossed with greenish-bronze (some- 
times entirely of this color); the other feathers bronze terminally, this 
color usually' following the edge for a greater or less distance from the 
tip. Wing-coverts metallic grass-green, like the back ; remainder of 
the wing uniform brownish-slate, with a very faint violet-purple gloss 
in certain lights. Throat, jugnlum, and sides of the head and breast 
brilliant metallic-green, almost emerald in certain lights, the feathers 
dull white beneath the surface, thus breaking the continuity of the 
green, especially on the throat, where the feathers are broadly tipped 
with green. Rest of lower parts pale fawn-color, or dilute cinnamon- 
buff, deepest on the crissum ; sides glossed with bronze-green ; anal tufts 
and thighs cottony-white. Bill reddish (light brown in the dried skin), 
the terminal third blackish. Feet dusky. Wing, 2,15-2.20; tail, 1.50- 
1.60, depth of its fork about 0.20 ; culmen, 0.80. iSexes alike in colora- 

Hab. — Eastern Mexico, from the Rio Grande Valley (United States 
side) to Yucatan. 

The two examples in the National Collection (No. 24,873, tTalapa, and 
70,949, Fort Brown, Texas) differ in some minor details of coloration 
Thus, the former has the middle pair of tail-feathers entirely greenish- 
bronze, except a very small space on each web concealed by the longer 
upper tail-coverts ; the bronzy ends of the other feathers are distinctly 
glossed with dark purple, and the outer pair of feathers have scarcely a 
trace of bronze at their ends. The latter specimen, on the other hand, 
has the basal two-thirds of the intermediae wholly rufous, the bronzy 
ends of the other feathers destitute of a purple gloss, and the outer pair 
of feathers very distinctly tipped with bronze and edged for their whole 
length with a darker shade of the same color. These differences, how- 
ever, are doubtless only individual, or, possibly, sexual. The Fort 
Brown specimen is a little the larger, but the diff'erence in size is very 
slight. Neither has the sex marked. 

I have not seen a s})ecimen of the so-called " yucatanensis, Cabot ", but 
follow Mr. Elliot (MSS.) in considering it the same as the bird after- 
wards described by Mr. Gould as cerviniventris. — R. R. 

This Hummer, also new to the avifauna of the United States, and 
heretofore known only from Mexico, was first taken on the 17th of August, 
1876, and its capture noted in the Bulletin of January, 1877, p. 26. It 
proves to be an abundant summer visitor, and I have nowhere found 


it SO abundaut as on the military reservation at Fort Brown. Here it 
seems perfectly at home among the dense, tangled thickets, darting 
rapidly among the bushes and creeping vines, an i is with difficulty 
obtained. A rather noisy bird, its shrill cries usually first attract one's 
attention to its presence. A Hummer's nest, undoubtedly made by this 
species, was found in September, 1877, within the fort. It was placed 
on the fork of a dead, drooping twig of a small tree on the edge of a 
path through a thicket : it was about seven feet from the ground, and 
contained the shrivelled body of a young bird. The nest is made of the 
downy blossoms of the tree on which it is placed, bound on the outside 
with cobwebs, and rather sparingly covered with lichens. Internally, 
it is somewhat less than one inch in depth by one-half inch in diameter. 
The external depth is one and one-half inch. 

Note. — Besides these two species of Hummers actually taken, I have 
seen two others that are certainly new to our avifauna, but have not 
been able to capture them. One of these is a large, green species, with 
a long tail ; the other, a very small bird, of a deep purplish-brown color. 

126. Geococcyx californianus, (Less.) 

This curious bird is abundaut, and is a resident. Its food consists of 
insects, field-mice, small snakes, and snails. Of these latter, one spe- 
cies (a variety of Bulimulus alternatus) is very common, passing the dry 
season on bushes and cacti, and of this the bird is very fond. Quite 
large piles of the broken shells are constantly to be seen along the road- 
sides about some fallen branch on which the bird breaks them. As a 
rule, the "road-runner" is a silent bird, but occasionally it is heard to 
utter one of two notes. One is a " IcooTc-Jcook-TcooJcJcooJc ^\ much like the 
call of the Yellow-billed Cuckoo, but louder, and usually heard during 
the breeding season. The other is a note of alarm or anger : it is a low, 
growling sound, accompanied by a chattering of the bill. The nests are 
usually placed in low, thorny bushes, and are thick, clumsy structures, 
with but a slight depression for the eggs. The latter appear to be 
deposited at intervals of several days, and a perfectly fresh egg is often 
found with one on the point of hatching. I have never found more than 
four eggs or young in one nest. — (Dressek, Ibis, 1665, 466. — Sennett, 
B. Rio Grande, 36.) 

127. *Coccyzus americanus, (Linn.) 

Not uncommon summer visitor; breeding rather plentifully. — (Dres- 
ser, Ibis, 1865, 467.— Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 38.) 

128. * Picus scalaris, Wagler. 

Common resident. In notes and habits, this little bird is so like the 
Downy Woodpecker that there is little to be said about it. Eighteen 
perfectly identified eggs now before me average .81 by .64, which is much 
less than the measurements given in Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, II, 
519.— (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 468.— Senne : t, B. Rio Grande, 38.) 


129. Hylotomus pileatus, (Linu.) 

Late in May, 1876, I saw one specimen near Santa Maria, and have 
seen several holes that from their size were probably made by this 
bird.*— (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 469.) 

Mem. — Perhaps this was a Mexican species. 

130. * Centurus aurifrons, (Wagl.) 

This handsome Woodpecker is found abundantly, perhaps rather more 
so than P. scalaris. Its habits and mode of nesting do not differ from 
those of other Woodpeckers of the same size. In places where there is 
only low chaparral, the poles of the government telegraph line are 
completely riddled by this bird. The eggs are usually four in number, 
and are rather fragile ; before they are blown, they are a beautiful shade 
of pink. Seven specimens average 1.03 by .76. — (Sennett, B. Eio 
Grande, 39. — C. Jiaviventris, Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 469.) 

131. Strix flammea vat: pratincola, Bou. 

This Owl seems to be a rather common resident. Near Hidalgo it 
breeds in holes in the banks of the Rio Grande, and in Brownsville 
a few nest in ruined buildings. — {S. pratincola, Dresser, Ibis, 1865,, 
330. — 8. flammea americana, Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 39.) 

132. Asio accipitrinus, (Pall.) 

During the latter part of January, 1877, a small gathering of these 
Owls frequented a patch of tall grass in an open field near Browns- 
ville. — {Brachyotus cassini, Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 330.) 

133. Scops asio var. maccalli, Cass. 

Common resident. Near Hidalgo, on May 6, 1876, I captured a 
female of this race on her nest in an old hollow.stump about five feet 
from the ground. There were two eggs, nearly hatched, placed on a 
few chips at the bottom of the hole: these were of a dull white color 
with yellowish stains, and measure 1.40 by 1.15 and 1.39 by 1.13. The 
parent made an interesting pet for a few days, but finally escaped 
from my tent with ouq of the pegs to which it had been tied. — {IS. asio 
maccalli, Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 39. — 8. maccalli, Dresser, Ibis, 
1865, 330.) 

134. Bubo virginianus, (Gmel.) 

Probably resident. I have seen them occasionally in deep woods, 
and on one occasion in a perfectly open prairie, miles from timber of 
any size. — (Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 39.) 

135. Speotyto cuuicularia var. hypogaea, (Bon.) 

The Burrowing Owl is rather abundant during the winter months, 
but I do not think that any remain to breed. — {Athene Jiypogoea, 
Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 330.) 

• This may possibly liave been the Mexican species S. ncapularis (Vigors). — R. E. 


136. Falco communis iiar. naevius, Gmel. 

Eather common oa the prairies near the coast during winter.— (i?". 
anatiim, Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 333.) 

137. Falco fusco-caerulescens, Vieill. 

Until recently but two specimens of this beautiful Falcon had been 
taken within the United States, one in New Mexico, the other in Texas. 

Daring 1876 and 1877, I had occasionally seen a Hawk that I felt 
confident was of this species, but did not succeed in obtaining any 

On the 16th of June of the latter year, I found a nest placed in 
the top of a low Spanish bayonet growing in Palo Alto prairie, about 
seven miles from Fort Brown. After waiting a long time, I wounded 
the female, but she sailed off over the prairie and went down among 
some tall grass, where she could not be found: the male did not come 
within gunshot, though he twice rose from the nest on my approach. 
The nest was a slightly depressed platform of twigs, with a little grass 
for lining. The eggs, three in number, were rotten, though containing 
well-developed embryoes. They measure 1.81 by 1.29, 1.77 by 1.33, and 
1.88 by 1.33 respectively. This set is now in Dr. Brewer's collection. 

On May 7, 1878, a second nest was found within one hundred yards 
of the one just mentioned, and the parent secured. The nest in situa- 
tion and construction was precisely like the other, except that the 
yucca was higher, the top being about twelve feet from the ground. 
The eggs were three in number, all well advanced but one, with a 
dead embryo. They measure 1.78 by 1.34, 1.82 by 1.29, 1.73 by 1.32 ; the 
ground-color is white, but so thickly dotted with reddish-brown as to 
appear of that color ; over these are somewhat heavier markings of 
deeper shades of brown. 

A single egg, without history, sent to me from Hidalgo, Texas, by 
Dr. S. M. Finley, U. S. A., measures 1.73 by 1.36: it is probably of 
this species, but its general appearance is much more reddish than 
either of the above sets. 

Since becoming more familiar with the habits of this Falcon, I have 
several times observed it among yuccas and prickly pears on open 
prairies, and it is probably a not very uncommon summer resident in 
such places in this vicinity. 

Note. — The egg referred to by Dr. Merrill as without history presents 
a very interesting problem, only to be solved when eggs precisely 
similar can be found with their parentage satisfactorily established. 
It may be an egg of femoralis, but is quite as likely to be something 
else. It resembles in the color and peculiarities of its markings no 
eggs of the femoralis I have ever seen. It has neither the beautiful 
vandyke-brown markings of the egg figured in my Oology, nor any 
of the more abundant raw-sienna dottings found in both the speci- 


mens from the Pampas, and which is the only color present in the 
specimens identified by Dr. M. Instead, it is marked all over its surface 
with handsome spots and blotches of a deep reddish-buff, almost 
cinnamon in shade, completely obscuring the ground. Excepting in 
size, it most resembles an egg of Hierofalco islandicus. — T. M. B. 

138. Falco columbarius, Linn. 

Not uncommon during winter. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865,323. — Sennett, 
B. Rio Grande, 42.) 

139. Falco sparverius, Linn. 

Abundant from about the middle of September until the early part of 
April. All the specimens obtained were var. sparyeriMS, — (Sennett, B. 
Rio Grande, 42. — Tinnunculus s., Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 323.) 

140. *Polyborus cheri-way, (Jacq.) 

A common resident, but more abundant in winter than in summer. 
This seems to be due to a partial migration, from the north, of birds in 
immature plumage, for the number of mature individuals does not seem 
to vary. I do not think that the perfect plumage is acquired for at least 
two years. I have but little to add to the many accounts already given 
of this bird, except to say that, at times at least, it is more active than 
some of the descriptions would lead one to infer. I have seen a Caracara 
chase a jackass-rabbit for some distance through open mesquite chapar- 
ral, and while they were in sight the bird kept within a few feet of the 
animal and constantly gained on it, in spite of its sharp turns and 
bounds. If one bird has caught a snake or field-mouse, its companions 
that may happen to see it at once pursue, and a chase follows very dif- 
ferent from what is seen among true Vultures. The nests are bulky 
platforms of small branches, with a slight dei)ression lined with fine 
twigs, roots, and grasses, or sometimes altogether without lining : they 
are placed in trees or on the tops of bushes, at no great height from the 
ground. Both sexes incubate. I have not found more than two eggs in 
one nest, and these are laid at an interval of three or four days. Eleven 
eggs average 2.28 by 1.84. The ground-color is a deep chocolate or red- 
dish-brown, more or less thickly covered with several darker shades of 
the same. — (P. tharus, Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 329. — P. tharus auduboni, 
Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 42.) 

141. Elanoides forficatus, (Linn.) 

This beautiful bird I have observed on but few occasions, and do not 
think that it breeds in this immediate vicinity. Nothing can be more 
graceful than its mov^ements when pursuing insects, and for such a large 
bird it is very active.— (Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 42. — Nauclerus fur- 
catus, Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 325.) 

142. Elanus leucurus, (Vieill.) 

Seen on a few occasions, but is rare. 


143. Circus hudsonius, (Linn.) 

Probably the most common species of Hawk during the winter 
months, arriving in September and leaving in April. A large propor- 
tion are in immature plumage. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 328. — C. cyaneiis 
hudsonius, Sennett, B. Eio Grande, 40.) 

144. Nisus fuscus, (Gmel.) 

Found sparingly in winter. — {Accipiter /., Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 324.) 

145. Nisus cooperi, (Bon.) 

Like the last. — {Accipiter c. Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 323. — Sennett, B. 
Rio Grande, 42.) 

146. Antenor unicinctuB rar. harrlsi, (Aud.) 

Resident and quite abundant. In its habits, this bird resembles the 
Caracara Eagle, but is not so active. The nests are hardly distinguish- 
able in situation or construction, and the two eggs are also deposited 
at an interval of three or four days. Six eggs average 2.08 by 1.62; 
they are dull bluish or yellowish-white, faintly stained with yellowish- 
brown. — {Craxirex unicinctus, Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 329.— Buteo unicinc- 
tus harrisi, Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 42.) 

147. Buteo pennsylvanicus, (Wils.) 

Uncommon winter visitor. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 325. — Sennett, B. 
Rio Grande, 43.) 

148. Buteo swainsoni, Bon. 

Occurs sparingly in winter. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 324.) 

149. Buteo borealis, (Gmel.) 

A pair seen January 10, 1877, near Fort Brown, seemed to approach 
var. Icrideri in the extent and purity of white beneath, although the 
subterminal baud of black on the tail was very distinct. The birds 
sailed several times quite near me, and I had a very good view of 
them.— (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 324.) 

150. Buteo harlani, And. 

Early in November, 1876, 1 observed a single specimen of this species 
sailing in easy circles at no great distance from the ground ; but, not 
having my gun, I was unable to secure it. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 324.) 

151. Buteo albicaudatus. — The White-tailed Buzzard. 

Aquila coUblanca, Azara, Apuuo. 1, 1803, 69. 

Buteo albicaudatus, Vieiix.,Nouv. Diet. IV, 1816, 477 (ex Azara, /. c.).— Strickl., 
Oru. Syn. 1, 1855, 35.— Salvin, P. Z. S. 1H70, 215 (Veragua). 

Tachytriorchis albicaudatus, Sharpe, Cat. Ace. Brit. Mus. I, 1874, 162. 

Craxirex albicaudatus, Ridgw., Pr. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1875, 92. 

Buteo {Craxirex) albicaudatus, Ridgw., t. c. 98 (monographic). 
Spizaetus leucurus, Vieill., Noiiv. Diet. XXXII, 1819,59. 

Buteo leucurus, Lafi;., Rev. Zool. 1849, 100. 


Falco literacies, Temm., PI. Col. 1, 1823, pis. 56 (adult) and 139 (young). 

Buteo literacies, Less., Man. 1, 1828, 103.— Gray, Gen. B. I, 1849,12; Hand- 
list, I, 1869, 8.— Caban., in Schomb. Guiana, III, 1848, 739.— Kaup, 
Contr. Orn. 1850, 75 (subgen. Taehytriorchis). — Burm., Th. Bras. II, 1855, 
49.— SCHLEG., Mas. P.-B. Buteones, 1^63, 13; Rev. Ace. 1873, 110.— 
Pelz., Orn. Bras. 1871,3, 396.— Scl. & Salv. P. Z. S. 1870, 782 (Andes 
of MeriJa, Venezuela); Nom. Neotr. 1873, 119 (Mexico to Brazil). — 
Lawr., Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 4, 1876, 41 (Tapan^^ S. Mexico, July).* 
Taehytriorchis pterocles, Kaup, Siiug. Vog. 1844, 123. — Boxap., Consp. 1, 1850, 

Butea a^&icaHrfa, LESS.,Traite, 1831,81, pi. 15, fig. 2. — Puchekan, Rev. et Mag. 
Zool. 1850, 214. 

Butea tricolor, Hartl., Ind. Azara, 1847, 1 (nee D'Orb.) 

"Butea erythronotus", Scl., P. Z. S. 1859,389 (Oaxaca) (iicc Kiug). — Salvin & 
Scl., Ibis, 1860, 401 (Antioqnia, Guatemala.) — Lawr., Ann. Lye. N. Y. 
IX, 1868, 133 (San Jose and San Antonio, Costa Rica). 

"Butea harlani" (supposed young), Sharpe, Cat. Ace. Brit. Mus. I, 1874, 191 

Hab. — The whole of Middle America, north to the Lower Rio Grande 
Valley in Texas (on the eastern side), Colioia (west coast), and the City 
of Mexico (central plateau); Eastern Soutli America as far as Paraguay. 

Diagnosis. — Wing, 14.50-18.00; tail, 7.70-10.50; culmeu, .95-1.05; tar- 
sus, 3.30-3.70 ; middle toe, 1.55-1.80. Form: Third quill longest; first 
intermediate between sixth and eighth. Tail even in adult, slightly 
rounded in young. Color : Adult, tail white (the lateral feathers much 
tinged with ash), crossed by a broad subterminal band of black ; the 
white portion crossed by faint lines or narrow bars of plumbeous. Above 
dark plumbeous; rump and lower parts pure white; throat plumbeous- 
black or bluish-plumbeous. Flanks, rump, and lining of the wing 
usually faintly barred with ashy, dusky, or rufous. S : Lesser wing- 
coverts with a restricted patch of rufous on the anterior portion ; longer 
scapulars strongly tinged with rufous. 5 : Tiufous patch on lesser wing- 
covert region extended over nearly the whole of its area ; longer scapu- 
lars scarcely tinged with rufous. Young: Tail hoary-grayish (the inner 
webs mostly white), growing gradually darker terminally, and passing 
narrowly into dull whitish or rufous at tip ; crossed by numerous nar- 
row and very indistinct bars of darker, these growing gradually obsolete 
towards the base.| General color brownish-black, the lower parts more 
or less variegated (most conspicuously on the posterior portions and on 
middle of the breast) with ochraceous or whitish. 

BemarJcs. — The identity of specimens of the two plumages described 
in the diagnosis as "adult" and "young" is proven by specimens in 
which part of the tail-feathers are of one plumage and part of the other. 
Such a specimen is in Mr. Lawrence's collection from the City of Mexico. 

The older individuals in the immature dress are colored as follows: — 
Tail hoary ash, growing darlcer terminally, and passing narrowly into 

^ Iris bazel-brown ; cere greeuisb ; fe t yellow. 

t Fide Salvin, Ibis, October, 1874, 314. 

t These bars are sometimes entirely obsolete on the outer webs. 


brownish-white at the tip — the inner webs mostly white ; the termin;il 
half with just discernible obscure bais of darker, these becoming gradu- 
ally obsolete on the basal half; sometimes they are entirely obsolete for 
the full length of the outer webs. Upper tail-coverts pure white, usually 
immaculate, but sometimes barred; inner webs of primaries ashy, the 
two or three outer ones more whitish, and sometimes barred with dusky. 
In males, the middle of the breast, the tibiae, and crissum are usually 
ochraceous, irregularly spotted with brownish-black. 

The darker-colored individuals in this stage are distinguishable from 
the dark examples of the young of i^. sivahisoni only by the very much 
stouter and longer tarsi. 

The adults vary but little. The white of the jugulum usually reaches 
forward medially into the plumbeous of the throat, and in one ( $ ad., 
Tehuantepec, Mexico; Sumichrast) it extends — iaterruptedly, however — 
to the chin. Another male from the same locality has the scapulars 
almost entirely rufous, with black shaft-streaks. The white of the lower 
jjarts in the adult is of a pureness and continuity strikingly character- 
istic of this species. 

A very young specimen from Paraguay has the tail more brownish, 
more distinctly barred, and more ochraceous on the tip; the upper tail- 
coverts are ochraceous, marked' with broad crescentic bars of blackish, 
and the upper parts generally are variegated with ochraceous. 

The specimen collected by Dr. Merrill (No. 74,404) is an adult male in 
fine plumage. It agrees strictly with Mexican examples of correspond- 
ing sex and age. Dr. M. furnishes the following notes on this specimen : — 
" Length, 19.20 ; extent, 47.40; wiug, 15.30; tail, 7.20. Feet and legs 
yellow ; cere greenish yellow ; tip of bill dark, basal half bluish green ; 
iris brown." 

Material examined. — United States National Museum, 13; Museum of 
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, G; Museum of G. N. 
Lawrence, Esq., 1; other specimens,* 4. Total number of specimens ex- 
amined, 24. 


Sex and 





Middle toe. 


d ad. 
$ ad. 
$ juv. 

16. 30—16. 70 
14. .50-16. 75 
17. 75— . . 

17. 00—17. 75 

7. 50- 9. GO 

8. 60— 8. 75 


8. 40—10. 30 

. 95—1. 10 

.95—1 05 

3. 30—3. 55 
3. 30—3. 60 
3. 30—3. 70 

1. 60—1. 80 
i. 55— 1.65 
1.75— ... 
1. 60—1. 80 



This fine Hawk is a rather common resident on the extensive prairies 
near the coast, especially about the sand ridges that are covered with 
yucca and cactus. Its habits appear to be like those of the allied spe- 
cies of Prairie Hawks. On the 2d of May, 1878, 1 found two nests, each 

* These are specimens collected on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec by Prof. F. Sumi- 
chrast, and not entered in the Register of the National Museum. 


placed in the top of a yucca growing in Palo Alto prairie, about seven 
miles from the fort. The nests were not more than eight feet from 
the ground, and were good-sized platforms of twigs, with scarcely any 
lining. While examining these nests, the parents sailed in circles over- 
head, constantly uttering a cry much like the bleating of a goat. Each 
nest contained one egg. The first was quite fresh, and measures 2.35 
by 1.91. It is of a dirty-white color, with a few reddish blotches at the 
smaller end. The second egg was partly incubated. It resembles the 
first one, but the reddish blotches are rather sparsely distributed over 
the entire egg. It measures 2.35 by 1.85. 

152. Rhinogryphus aura, (Linn.) 

Very common at all seasons. Deposits its eggs on the ground, some- 
times on the opeu prairie ; at others, in more or less dense chaparral.* 
— (Cathartes a., Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 322. — Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 

153. Catharistes atratus, (Bart.) 

About as common as the preceding species, and, like it, breeds on the 
ground. I have not heard of either species building in trees here, as 
they are said to do in other parts of Texas. — {Cathartes a., Dresser, 
Ibis, 1865, 322.— Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 45.) 

154. Columba flavirostris, Wagl. 

This large and handsome Pigeon is found in abundance during the 
summer months, arriving in flocks of fifteen or twenty about the last 
week in February. Though not very uncommon about Fort Brown, it is 
much more j)lentiful a few miles higher u[) the river, where the dense 
woods offer it the shade and retirement it seeks. Three nests found in a 
grove of ash-trees, on the bank of the Rio Grande, near camp at Hidalgo, 
were frail platforms of twigs, such as are usually built by other Pigeons. 
Each contained one egg. It would appear from Mr. Sennett's observa- 
tions, which are more complete than mine, that this Pigeon rarely, if ever, 
lays more than one egg. These are of a pearly whiteness, and average 
1.50 by 1.08. Both sexes incubate. A perfectly fresh specimen has the 
soft parts as follows : — Terminal half of bill pale horn-color; basal half 
light pink; margin of eyelids and a ring near its base deep pinkish-red; 
iris bright orange-yellow, lighter yellow at pupillary margin; legs and 
feet vivid purplish-red. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 23.— Sennett, B. Rio 
Grande, 45.) 

155. * Melopelia leucoptera, (Linn.) 

Very common during the summer months. The nests as a rule are 
smaller and more frail than those of the Carolina Dove, and the eggs 
have a decided creamy tinge, which is rarely lost after blowing, at least 

" I have looked carefully for B. biirrovianus, but without success, although Mr. Dresser 
(Ibis, 18G5, p. 322) states that he has seen it on Palo Alto prairie, not more than seven 
miles from the fort. 


not for months. Thirty-four eggs average 1.17 by .88 ; extremes 1.30 by 
.95 and 1.05 by .80. The note is a deep, sonorous coo^ frequently repeated, 
and heard at a great distance.— (Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 24.— Sennett, 
B. Rio Grande, 47.) 

156. * Zenaedura carolinensis, (Linn. ) 

Although this species is found throughout the year, it is decidedly 
uncommon during the winter months; probably not more than 5 jier cent, 
or less remain at that season. One habit noticed here I have not seen 
mentioned before, — that of occasionally occupying old nests of the Great- 
tailed Grackle for their second brood.— (Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 24. — Sen- 
nett, B. Rio Grande, 47.) 

157. * Chamaepelia passerina, (Linn.) 

Quite abundant, particularly in summer. The small and rather com- 
pact nests are placed on the horizontal branch of a stout bush or tree, 
aud are lined with a few straws. On one occasion, I found the eggs in a 
roughly made nest on the ground on the edge of a prairie. — (Dresser, 
Ibis, 1866, 24.— Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 48.) 

158. '.aJchmoptila albifrons. 

Z\_enaida'\ amabilis, McCall, Pr. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1851, 220 (between Mata- 

moras and Camargo). 
"Leptojjfila albifrons, Gray. List Spec. Brit. Mns. j). 1.5." — Bonap., Cousp. II, 
185.5,74.— SCL., P. Z. S. 1859, 363 (Jalapa) ; 1860, 289 (Bababoyo, Ecua- 
dor) ; 1864, 178 (Cily of Mexico) ; 1870, 838 (Honduras).— Pcl. & Salv., 
Ibis, 1859, 222 (Dueuas, Guatemala); P.Z.S 1864, 370 (Gn;.teui;ila; 1'..- 
nauia) ; 1868, 60 (Mexico; Guatemala); 1870,838 (coast ol Honduras) ; 
Norn. Neotr. 1873, 133.— Lawr., Pr. Boston Soc. 1871, — (Tres Marias 
Islands, W. Mexico ; common. Vulg. : " I'aloma ") ; Mem. Boston Soc. 
II, 1874, 305 (Mazatlau; Tres Maiias; babits); Bull. U. S. Nat.Mus. 
No. 4, 1876, 44 (Isth. Tehuantepec. " Iris orange ; bill black ; bare or- 
bital space bluish ; feet carmine ").— Coues, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, 
II, July, 1877, 82 (Hidalgo, Texas, April 18, 1877; not uncommon; 

Mchmoptila albifrons, Coues & Sennett, Bull. U. S. Geol. aud Geog. Surv. 
Terr. vol. iv. No. 1, 1878, 49 (Hidalgo, Texas). 

Feristera albifrons, Bonap., Consp. II, 1855, 74 (Mexico; " Cuba " ; " Colum- 
bia " ; " Cartbagena ").— Gray, Hand-list, II, 1870, 242 (Mexico. Subg. 
" Feristera brachxjptera, Gray, MSS." (Sclater). 

[A good description of this species having already been given by Dr. 
Coues in Mr. Sennett's paper, I give here only a list of references, mostly 
additional to those already published. — R. R.] 

This Pigeon is not rare in the vicinity of Fort Brown, but is shy 
and not very often seen. I can give nothing very definite in regard to 
its habits. The only nest I have found was taken on June 8, 1878, on 
the government reservation. It was about seven feet from the ground, 
supported by the dense interlacing tendrils of a hanging vine growing 
on the edge of a thicket. The eggs, two in number, were quite fresh. 


The^s measure 1.16 by .86 and 1.19 by .89. They are much like eggs of 
M. Uucoptera, but have a strong olive-buff instead of a creamy-buff tinge. 

159. Ortalida vetula var. maccalli, Baird. 

The Ohachalac, as the present species is called on the LowerKio Grande, 
is one of the most characteristic birds of that region. Rarely seen at 
iiuy distance from woods or dense chaparral, they are abundant in those 
places, and their hoarse cries are the first thing heard by the traveller 
on awaking in the morning. During the day, unless rainy or cloudy, 
the birds are rarely seen or heard ; but shortly before sunrise and sun- 
set, they mount to the topmost branch of a dead tree, and make the woods 
ring with their discordant notes. Contrary to almost every description 
of their cry I have seen, it consists of three syllables, though occasion- 
ally a fourth is added. When one bird begins to cry, the nearest bird 
joins in at the second note, and in this way the fourth syllable is madej 
but they keep such good time that it is often very difficult to satisfy 
one's self that this is the fact. I cannot say certainly whether the female 
utters this cry as well as the male, but there is a well-marked anatomical 
distinction in the sexes in regard to the development of the trachea. In 
the male, this passes down outside the pectoral muscles, beneath the 
skin, to within about one inch of the end of the sternum ; it then doubles 
on itself, and passes up, still on the right of the keel, to descend within the 
thorax in the usual manner. This duplicature is wanting in the female. 
These birds are much hunted for the Brownsville market, though 
their flesh is not particularly good, and the body is very small for the 
apparent size of the bird. Easily domesticated, they become trouble- 
somely familiar, and are decided nuisances when kept about a house. 
Beyond Ringgold Barracks, this species is said to become rare, and soon 
to disappear ; and it probably does not pass more than fifty miles to the 
north of the Rio Grande. The nests are shallow structures, often made 
entirely of Spanish moss, and are placed on horizontal limbs a few feet 
from the ground. The eggs, commonly three in number, are about the 
size and shape of common hens' eggs; they are of a buffy-white, and 
are roughly granulated ; they average about 2.18 by 1.55. — [0. maccalli, 
Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 24. — 0. vetula, Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 50.) 

160. Meleagris gallopavo, Linn. 

Found in abundance in all suitable localities, but not in the immediate 
vicinity of the fort ; birds taken here present the characters of var. 
mexicana well developed. Two eggs taken near Hidalgo by Mr. G. B. 
Senuctt, and presented to me, are quite unlike; one measures 2.41 by 1.84, 
and in color and markings is like a typical egg of the domestic turkey ; 
the other egg, 2.33 by 1.72, is of a pale creamy-white, the spots being few 
and very pale.— (Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 25.— Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 53.) 

161. Cupidonia cupido var. pallidicincta, Ridgw. 

I am informed by a i)erson perfectly familiar with the bird that the 
Prairie Chicken is occasionally seen on the prairies about Miradores 


ranch, which is about thirty miles north of the fort and a few miles 
from the coast. This is probably about the southernmost point in the 
range of the bird.— (C. cupido, Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 26.) 

162. *Ortyx virginiana var. texana, Lawr. 

The Texan Quail is very common, and in its habits resembles the 
Eastern Quail in all respects, except that it does not lie well to a dog. 
They are with difficulty flushed, but run at once into chaparral, from 
which it is almost impossible to dislodge them. The only nest 1 suc- 
ceeded in finding was at the foot of a small stump, surrounded by a 
small, but dense, growth of offshoots; the nest was rather elaborately 
built of grasses, and was well domed. On the 21st of Mny, it contained 
sixteen fresh eggs. These average 1.15 by .93, the extremes being 1.18 
by .95 and 1.12 by .92. Four odd eggs from different nests are rather 
larger than this average. — (0. texanus, Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 27. — 0. 
virginiana texana, Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 53.) 

163. Callipepla squamata, (Vigors.) 

Tbis beautiful Partridge is found in great abundance at Ringgold 
Barracks about 120 miles from Fort Brown, but does not come very 
much farther down the river. Hidalgo is about the limit of their range 
in this direction, though on September 13, 1877, 1 killed one within two 
miles of the fort. This was one of a covey and the only one flushed, 
and I did not recognize it until I picked it up ; the others were not 
distinctly seen, but were probably of the same species. — (Dresser, 
Ibis, 1866, 28.) 

164. ^gialitis vocifera, (Linn.) 

Common resident. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 33. — Sennett, B. Rio 
Grande, 53.) 

165. .Slgialitis \vilsonia, (Ord.) 

Resident, breeding rather abundantly along the coast. — (Dresser, 
Ibis, 1866, 34.) 

166. Haematopus palliatus, Temm. 

Breeds on Padre and Brazos Islands. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 34. — 
Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 53.) 

167. Strepsilas interpres, (Linn.) 

The Turnstone is found on the coast and adjacent lagoons throughout 
the year, and I feel confident that it breeds in spite of the latitude. Dur- 
ing May and June pairs in full plumage may daily be seen in the same 
localities.— (Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 34.— Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 54.) 

168. Recurvirostra americana, Gm. 

Common during winter, a few pairs remaining to breed. — (Dresser, 
Ibis, 1866, 35.— Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 54.) 


169. Himantopus mexicanus, (Miiller.) 

Common resident. Breeds in the marshes about the middle of May, 
making its nests on wet grassy flats and laying three or four eggs. The 
nests are i^latforms of straw and grasses, often wet, and barely keeping 
the eggs out of the water. Twenty-two eggs average 1.75 by 1.19, the 
extremes being 1.88 by 1.25 and 1.60 by 1.10. — [H. nigricollis, Dresser, 
Ibis, 18GG, 35.— Sennett, B. Eio Grande, 54.) 

170. Gallinago ■wilsoni, (Temm.) 

Plentiful during the winter, though the great majority go farther 
south. The time of their arrival in the autumn is uncertain. In 187G, 
the first were shot on the 18th of September, and they soon became 
abundant ; this was said to be at least a month earlier than usual. In 
1877, the main flight arrived on the 28th of November, during a cold and 
wet " norther ".—(Dresser, Ibis, 186G, 36.) 

171. Macrorhamphus griseus, (Gmel.) 

Common from September until April. — (Dresser, Ibis, 18GG, 36.) 

172. Tringa alpina var. americana, Cass. 

Ou May 16, 1877, I found the Eed-backed Sandpiper rather common 
about some lagoons in the salt marshes; the males were in full breed- 
ing plumage. 

173. Tringa bairdii, Coues. 

Two females taken March 30, 1876, on a sand-bar in the river. 

174. Tringa maculate, Vieill. 

Common during the migrations, returning in the latter part of July. 
They do not seem to pass the winter. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 36.— Sen- 
nett, B. Eio Grande, 55.) 

175. Tringa fuscicoUis, Vieill. 
Common in winter. 

176. Triniga minutilla, Vieill. 

Common in winter. — [Tringa icilso?ii, DRESSER, Ibis, 1866, 37.) 

177. Calidris arenaria, (Liun.) 

Common in winter on Padre and Brazos Islands, where I have also 
seen it in July. 

178. Ereunetes pusillus, (Linn.) 

Common in winter. — [E, petrijicatus, Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 37.) 

179. Micropalama himantopus, (Bonap.) 

October 13, 1877.— (Dresser, Ibis, 186G, 37.) 

180. Actiturus bartramius, (Wils.) 

This species arrives in small flocks about the second or third week in 
March, and is found abundantly on the grassy prairies. On its arrival 
Proc. Nat. Mus. 78 11 Oct. S, 1 878. 


in spring, it is in poor condition, and soon goes farther north, though a 
few linger until about May 10. Late in July some reappear, and by the 
first of September they are abundant ; by the middle of this month, they 
begin to leave, and few are seen or heard after the first week in October.— 
(DeesseRj IbiSj 1866, 38.— Sennett, B. Eio Grande, 55.) 

181. Tryngites rufescens, (Vieill.) 

The Buff-breasted Sandpiper is found in the same localities and at 
the same seasons as the Upland Plover, which it closely resembles in 
habits, but is much less shy and suspicious. — (Deessee, Ibis, 1866, 39.) 

182. Limosa fedoa, (Linn.) 

Taken in spring and autumn. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 39.— Sennett, 
B. Eio Grande, 55.) 

183. Symphemia semipalmata, (Gmel.) 

Breeds rather plentifully in suitable localities. Four eggs, somewhat 
advanced in incubation, were found on May 2, 1877, placed on a few 
grass-blades under a weed in a dry -part of the marsh. Two of the eggs 
were broken by the carriage-wheel ; the others measure 2.06 by 1.52 and 
2.05 by 1 .50. I do not think that any remain during winter. — (Deessee, 
Ibis, 1806, 2>1 .—Totanm s., Sennett, B. Eio Grande, 55.) 

184. Gambetta melauoleuca, (Gmel.) 

Abundant during the migrations, many passing the winter here. — 
(Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 38.— Sennett, B. Eio Grande, 55.) 

185. Gambetta flavipes, (Gmel.) 

Like the last, but j)erhaps less common in winter. — (Dresser, Ibis, 
1866, 38.) 

186. Numenius longirostris, Wils. 

Common during winter, many remaining to breed on the partially 
dry marshes near the coast. Found recently fledged young June 16. — 
(Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 40.— Sennett, B. Eio Grande, 55.) 

187. Numenius borealis, (Forst.) 

Common during the migrations, some passing the winter. — (Dresser, 
Ibis, 1866, 40.— Sennett, B. Eio Grande, 56.) 

188. Charadrius fulvus var. virginicus, Borck. 

Not rare in winter. — {C. virginicus, Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 33.) 

189. Tringoides macularius, (Linn.) 

Eather rare in winter. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 38.) 

190. Tantalus loculator, Linn. 

On the 10th of April, 1876, 1 saw a pair of these birds on the edge of 
a shallow lagoon near Fort Browu. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 32.) 


191. Plegadis guarauna, (Gm.) 

Resident, but much more common in summer than in winter. On the 
16th of May, 1877, Mr. G. B. Sennett and I visited a large i^atch of tule- 
reeds growing in a shallow lagoon, about ten miles from the fort, in 
which large numbers of this Ibis and several kinds of Herons were 
breeding. The reeds covered an area of perhaps seventy -five acres or 
less, growing in water three or four feet in depth. Irregular channels 
of open water traversed the reeds here and there, but the bottom was 
comparatively firm, and there was little difficulty in wading in any 
direction. Besides the Ibises, the Great and Little White Egrets, Lou- 
isiana and Night Herons, and several other birds were breeding here. 
Often nests of all these species were placed within a few feet of each 
other, but there was a tendency towards the different kinds forming 
little nesting groups of ten or fifteen pairs. The reeds grew about six 
feet above the surface of the water, and were either beaten down to 
form a support for the nests, or dead and partly floating stalks of the 
previous year were used for that purpose. 

It was impossible to estimate the number of the Ibises and different 
Herons nesting here. On approaching the spot, many would be seen 
about the edges of the lagoon or flying to or from more distant feeding 
grounds, but upon firing a gun a perfect mass of birds arose, with a noise 
like thunder, from the entire bed of reeds, soon to settle down again. 

Both nests and eggs of the Ibises were quite unlike those of any of the 
Herons, and could be distinguished at a glance. The nests were made 
of broken bits of dead tules, supported by and attached to broken and 
upright stalks of living ones. They were rather well and compactly 
built, and were usually well cupped, quite unlike the clumsy platforms 
of the Herons. The eggs were nearly always three in number, and at 
this date were far advanced in incubation ; many nests contained young 
of all sizes. Fifty eggs now before me average 1.95 by 1.35, the extremes 
being 2.20 by 1.19 and 1.73 by 1.29; they are decidedly pointed at the 
smaller end, and are of a deep bluish green color. 

On May 7 of the following year, I revisited this heronry, but there were 
no nests, and very few Ibises or Herons were to be seen. I am inclined 
to think that they moved to some other part of the extensive prairie, in 
several parts of which were beds of reeds similar to the one above 
described, but I was prevented by sickness from making any further 

The young, when first hatched, are clothed in blackish down; the bill 
is whitish, with dusky base. When nearly fledged, the wings and back 
have a very marked metallic lustre ; the base of bill, with terminal one- 
fourth inch and a two-fifths inch median band, black ; the intervening 
portions pinkish-white. — [Ibis ordi, Dresser, Ibis, 18G6, 32. — Falcinel- 
lus g., Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 56.) 


192. Ibis alba, (Linn.) 

A few observed at all seasons, but I was unable to find any locality 
where they nested.— (Dressee, Ibis, IGG, 32.— Sennett, B. Eio Grande, 

193. Platalea ajaja, Linn. 

Not rare, but more common near the coast. It must breed in the 
vicinity. — (Dresser, Ibis, 18G6, 33. — Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 58.) 

194. Ardea herodias, Linn. 

Common resident. Found nesting abundantly on Padre Island by 
Mr. Sennett. — (Dresser, Ibis, 18CG, 31. — Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 58.) 

195. Herodias egretta, (Gm.) 

Common resident, but more plentiful in summer. Breeds abundantly 
in the same locality as the preceding species. The nests, as a rule, 
were distinguishable by their large size ; the eggs and young were also 
quite characteristic. Twelve eggs average 2.14 by 1.54. — (Dresser, 
Ibis, 186G, 31.— Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 59.) 

196. Garzetta candidissima, (Jacq.) 

Abundant during the summer, a few passing the winter. Breeds in 
great numbers. Its nest and eggs are only to be confounded with those 
of the succeeding species.— (Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 31. — Sennett, B. Rio 
Grande, 59.) 

197. Hydranassa tricolor, (Miill.) 

Common summer visitant. I do not think that any are found here 
during winter. In visiting the heronry already referred to, the Louisi- 
ana Heron was found in abundance. The birds seemed more shy in 
leaving their nests than the two preceding. The nests and eggs closely 
resembled those of the Little White Egret, and could not be positively 
identified without seeing the parent; but, as a rule, the nests were 
smaller, and the eggs a little larger and of a deeper shade. — (Sennett, 
B. Rio Grande, 60. — Bcmiegretta ludoviciana, Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 31.) 

198. Dichromauassa rufa, (Bodd.) 

Not uncommon during the summer. In the latter part of March, 1878, 
Mr. Sennett found this species breeding in large numbers on Padre 
Island. The nests were placed on low prickly pears or on the ground. — 
(Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 60. — Demiegretta rufa, Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 
31. — Demiegretta pealii, Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 31.) 

199. Florida caerulea, (Linn.) 

Seen throughout the year, but most abundantly in summer. Breeds on 
Padre Island.— (Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 31.— Sennett, B.Rio Grande, 61.) 

200. Nyctiardea grlsea var. nasvia, (Bodd.) 

Rather common resident, but many go farther south in winter. 
Found breeding with the other species among the tules, but in fewer 


numbers. The nests differed from those of the others by twigs and 
small branches being generally used in their coustrucMou, which must 
have been brought from a considerable distance. They were but slightly 
above the surface of the water, and most of the nests contained nearly 
(fledged young. — K gardeni, Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 32. — K ncevia, Sen- 
next, B. Kio Grande, 61.) 

201. Nyctherodius violaceus, (Linn.) 

Eather uncommon. Probably breeds at no great distance, but I found 
no nests. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 32.— Sennett, B. Eio Grande, 61.) 

202. *Butcrides virescens, (Linn.) 

Common in summer, but rare in winter. Several pairs breed within 
Fort Brown, placing their nests on horizontal branches of mcsquite-trees. 
Several sets average 1.49 by 1.15.— (Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 32.) 

203. Botaurus lentiginosus, (Montag.) 

Occurs in moderate numbers during the migrations.— (Dresser, Ibis, 
1866, 32.) 

204. Ardetta exilis, (Gmel.) 

A few pairs were seen in the heronry already referred to. No nests 
were found, but the birds unquestionably breed there. — (Dresser, Ibis, 
1866, 32.— Sennett, B. Rio Grande, 61.) 

205. Grus ataericana, (Linn.) 

!N^ot rare, especially on the prairies near the coast. I do not think 
that either species of Crane breeds in this neighborhood. — (Dresser, 
Ibis, 1866, 30.— Sennett, B. Eio Grande, 61.) 

206. Grus canadensis, (Linn.) 

Decidedly more abundant than the White Crane during the winter 
months, and not so shy. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 30.) 

207. Pcrzana Carolina, (Linn.) 

Common during the migrations. I am quite ])0sitive that a few pairs 
breed near here in suitable localities. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 40.) 

2 OS. Gallinula galeata, (Licbt.) 

Parents and eggs obtained on the 16th of Mny among beds of reeds. — 
(Sennett, B. Eio Grande, 61.) 

209. lonornis raartinica, (Linn.) 

Doubtless breeds, for I have taken young birds in September that 
were scarcely able to fly. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 41.) 

210. Fulica americana, Gm. 

Very common resident. Breeds among patches of tales, making a 
rather bulky jtlatform of bits of dead reeds scarcely raised above the 
surface of the water. Fourteen is the greatest number of eggs I have 
found in one nest. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 40. — Sennett, B. Eio 
Grande, 62.) 


Family PARRID^E: The Jacanas. 

Parridw, "Selys, 1842".— Gray, Hand-list, III, 1871, 09.— Scl. & Salv., Norn. Neotr. 
1873, viii, 142.— Boucard, Cat. Av. 1876, IX, 11. 

< EaUidw, Vigors (fide Gray).— Lilljeborg, P. Z. S. 1866, 17. 

= Farrinw, Gray, List Genera B. 1840, — ; 2cl ed. 1841, 91 ( < PaIamcdeid(c).—Gn\Y & 
Mitch., Genera B. 4to, III, 1849, 588 ( < Falamedeida') ; Genera and Subg. 1855, 
119 ( < Falamedeida).— LiLi^EDORG, P. Z. S. 186G, 17 ( < Fallidw). 

< Falamedeida', Gray, I. c. 

< GalUnuUda', Blas. (fide Gray'). 

Ch. — Small-sized wading birds, combiuiug the general appearance of 
Eails and Plovers, but differing from either in the remarkable and ex- 
cessive elongation of the toes and claws, the latter nearly straight and 
much compressed, that of the hallux much longer than its digit and 
slightly recurved. 

The above brief diagnosis is sufficient to distinguish the Jacanas from 
all other wading birds. Their nearest allies appear to be the Plovers, 
from which they differ chiefly in the character of the feet, as pointed 
out above. The single American genus Parra, Lath., is further charac- 
terized by the presence of leaf-like lobes at the base of the bill, and a 
sharp, conical spur projecting from the inside of the bend of the wing, 
in the possession of which features they present a striking analogy to 
certain Plovers, as the genera Lohivanellus, Strickl., and Hojilopterus, 
Bonap. The genus P«rra, of which there are several species, all Ameri- 
can,* is characterized as follows : — 

Genus PARRA, Linnfeus. 

< Jacana, Briss., Orn. V, 1760, 121. Type, Farrajacana, Auct. (Includes Hydralector, 

Wag]., and Mefopodiiis, Wagl.) 

< GaUimda, Ray (Jide Gray). 

<Farra, Linn., S. N. I, 1766, 259. Type, F. dominica, 1,111x1.,^^ Lohivanellus Irissoni, 
(Wagl.) ! (Includes also Chauna and Jacana.) — Latham, lud. Orn. II, 1790, 762. 
Type, P. jacana, Linn. (Includes Hijdrophasianus, Wagl., Chauna, Uliger, and 
Metopodius, Wagl.)— Gray-, Hand-list, III, 1871, 69 (subg. Farra). 

= Pami, Gray, List Genera, 2d ed. 1841, 91; Gen. and Subg. 1855, 119, No. 1970.— 
Gray & Mitch., Genera B. Ill, 1849, 288.— Scl., P. Z. S. 1856, 282 (synopsis of 
species).— ScL. & Salv., Nom. Neotr. 1873, 142 (list of species). — Boucard, Cat. 
Av. 1876, 11 (list of species). 

Ch. — Remiges normal. Rectrices much abbreviated, very soft, entirely 
concealed by the tail-coverts. Forehead with large, leaf-like lobe, free 
laterally and posteriorly, adhering centrally and anteriorly; rictus orna- 
mented by a smaller lobe (rudimentary in P. gymnostoma). 

The above characters are chiefly those which distinguish the Ameri- 
can genus Farra from its Old World allies JIij(lro2)hasianus,i Metopo- 

* For a synopsis of the species of this genus, see Sclater " On the American Genua 
Parra ", in Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1856, p. 282. 

V Eydrojjhasianus, Wagler, 1832." Type, H. cliintrgus (Scopoli). 


dius,* and HydralectorA I am unable to state in just what essential 
particulars the two latter differ from Parra, never having seen speci- 
mens of any species of either form. The first, however, differs very 
widely in the great development of the rectrices, of which the inter- 
medite are excessively elongated ; in the curious attenuation of the 
primaries, which are, moreover, of very unequal length, and in the entire 
absence of lobes about the base of the bill. These characters I have 
drawn from figures of the single species, H. chirurgus (Scopoli), not hav- 
ing seen the bird itself. 

In addition to the generic characters given above, the following also 
may be mentioned : — 

Bill somewhat Plover-like in form, the basal half with the upper and 
lower outlines nearly parallel and decidedly approximated, the terminal 
half of the culmeu strongly convex, the gonys nearly straight, and 
decidedly ascending terminally ; nostrils small, horizontal, elliptical, 
situated about half-way between the anterior angle of the eye and the 
tip of the bill. Primaries 10, reaching to the tips of the tertials, the 
three outer quills longest and nearly equal, their inner webs slightly 
narrowed near the end. Tarsus and bare portion of the tibia covered 
by a continuous frontal and posterior series of transverse scutelloe, these 
sometimes fused into continuous sheaths 5 middle toe (exclusive of its 
claw) about equal to the tarsus (sometimes a little shorter) ; outer toe 
equal to the middle toe, but its claw a little shorter ; inner toe a little 
shorter than the outer, but its claw considerably longer; hallux about 
equal to the basal phalanx of the middle toe, but its claw reaching nearly, 
if not quite, to the end of the middle toe. 

211. Parra gymnostoma. 

Parra gymnostoma, Wagler, Isis, 1831, 517.— ScL., P. Z. S. 1856, 283 (S. Mexico 
to New Granada. Diagnosis and synonymy) ; 1857, 206 ( Jalapa). — 
ScL. & Salv., Ibis, 1859, 231 (Belize, Honduras; Peten, Guatemala) ; 
Nom. Neotr. 1873, 142.— Taylor, Ibis, 1860, 315 (Honduras).- Salvin, 
Ibis, 1870, 116 (Costa Rica) ; P. Z. S. 1870, 218 (Costa Rica).— Lawr., 
Mem. Boston Soc. II, 1874, 312 (Mazatlan,Manzanino Bay, ZacatulaR., 
and Rio de Coahuyana, W. Mexico. Habits. Descr. nest and eggs) ; 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 4, 1876, 50 (Isth. Tebuantepec).— Merrill, 
Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, I, Nov. 1876, 88 (Ft. Brown, Texas; 1 pair; 

Parra cordifera, Less., Rev. Zool. 1842, 135 (Acapulco. Descr. adult). — Des 
MUBS, Icon. Orn. 1845, pi. 42. 

Sp. GB..— Adult: Wing, 4.50-5.40; culmen, 1.15-1.40; tarsus, 1.90- 
2.35; middle toe, 1.85-2.25.| Head, neck, jugulum, and extreme an- 
terior portion of the back uniform black, with a faint silky glossy-green 
gloss below. Kest of the plumage mainly uniform rich purplish chest- 
nut, with a faint purple gloss, brightest or most rufesceut on the wings, 

* " Metopodius, Wagler, 1832." Type, Parra africana, l^ath., fide Gray. 
t " Htjdralector, Wagler, 1332." Type, Parra crisiata, Vieill., fide Gray. 
X Extremes of thirteen examples. 


more purplish on the back, rump, and upper tail-coverts, and of a rich 
dark purplish maroon shade on the breast and sides; anal region, tibiae, 
and crissum duller and more grayish. Kemiges (except the tertials) pale 
yellowish pea-green, bordered terminally with dull dusky, this border 
very narrow, and strictly terminal on the secondaries, but broader and 
involving more or less of both edges of the quills on the primaries, where 
it increases in extent to the outer quill, which has the entire outer web 
blackish; alulse and primary coverts dull blackish. Tail-feathers uni- 
form rich chestnut. " Iris dark brown ; bill, alar spurs, and frontal leaf, 
bright yellow; upper base of bill bluish white, the space between it and 
the nasal leaf bright carmine; feet greenish" (Sumichrast, MS., ^(7e 
Lawr., Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 4, 187G, p. 50). 

Young : Frontal leaf rudimentary. Pileum grayish-brown, bordered 
on each side by a wide and conspicuous superciliary stripe of bufify 
white, extending to the occiput ; below this stripe, another narrower 
one of black or dusky, beginning at the posterior angle of the eye and 
extending along the upper edge of the auriculars to the nape, wbich is 
also of this color ; remainder of the head, with the entire lower parts, 
except the sides, continuous buflf'y white, more strongly tinged with buff 
across the jugulum. Upper i)arts in general (except the remiges) light 
grayish-brown, the feathers bordered terminally with rusty buff in the 
younger stage, but uniform in older individuals; rump more or less 
tinged with chestnut. Sides and lining of the wing dusky black, but 
in older examples more or less tinged with chestnut. Remiges as in the 
adult; rectrices grayish-brown. 

The downy young is unknown, or at least if described I have been 
unable to find out where. 

In the considerable series of specimens of this species contained in 
the collection of the National Museum, notable variations in size and 
l^roportions occur among specimens of the same age and sex, but 
apparently without regard to locality. Cuban specimens do not differ 
in the least from Mexican and Central American examples. 

The following note was published in the Bulletin of the Nuttall Orni- 
thological Club, vol. i, p. 88. I have nothing to add to it, except that 
during a recent visit to Washington Mr. Eidgway showed me some 
skins of this curious bird, and I was enabled to positively identify them 
with the birds I saw: — -'Early in August (187G) I saw a pair of water- 
birds quite new to me on the borders of a lagoon near Fort Brown. 
I was on horseback at the time, and did not have my gun, but had a 
good opportunity to observe them carefully. The next day I winged 
one of them, but it fell into a dense bed of water-plants, and could not 
be found, and the survivor disappeared. Respecting a letter describ- 
ing the bird as seen, Mr. Eidgway writes : 'The bird you describe is un- 
doubtedly Parra ^/^/wmos^owm ; * * * the chestnut back and yellow 
(greenish -yellow) wings settle the species beyond a doubt.'" 


212. Cygnus ameiicanus, Sbarpless. 

Early in January, 1878, a fine specimen was brouglit into Brownsville 
alive by a Mexican, who said that it was caught on a lagoon by one of 
Lis dogs. It must Lave been wounded, thougL I could see uo sign of 
this. EitLer tLis species or iLe Trumpeter Swan is said to be not 
uncommon uear tLe coast during winter. 

213. Anser albifrons rar. gambeli, Hartl. 

TLe first of tLe Geese to return in tLe autumn, usually about the first 
week in October. Comparatively few of tLis or tLe otLer species of 
Geese remain tLrougbout tLe winter, but during tbe migrations tLis one 
is only surpassed in numbers by tLe Snow Goose. I Lave seen a flock of 
at least two Lundred pass over Fort Brown as late as tLe IStL of April. — 
{A. gambeli, Dkesser, Ibis, 18GG, 42.) 

214. Chen hyperboreus, (Pall.) 

Very abundant, especially on tLe salt prairies near tlie coast. — 
(Dresser, Ibis, 186G, 41. — Sennett, B. Kio Grande, G2.) 

215. Branta canadensis, (Liuu.) 

l^ot rare, but tbe least common of tLe Geese in tLis vicinity. — {Ber- 
nicla c, Dresser, Ibis, 18GG, 42.) 

216. Branta hutchinsi, (Sw. & Rich.) 

More abundant tLan B. canadensis, but less so tLan A. gamheli. — 
{Bernicla li., Dresser, Ibis, 18GG, 42.) 

217. Decdrocygna autumnalis, (Linn.) 

TLis large and Landsome bird arrives from tLe soutL in April, and is 
soon found in abundance on tLe river banks and lagoons. Migrating 
at nigLt, it continually utters a very peculiar cLattering wListle, wLicL 
at once indicates its presence. Called by tLe Mexicans patos maizal, or 
Corn-field Duck, from its Labit of frequenting those localities. It is by 
uo means sLy, and large numbers are ofiered for sale in tLe Brownsville 
market. Easily domesticated, it becomes very tame, roosting at nigLt 
in trees witL cLickens and turkeys. WLen tLe females begin to lay, tLe 
males leave tLem, and gatLer in large flocks on sand-bars in tLe river. 
My knowledge of tLe breeding Labits is derived from Dr. S. M. Eiuley, 
U. S. A., wLo Lad ample opportunity of observing tLese birds at Hi- 
dalgo. TLe eggs are deposited in Lollow trees and branches, often at a 
considerable distance from water (two miles), and from eigLt to tLirty 
feet or more from tLe ground. TLe eggs are placed on tLe bare wood, 
aud are from twelve to sixteen in number. Two broods are raised, and 
tLe parent carries tLe young to water in Ler bill. Twelve eggs received 
from Dr. Finley average 2.11 by 1.53, witL but little variation in size: 
ILey are of tLe usual duck sLape, and in color are a ratLer clear yellow- 
isL-wLite. TLe birds leave in September, but a few late broods are seen 
as late as November. TLe soft parts in a full-plumaged living male were 


as follows: iris brown; bill coral-red, orange above; nail of bill bluish; 
legs and feet pinkish- white.— (Dresser, Ibis, 18G2, 42.— Sennett, B. 
Kio Grande, 02.) 

218. Dendrocygna fulva, (Gmel.) 

I cannot say much in regard to this species, though it is about as 
common as the preceding in this vicinity. Like the Corn-field Duck, it 
is a summer visitant, and both species frequent the same places. The 
notes while flying are somewhat different. 1 know nothing definite in 
regard to the breeding habits, but they probably do not differ much 
from those of the other bird. Dr. Finley tells me that he did not meet 
with it at Hidalgo. In a fresh specimen, the bill was bluish-black; legs 
light slaty-blue.— (Dresser, Ibis, 18GG, 42.) 

219. Anas boschas, Linn. 

Xot uncommon during the winter months. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1806, 42.) 

220. Anas obscura, Gm. 

Xot common ; a few remain to breed on the marshes near the coast. — 
(Dresser, Ibis, 1806, 42.— Sennett, B. Eio Grande, 03.) 

221. Dafila acuta, (Liun.) 

Eather plentiful. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1806, 43. — Sennett, B. Eio 
Grande, 63. 

222. Chaulelasmus streperus, (Linn.) 

Probably the most common Duck in this vicinity during the winter. 
My game register shows that a greater number of Gadwalls were killed 
each winter than of any other Duck. Some remain throughout the 
summer.— (Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 43. — Sennett, B. Eio Grande, 63.) 

223. Mareca americana, (Gm.) 

Eather common, especially in spring and autumn. — (Dresser, Ibis, 
1866, 43.— Sennett, B: Eio Grande, 63.) 

224. Nettion caroiinensis, (Gm.) 

Common, especially during the migrations. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1866,43.) 

225. Querquedula discors, (Linn.) 

Common, arriving early in September. A few remain during the 
winter, but the great majority go farther south, returning about the 
middle of March.— (Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 43.) 

226. Querquedula cyanoptera, (Vieill.) 

Not rare during the migrations; more are seen in spring than in 

227. Spatula clypeata, (Linn.) 

Very common in winter. I have seen several pairs on the marshes 
during the breeding season.— (Sennett, B. Eio Grande, 03.) 


228. Fulls marila, (Linu.) 

Rather rare.— (Deesser, Ibis, 186G, 43.) 

229. Fulix affinis, (Eyton.) 

Decidedly more commou than the hist. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 43. — 
Fuligula a., Sennett, B. Eio Grande, 03.) 

230. Fulix collaris, (Donov.) 

A few specimen.? killed. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 43.) 

231. Aythya americana, (Eyt.) 

Not uncommon. — {JEtliya «., Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 43.) 

232. Aythya valUsneria, (Wils.) 

Earer than the last species; but few specimens shot. — {^thyav.y 
Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 43.) 

233. Bucephala albeola, (Linn.) 

Eather plentiful. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 43.) 

234. Erismatura rubida, (Wil?.) 

235. Lophodytes cucullatus, (Linn.) 

A few seen during winter. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 44.) 

236. Pelecanus erythrorhynchus, (Gmel.) 

Eather commou, and seen at all seasons. I was unable to find any 
breeding places of this species, but they unquestionably nest near the 
coast, and also at no great distance from Hidalgo. — (Dresser, Ibis, 
1866, 45. — P. trachyrhijnchus, Sennett, B. Eio Grande, 63.) 

237. Pelecanus fuscus, Linn. 

Common resident. Found breeding abundantly on Padre and neigh- 
boring islands by Mr. Sennett in March, 1878.— (Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 
45. — Sennett, B. Eio Grande, 64.) 

238. Plotus anhinga, Linu. 

Occasionally observed about Fort Brown, but appears to be more 
abundant in the lagoons higher up the river. — (Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 45.) 

239. Graculus mexicanus, (Brandt.) 

Common resident. I did not find any nests, but think they are placed 
in the dense growth of trees and thorny bushes that borders most of 
the lagoons about here.— (Dresser, Ibis, 1866, 45.— Sennett, B. Eio 
Grande, 64.) 

240. Larus argentatus, Gin. 

Not rare along the coast in winter. One shot near Fort Brown on the 
3d of March, 1877.— (Sennett, B. Eio Grande, 64.) 


241. Larus delawarensis, Oril. 

Common in winter.— (Sennett, B. Rio Grande, G4.) 

242. Chrcecocephalus atricilla, (Liun.) 

Common resident, breeding near the coast, and also on the salt prai- 
ries near the fort. — (Dresser, Ibis, 186G, 44. — Larus a., Sennett, B. 
liio Grande, G4.) 

243. Sterna angiica, Mout. 

Rather abundant. Found breeding in company witli Forster's Tern. — 
(Sennett, B. Rio Grande, C4. — S. aranca, Dresser, Ibis, 18GG, 44.) 

244. Sterna caspia var. imperator, Coues. 

Breeds on Padre Island.— (Sennett, B. Rio Grande, Go.) 

245. Sterna maxima, BodJ. 

Breeds on Padre Island.— (iS^. 7'egia, Dresser, Ibis, 18GG, 44.) 

246. Sterna cantiaca, Gni. 

Breeds on Padre Island. — (Sennett, B. Rio Grande, G3.) 

247. sterna forsteri, Nutt. 

On May IG, 1877, Mr. Sennett and I found a colony' of these Terns nest- 
ing on a nearly submerged grassy island, among lagoons and marshes. 
They had but just begun to lay. About two dozen eggs were obtained, 
and a few parents shot for identiQcation. The nests w^ere slight depres- 
sions among the short grass, and the eggs were frequently wet. — (Sen- 
nett, B. Rio Grande, G5.) 

248. Sterna antillarum, (Less.) 

Common in summer, and some pass the winter. Deposit their eggs 
on sand-bars in the river. — {S. frenata, Dresser, Ibis, 18CG, 44. — S. 
superciliaris antillarum, Sennett, B. Rio Grande, GG.) 

249. Hydrochelidon nigra, (Linu.) 

Rather plentiful during summer. — [H. plumlca, Dresser, Ibis, 18GG, 

250. Rhynchops nigra, Liuu. 

Xot rare in summer. — (Dresser, Ibis, ISGG, 45. — Sennett, B. Rio 
Grande, GG.) 

251. Podiceps domiuicus, (Liuu.) 

A rather common resident. Several nests, undoubtedly of this Grebe, 
were found on May IG, 1877, while visiting the heronry already referred 
to. They were made of water-plants and pieces of reeds slightly fas- 
tened to one or two tule-stalks, and forming a wet, floating mass. IS'o 
eggs were obtained.— (Sennett, B. Rio Grande, GG.) 

Xote.— So far as it appears, Dr. Merrill's claim (Bull. X. O. C. I, 88), 
to have been the first to have really added this species to the North 


American fauna, must be admitted to be well founded. It was certainly 
"new to the American fauna", unless it bad been previously ascer- 
tained to be entitled to be so ranked. Unless Dr. Gambel's attributing 
this bird to California be admitted, which it cannot be without confir- 
mation, no one can properly make any such claim. The Berlandier eggs — 
there were no birds — are unidentified, though probably genuine, but of 
Mexican origin. It is also included in Dr. Coues's Birds of the North- 
west, where, however, it is only given as occurring " north to the Eio 
Grande"— not "north 0/ the Eio Grande". As Dr. Cones gives no 
authority for regarding it as known to be North American, but stops 
at the boundary line, the inference is that its presence was conjectural 
and not positive. — T. JNI. B. 

252. Podilymbus podiceps, (Linn.) 

Occurs in winter. — (Dresser, Ibis, 18GG, 46.) 
August 1, 1878. 




The National Museuui possesses two specimens of a Serranoid fish, 
apparently undescribed, for which we propose the name Epineiihelus 
Dnimmond-Rayi, dedicating the species to Colonel H. M. Drummond 
Hay, C. M. Z. S., of Leggieden, Perth, Scotland, formerly of the British 
Army, by whom the species was first discovered at the Bermudas in 1851. 

The species is easily recognized by its numerous, small, star-like, white 
spots on a dark ground, a type of coloration not found in any other 
representative of this family hitherto described. 

A collection of water-color drawings, lent to the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion by Colonel Drummond Hay, contains an excellent sketch of one of 
these fishes, which was taken by him on the outer reef of the Bermudas 
in 1851. This specimen weighed 52i pounds. The drawing is on the 
scale of one-fifth. 

The smaller specimen (No. 1G,795) is fifteen and three-quarters inches 
long. It was received in May, 1876, from Mr. E. G. Blackford, and was 
for some days on exhibition in the large glass refrigerator in the Gov- 
ernment Building on the Exhibition Grounds in Philadelphia. It was 
said to have been brought from Southern Florida by one of the New 
York market fleet. A cast of this fish was made, as well as an accurate 
sketch in water-colors. 

A second specimen (No. 21,255) was received early in May, 1878, from 
Mr. Silas Stearns of Pensacola, Fla. Its length is sixteen and three- 
quarters inches. The following description has been prepared from t hese 
two specimens. We have seen other specimens of this species in the 


New York Aquarium, which were said to have been brought from the 
Bermudas. The fish belongs to the genus Serramis as defined by Glin- 
ther, and to the genus UpitiepJielus as limited by Gill, having, in distinc- 
tion from the allied genus Trisotropis, nine rays in the anal as well as 
other characters. 

There is a remarkable uniformity in the measurements of the two 
specimens as given in tabular form below. That from Pensacola has 
longer fins, and the snout also a trifle longer. This is perhaps due to 
some slight distortion of the specimens, owing to the greater length of 
time which the first had been in alcohol. 

Epinephelus Drummond-Hayi, sp. now, Goode &. Bean. 

Diagnosis. — Length of head about one-third of total length (includ- 
ing caudal), and three-eighths of length without caudal. Greatest 
height of body equal to length of head. Least height of tail equal 
to half the length of external caudal rays, and approximately to that 
of snout. Prceoperculum finely and evenly serrated; denticulations 
somewhat coarser at the angle. Suboperculum and interoperculum 
denticulated for a short distance on each side of their common junction. 
Maxillary bone nearly and mandibular quite reaching to a line drawn 
vertically through the centre of the orbit. 

Ej'e circular, its diameter contained six and one-third times in the 
length of the head, and slightly less than the width of the interorbital 
area, which is half the distance from the snout to the centre of the 

Distance of dorsal from snout equal to the greatest height of the body, 
and twice the length of the mesial caudal rays or of ventral fin. The 
length of the first spine is less than half that of the second, and more 
than one-third that of the fourth, and longest. The length of the first 
ray is equal to or greater than that of the longest spine; that of the 
last ray, to the diameter of the eye. 

The distance of anal from snout equal to twice the height of the 
body at the ventrals; the length of its first spine about equal to that of 
the first of the dorsal; the length of the third spine equal to that of the 
snout. The length of the first ray is about equal to that of the maxil- 
lary; that of longest ray nearly half the length of head; that of the last 
ray nearly equal to that of the second anal spine. 

Caudal truncate when expanded; slightly emarginate when in nat- 
ural position ; covered with small scales nearly to its tip. 

Length of median rays half that of the head, that of external rays 
equal to two-thirds the distance from snout to pectoral, and also to the 
length of that fin. 

The distance of ventral from snout about twice its own length. 

Radial Formula.— D. XI, 16; A. Ill, 9; 0. + 14 + ; P. I, 16; V. I, 5. 

Scales in lateral line, 125; above lateral line, 32; below, 56-57. 

Color, light umber blown, everywhere densely spotted with irregular, 

Proc. Nat. Mus. 1878. 

Plate I. 

Capri nmlgus nuttalli, d ■ 'Ctah. (| 

Kyctidromus albicollis, d ■ 57747. Tehauntepec. (f ) 

Caprimulgus vociferus, d". Maryland, (f .) 

Proc. Nat. Mus. 1878. 

Plate II. 

Caprimvlr/usnutalU, cf. Utah. (Nat. size.] 

Nyctidromus albicollis, d- 57747. Tehnantepec. (Nat. size.) 

Oaprimulgus vodferus. cf . Maryland. (Nat. size.) 

Proc. Nat. Mus. 1878. 

Plate III. 


somewhat stellate, white spots, except upon the lips and under margin 
of the body. There are about forty of these patches between the gill- 
opening and the base of the caudal. A slight tendency to coalesce may 
be observed in the spots upon the sides. 
At Pensacola, this fish is called the Hind ; at the Bermudas, it is the 

"John Paw". 

Table of Measurements. 

Current number of spcciuieu , 



S. Stearns. 

Pensacola, Fla. 


Extreme length (to base of caudal) 

Length to end of middle caudal rays 

Body : 

Greatest height (behind vontrals) 

Height at ventrals 

Least height of tail 

Head : 

Greatest length 

Width of interorbital area 

Length of snout 

Length of operculum (to end of flap) 

Length of maxillary 

Length of mandible 

Distance from snout to centre of orbit 

iJiameter of eye 

Dorsal (spinous) : 

Distance from snout 

Length of base 

Length of first spine 

Length of second spine 

Dorsal (soft) : 

Length of base 

Length of first ray 

Length of longest ray 

Length of last ray 


Distance from snout 

Length of base 

Length of first spine 

Length of second spine 

Length of third spine 

Length of first ray 

Length of longest ray 

Length of last ray 

•Caudal : 

Length of middle rays 

Length of external rays . 

Pectoial : 

Distance from snout 


"Ventral : 

Distance from snout 

Length •. 





Pectoral , 


If umber of scales in lateral line 

^STumber of transverse rows above lateral line. 
2\ umber of transverse rows below lateral line 



XT, 16 


+ 14 + 


















(6th) 14 


(3d) 18 






+ 14 + 













(4th) 15 







(4th) 18* 






Washington, May 25, 1878. 




Recent explorations on tbe coast of Florida have brought to light 
several undescribed species of large fishes. Some of them have already 
been named by us. Two species of Pristipomatoid fishes are character- 
ized below. 

Lutjanus Blackfordii, sp. ?!oi'.,Goode & Bean. 

The well-known Eed Snapper of our Southern coast has, strangely 
enough, never been scientifically described. This is due to an errone- 
ous identification of this species with a common West Indian form, 
Liifjamis aya, from which it differs in several particulars, notably in the 
size of the eye and of the scales. 

The species is dedicated to Mr. Eugene G. Blackford of New York 
City, to whom the National Museum is indebted for many hundreds of 
specimens of rare fishes, and by whose vigilant study of the New York 
fish-markets several species have been added to the fauna of the United 

We base our description upon a fresh specimen (No. 21,330), sent from 
Pensacola, Fla., May — , 1878, by Mr. Silas Stearns, which is twenty-six 
inches long, and weighs 11^ pounds; also two well-executed casts, one, 
No. 12,515, obtained by Mr. Milner, in Washington City market, 1874, 
thirty inches long, and one. No. 20,978, thirty-three inches long, ob- 
tained from the Savannah Bank, March, 1878, by Mr. Goode. 

Diagnosis. — Body much compressed ; its upper profile ascending from 
the snout, with a slight concavity in front of eye to the origin of the 
spinous dorsal, thence descending in a long curve to the base of the 
caudal; under profile much less arched. Upper and lower jaw of even 
extent. The greatest height of the body equal to length of head. Least 
height of tail equal to one-third of the distance from the snout to the 
pectoral. Greatest height of head slightly less than one-third of total 
length, including caudal and three-eighths of length without caudal. 
Prseoperculum finely and evenly serrated, except at the angle, where the 
denticulations are coarser: a slight emargination above the angle, in 
which is received an elevation upon the interopercular bone, and two 
shallower emargiuations above. The maxillary falls short of the verti- 
cal line from the anterior margin of the orbit, the mandibular bone of 
that from the middle of the orbit. Eye circular; its diameter contained 
seven and one-third times in the total length of the head. Length of 
snout nearly equal to that of maxillary. Length of mandible equal to 
half the height of the body at ventrals, and equal to or slightly less 
than distance from snout to centre of orbit. Distance of dorsal from 
snout about three times the length of snout ; its length of base nearly 
equal to that of the pectoral. The length of its longest spine is equal 


to twice the secoud anal spine, and about three times that of the first 
dorsal spitie. The first dorsal ray is twice as long as the first dorsal 
spine, its longest ray nearly equal to the first ray of the anal. 

Distance of anal fin from snout equal to two-thirds of total length 
(caudal excluded), twice as far from snout as is the pectoral; the length 
of its base slightly more than that of mandible; its first spine half as 
long as its second spine ; its third spine slenderer, and slightly longer 
than the second ; its first ray is about twice as long as its second spine ; 
its longest ray equal to middle caudal ray, or, in young specimens, much 
longer ; its last ray half the length of the first. 

Caudal much emarginate, crescent shaped ; the median rays two- 
thirds as long as the external rays. 

Pectoral midway between snout and anal; its length twice that of the 
maxillary. Distance of ventral from snout equal to the height of the 
body; its leng-th three times that of secoud anal spine. 

Radial Fornmla.—B. VII; D. X, 14; A. Ill, 9 ; C. + 17 + ; P. 1, 16 ;. 
V. I, 5. 

Scales. — 8, 50, 15. Scales extending half the length of the anal rays 
on the membrane; on the external caudal rays nearly to tip, and with 
slight traces upon the spinous dorsal in front of the spines ; and in the 
soft dorsal somewhat more extended. 

Color. — Uniform scarlet. Centre of scales lighter, also belly, which is. 
silvered; inside of axil of pectoral darker maroon. 

This species is closely allied to the Lutjanus torridus of Cope, but dif- 
fers in several particulars, notably (1) the smaller eye; (2) the greater 
number of dorsal and anal rays; (3) the smaller and more numerous 
scales ; (4) the less emargination of the tail ; (5) the shorter ventral fin 
(according to figure of Cope) ; (6) the higher occipital crest ; and (7) iu: 

Professor Cope's type measured 14 inches ; ours range from 33 to 17^. 

Lingual teeth in two patches ; the anterior cordate, with emargina- 
tion posteriorly ; the other ovate-lanceolate, broadest anteriorly. Vom- 
erine patch a quadilateral figure, with concave sides, and with the 
longest sides posteriorly. Palatine patches somewhat spatulate, broadest 

Proc. Nat. Mus. 78 12 Oct. 4, S878. 


Table of Measurements. 

Current number of specimen 

Pensacola, Fla. 



Extreme length 

Length to end of middle caudal rays 

Body : 

Greatest height 

Height at ventrals 

Least height of tail 

Head : 

Greatest length 

Width of iaterorbital area 

Length of snout 

Length of maxillary 

Length of mandible 

Distance from snout to centre of orbit . 

Diameter of eye 

Dorsal (spinous) : 

Distance from snout 

Length of base 

Length of first spine 

Length of second spine 

Length of longest spine 

Height at last spine 

Dorsal (soft) : 

Length of base 

Length of first ray 

Length of longest ray 

Height at last ray 


Distance from snout 

Length of base 

Length of first spine 

Length of second spine 

Length of third spine 

Length of first ray 

Length of longest ray 

Length of last ray 

Caudal : 

Length of middle rays 

Length of external rays 

Pectoral : 

Distance from snout 


Ventral : 

Distance from snout 













(6th) 114 

(3d) 164 





Caudal .,,, 


Ven t ral '.'.'.'.'.'. 

Kumber of scales in lateral line 

Number of transverse rows above lateral line 
Number of transverse rows below lateral line 




+ 17 + 







Table of Measurements — Continued. 

Current number of specimen 

Gulf of 

Gulf of 

Gulf of 


Gulf of 

Millim. lOOth 

Extreme length 

Length to end of middle caudal rays 

Body : 

Greatest height (behind ventrals) 

Height at ventrals 

Least height of tail 


Greatest length (to end of opercular flap) 

"Width of interorbital area 

Length of snout 

Length of upper jaw 

Length of mandible 

Distance from snout to centre of orbit . . . 

Diameter of eye 

Dorsal (spinous): 

Distance from snout , 

Length of base 

Length of first spine 

Length of second spine 

Length of longest spine 

Length of last spine 

Dorsal (soft) : 

Length of base 

Length of first ray 

Length of longest ray 

Length of last ray 


Distance from snout 

Length of base 

Length of first spine 

Length of second spine 

Length of third spine 

Length of first ray , 

Length of longest ray 

Length of last ray 

Cauda! : 

Length of middle rays 

Length of external r.ays 

Pectoral : 

Distance from snout 


Ventral : 

Distance from snout 









No. of scales in lateral line 

No. of transverse rows above lateral line. . 
No. of transverse rows below lateral line. . 
"Weight pounds- 



+ n + 



Millim. lOOths 























X, 14 

in, 9 

+ 17 + 
L 1.^-16 

Millim. lOOths 























X, 14 


+ 17 + 
























Millim. lOOths 






+ 17 + 






















Lutjanus Stearnsii, sp. nov., Goode & Bean. 

A siogle specimen of the Mangrove Snapper of Pensacola was sent 
by Mr. Silas Stearns, to whom the species is dedicated, as a slight 
acknowledgment of his services in securing for the United States 
National Museum large collections of fishes from the Gulf of Mexico 
and fresh waters adjacent to Pensacola, Fla. 

Upon this individual (catalogue number 21,337), our description is 
based, having been drawn up from the fresh specimen. Its length is 
193 inches. Besides the alcoholic preparation, the Museum has also a 
cast and a color-sketch. 


Diagnosis. — This species may be readily distinguished from L. BlacTc- 
fordii by its diiiereiit color, lower and less compressed body, shorter 
head, shorter pectorals and ventrals, and by other characters which 
appear in the table of measurements. 

Body similar to that of L. BlacJcfordii in shape. It greatest height 
equals length of head, twice length of mandible, and twice that of ven- 
tral. Its height at ventrals equals four times width of interorbital area. 
Least height of tail equals first anal ray and twice the last dorsal ray. 
Greatest length of head equals greatest height of body, twice length of 
mandible, and twice ventral length. The width of interorbital area 
equals one fourth of height at ventrals and two-thirds of least height 
of tail. Length of snout equals second anal ray. Length of maxillary 
equals twice length of second dorsal spine, which equals second anal 
spine. The mandible equals the ventral in length. Eye contained 
slightly more than six times in greatest length of head. 

Distance of dorsal from snout equals three times, and base of sjnnous 
dorsal twice length of snout. First dorsal spine about equal to first 
anal. Second dorsal spine equals second anal and twice first anal. 

Longest dorsal spine (fourth) equals one-third of greatest length of 
head. Last dorsal spine about equal to half distance from snout to 
centre of orbit. Base of soft dorsal equals three times second spine of 
dorsal. First ray of dorsal equals three-fourths of first anal ray, which 
equals least height of tail. Longest dorsal ray (fourth) equals twice 
diameter of eye, and the last equals half of least height of tail. 

Distance of anal from snout equals slightly more than six times least 
height of tail; its length of base somewhat exceeds length of second 
anal ray. First anal spine equals half the second, which is half the 
length of upper jaw. Third anal spine equals half second anal ray, 
which equals length of snout. First anal ray equals least height of 
tail; second equals length of snout, and last equals half length of snout. 

Middle caudal rays equal one-sixth and superior external rays one- 
fourth of total length. Inferior external rays slightly less than length 
of pectoral. 

Distance of pectoral from snout about equal to length of head. Its 
length almost twice least height of tail. 

Distance of ventral from snout nearly three times length of snout ; its 
length equals half length of head. 

Radial Formula.^B. VII; D. X, 14; A. Ill, 8 ; C. + 17 + ; P. 1, 15; 
y. I, 5. 

Scales. — 6, 45, 14. 

Color. — General color scarlet below, shading into reddish or purplish 
brown above. Plum color on sides and top of head. Below the lateral 
line, the posterior half of the exposed portion of the scales is white tinted 
with scarlet; the basal portion reddish and much darker. Under part 
of head light scarlet. Vertical fins darker than the body. Pectoral 
and ventral white roseate. 


Tce^/i.— Vomerine teeth iu a patch shaped like a spear, with concave 
cutting edges and acutely produced angles. 

Table of Measurements. 

Current number of specimen. 

Pensacola, Fla. 

Millim. lOOths 

Extreme length without caudal 

Length to end of middle caudal rays 

Body : 

Greatest height 

Height at ventrals 

Least height of tail 

Head : 

Greatest length 

Width of interorbital area 

Length of snout 

Length of operculum 

Length of luaxillary 

Length of mandible 

Distance from snout to centre of orbit . 

Diameter of eye 

Dorsal (spinous): 

Distance from snout 

Length of base 

Length of tirst spine 

Length of second spine 

Length of longest spine 

Length of last spine 

Dorsal (soft) : 

Length of base 

Length of first ray 

Length of longest ray 

Length of last ray...' 

Anal : 

Distance from snout 

Length of base 

Length of first spine , 

Length of second spine 

Length of third spine 

Length of first ray , 

Length of longest ray 

Length of last ray . .'. 

Caudal : 

Length of middle rays 


Length of external rays { to Ferior . 

Pectoral : 

Distance from snout . 


Ventral : 

Distance from snout . 








Number of scales in lateral line 

Number of transverse rows above lateral line 
Number of transverse rows below lateral line. 



III, 8 

+ 17 + 






(U)i in.) 









(4th) llj 



(4th) 11 





(2d) 13 









The Gulf Menhaden are first seen about Pensacola iu April. They 
enter the harbor iu small schools, swimming at the surface, rippling the 
water as they go. I have never seen any large schools, perhaps not 
more than four or five barrels iu one body; but the number of small 
schools which might be seen in a few hours at the right place and in a 


favorable time would make an immense school or schools, if consolidated. 
The fishermen report them in small bunches outside and offshore. I 
have never seen one in the spring which would measure over six inches, 
and the greater number measure less than that; all the fishermen con- 
firm this. 

They seem to stay in brackish water until they get accustomed to the 
change, and lose their parasite,* and then go directly into the fresh 
water. About May 27, 1 hauled a seine in a fresh-water stream near the 
head of the bay, and caught nearly a barrel of Brevoortia patromis. 
Their color was darker, and I did not find any parasites in their mouths. 
Their stomachs were full of food, but I could find no traces of spawn or 
milt. I do not know exactly when they return from fresh water, but 
last October Major Staples and I caught about two dozen in a gill-net 
with a mesh of 3| inches. I remember that they were gilled very hard, 
and therefore judge that they must have been quite large. I am quite 
positive that they belonged to the same species. 

Pensacola, Fla., June 6, 1878. 



Among the specimens from Pensacola sent by Mr. Stearns, there is 
the '* Jew-fish " of West Florida, said to attain the weight of three or four 
hundred pounds. 

The specimen (No. 21,329) measures in length 29 inches, and weighs 
16 pounds. It was described while in a fresh condition. 


Serranua-nigritus, Holbrook, Ichthyology of South Carolina, p. 173, pi. xxv, fig. 2. — 
GuNTHER, Catalogue of the Acauthopterygian Fishes in the Collection 
of the British Museum, I, 1859, p. 134. 

Epinephelus ntgritus, Gill, Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia, 18G5, p. 105 ; Report of the U. S. Commissioner of Fish and 
Fisheries for 1871-72, 1873, p. 806 ; Catalogue of the Fishes of the East 
Coast of North America, 1873, p. 28. 


Diagnosis. — Body oblong, thick, tapering very gradually from the 
insertion of the dorsal and the end of the ventral, its greatest height 
(behind ventrals) is contained three and one-sixth times in total length 
(caudal included) and about equal to length of head. The height of 
body at ventrals is slightly greater than one-third of total length with- 

*Thi8 species is infested by the same parasite which is so common in the mouths of 
the common Menhaden in Southern waters, the Cymothoa prcegustaior (Latrobe) Say. 


out caudal, double the greatest width of the body, and three times the 
least height of tail. 

Head a trifle longer thau greatest height of body and slightly less 
than twice the length of the pectoral. The width of the iuterorbital 
area is half that of the head, and nearly double the diameter of the eye. 
The length of the snout is about equal to that of the operculum. The 
preoperculum is finely serrated on its posterior limb, slightly produced 
at the angle, the edge of which is obtusely rounded, and armed with 
stronger denticulations. Upon the inferior limb in front of the angle 
is one stout spine. Lips scaleless. Maxillary with a few minute scales 
arranged in a narrow band. Length of the upper jaw nearly half the 
length of head and quite half the greatest height of the body. Length 
of mandible about double that of the operculum. Length of mandible 
slightly more than that of pectoral. 

Eye circular, its diameter nearly nine times in length of head and 
nearly twice in width of iuterorbital space. Its anterior margin is mid- 
way between the tip of the snout and the i)osterior edge of the pre- 

Dorsal as far from the snout as ventral, its length of base three- 
fourths that of the head. The length of the first spine slightly exceeds 
the diameter of the eye, the second spine is as long as the base of the 
anal fin and about equal to the longest anal ray. The length of the 
last spine is twice that of the first. The length of base of soft dorsal is 
four-fifths that of the spinous dorsal, which is exactly double the length 
of the longest dorsal ray. The last ray is half as long as the first ray 
of the anal. 

The distance of the anal from the snout is three-fourths of the length 
of the body without caudal. Its length of base is equal to the length of 
the second dorsal spine. The relations of the length of the spines and 
rays of the anal fin are exhibited in the table of measurements. 

Caudal fin rounded, its middle rays half as long as the head, the 
exterior rays slightly shorter. 

The pectoral is very broad and rounded, its insertion considerably in 
advance of the end of the opercular flap. Its length slightly exceeds 
that of the middle caudal rays. 

Ventrals broad, distant from snout three-eighths of the length of the 
body and as long as the pectoral. The ventral spine is as long as the 
last dorsal spine. 

Scales of moderate size, with minute pectinations, truncate at the 
attached end. When detached, their shape is nearly oblong. 

Color, dusky brown above, lighter below ; fins darker ; no traces of 
markings upon body or fins. 


Table of Measurements. 

Current number of specimen. 

Extreme length ■ 

Length to end of middle caudal rays 


Greatest height 

Greatest width 

Height at ventrals 

Least height of tail 


Greatest length 

Greatest width 

Width of interorbital area 

Length of snout 

Length of operculum 

Length of maxillary 

Length of mandible 

Distance from snout to orbit 

Diameter of orbit 

Dorsal (spinous) : 

Distiince from snout 

Length of base 

Greatest height 

Length of hrst spine 

Length of second spine 

Length of last spine 

Dorsal (soft) : 

Length of base 

Length of first ray 

Length of longest ray (seventh) 

Length of last ray 

Anal : 

Distance from snout 

Length of base 

Length of first spine 

Length of second spine 

Length of third spine 

Length of first ray 

Length of longest ray (second) 

Length of last ray 

Caudal : 

Length of middle rays 

Length of external rays 

Pectoral : 

Distance from snout 


Ventral : 

Distance from snout 








Number of scales in lateral line 

Number of transverse rows above lateral line . 
Number of transverse rows below lateral line. 

. (29 inches) . 

Pensacola, Fla. 

MiUim. lOOths. 



X, 15 


+ 17 + 



























21 i 



Washington, June 1, 1676. 


S0NIA:K institution, with his notes THEREON. 


Before Mr. Ober's fiual visit to Dominica, be made collections in An- 
tigua and Barbuda. These were left with the United States consul at 
Antigua, to be forwarded to the Smithsonian Institution when there 
was an opportunity to do so. This was in September, 1877 ; but they 
have not yet been received. 

After completing his investigations in Dominica, he went to St. 
Vincent, whence he writes under date of October 9 : — "As soon as I 
reached the mountains I was taken sick. It has been quite discourag- 
ing. 1 have suffered from another attack of fever. I feel pretty well 
now, and hope to keep so." He wrote under date of December 10 : — "I 
expect to leave for Grenada January 15." But unfortunately he had a 
relapse of fever, by which he was completely prostrated, as, in a letter 
dated January 25, he says : — " I am just convalescing from a long fever; 
camping in this very wet weather brought it on. I have been laid up 
since December 19. I lost all my flesh, and was so weak when I first 
left my bed that I could scarcely stand. Though I have been here a 
long while, I have accomplished little, owing to the rains and the actual 
impossibility of working the woods then, without a pull-up such as lam 
getting. I hope to be all right in a week, and, as drier weather is at 
hand, to rapidly finish this island, and then push through the Grena- 
dines to Grenada. From there, retrace my steps here for mails, &c., 
and then go to Martinique." 

Mr. Ober's long sickness, together with the rains, prevented him from 
making but a moderate collection at St. Vincent. He was to leave for 
Grenada on the 29th of February. 

The collection from St. Vincent was kindly taken in charge by Eear- 
Admiral Trenchard, commanding the United States steamer Powhatan, 
early in March. It was received at the Smithsonian on the 25th of that 
month, and forwarded to me a few days thereafter. It consists of but 
ninety specimens, and some of the species are poorly represented in 

The subjoined account from Mr. Ober, of the geographical position 
of the island, with its natural and zoological peculiarities, seems to con- 
vey valuable information. This, with his observations on the habits of 
birds, &c., are indicated by quotation-marks : — 

" St. Vincent, February 28, 1878. This island lies in latitude 13° 15° 
north and longitude 61° 10' west. It is about 100 miles due west of 
Barbadoes, and is one of the long chain of volcanic islands extending 
from latitude 17° 50' north to latitude 12° north. 

" Like Dominica, Guadeloupe, Martinique, St. Lucia, and Grenada, 
it is very mountainous ; nearly the whole surface is tossed with hills, 
and even the level laud, as it is called, is of this character. 


" Like the other islands of the chain, it has a longitudinal axis in the 
shape of a range of hills extending its entire length. Here and there 
are peaks approaching the dignity of mountains, the highest about 3,000 
feet. In the northern part is the famous ' Souffriere', a mountain with 
a crater a mile in diameter, a slumbering volcano which, in 1812, by a 
tremendous eruption, spread havoc and ruin all around it. Before this 
eruption, the mountain was probably much higher than at present, as 
the top was blown completely off and a new crater opened. Evidence 
of its work may be seen at the present day in the deep gullies scooped 
out of the mountain side and the plain beneath by the lava flow in its 
great rush to the sea. I counted five of these dry rivers in sailing along 
the leeward coast. The most extensive is on the windward coast', at 
least 300 yards in width. 

" St. Vincent has more cultivable land than Dominica, owing to the 
windward side sloping gradually from the foot hills to the sea, a tract 
from one to two miles in width of undulating surface, though rough and 
elevated in places. 

"As will be seen, the avifauna resembles much that of Dominica — 
some birds of the same species in greater or less abundance, a few re- 
placed by others of near affinity, and one or two new forms. 

" The Island Parrot Chrysotis guildingi is peculiar to this island, but 
I doubt if there are other birds whose habitat is restricted to this small 
range. Were I possessed of all the information I hope to get by the 
time my investigations are completed, I might speak of the peculiarity 
of these insular faunj©, by which I find, in islands separated by a nar- 
row breadth of water — say, from 15 to 30 miles — birds found in one that 
never visit the other. Notable examples could be given, but I wish to 
speak authoritatively and from more extended experience. 

" It is strange that in an island more than two degrees south of 
Dominica, I find so little difference in the plumage of birds; hardly 
any increase of those tropical species of bright plumage, which are so 
abundant further south in Tobago and Trinidad. In fact, so far as the 
fauna of each island is concerned, and in external character of surface 
and soil, and even in the component elements of the latter, Dominica 
and St. Vincent could scarcely be more alike. To a superficial observer 
these facts are apparent, as well as to one who studies them. 

" In numbers, as well as in species, this island is greatly deficient. To 
what cause to attribute this disparity when tlie forests and fields teem 
with bird-food, and islands further south teem with birds, I am at a 
loss. Perhaps the reason may appear later, in the process of careful 

" The most striking instance of the absence of any particular form or 
family, is that of the Picidte. Countless trees, decaying and dead, under 
the influence of a never-ceasing destructive power, which would afford 
food for thousands of birds ; which are infested and alive with ants, 
borers, &c., found in every forest. Not a woodpecker; millions of nut- 


and seed -producing trees, and you may look in vain for any member of 
the squirrel family. 

"And among birds and among quadrupeds, there is no animal here 
that takes their jjlaces. 

" These few notes, hasty and crude, may aid in the conception of the 
appearance of animal life here, and only for that purpose are they 

" I send, by the same conveyance with the birds, 46 specimens of 
Carib hatchets, axes, knives, &c., illustrating the crude state of advance- 
ment in which they existed, as compared with their enemies and co- 
existent tribes of the larger islands. 

"Allow me in this conuection to acknowledge the courtesy of the offi- 
cials and planters of St. Vincent. To His Excellency George Dundas, 
Esq., C. M. G. Lieut. Governor of St. Vincent; Edward Laborde, 
Colonial Secretary ; and to Hon. Henry Shaw, Treasurer of the island, I 
am especially indebted for facilities in prosecuting my work, as well as 
for social pleasures that have greatly relieved the tedium of life in a 
new place. 

" To the proprietors and managers of the different estates, I am greatly 

indebted ; to James Milne, Esq., of Eutland Vale, for a residence in the 

country when recovering from fever ; to Messrs. D. K. Porter & Co., 

Kingstown, for letters of introduction, horses, and men. Finally, it is 

only incumbent upon me to add that I have received nothing but kind 

treatment, and have found most unbounded hospitality throughout the 



Fam. TUHDID^. 

1. Turdus nigrirostris, Lawr., Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., vol. 1, p. 147. 
"Thrush, 9 . Length, 9^ in.; alar extent, 14; wing, 4J. 

" Found on lower ground than Margarops montanus. Not numerous." 

2. Margaropsherminieri(Lafr.). 

"Have heard the unmistakable whistle of this bird, and have seen it 
as it flitted by in the dusk of the high woods, but have not obtained it." 

3. Margarops montanus (Vieill.). 

" Found only in high woods and valleys. Not very abundant. I have 
not seen the larger species of this genus." 

4. Cinclocerthia rufioauda, Gould. 

" ' Trembleur '. $ . Length, 9 in. ; alar extent, 12^ ; wing, 4. 
" Not so abundant as in the woods of Dominica, but still plentiful. 
Iris yellow." 

5. Mimus gilvus, Vieill. 
" ' Mocking bird.' 

" Male, length, 10^ in. ; alar extent, 14; wing, 4i. 


, " Female, length, 9f in. ; alar extent, 12f ; wing, 4^. 

'' Pretty common in the lowlands and cleared places. In shape and 
habits it resembles the Mockingbird of the States. Its habit of 
dodging in and out of the palm tops, recalls the American si)ecies. It 
is vastly inferior in song however, but trills very sweetly a few notes." 

There are five specimens in the collection, differing in no respect from 
an undoubted example of this species from Guiana. 


6. Myiadestes sibilans, Lawr., Aun. N. Y. Acad. Sci. vol. 1, p. 148. 

" ' Souffriere Bird.' 

" Length, ^ , 7^ in. ; alar extent, 11 ; wing, 3^ ; tail, 3. 

" Length, 9 , 7^ in. ; alar extent, 11|; wing, 3i; tail, 3. 

" This bird has been an object of search for fifty years, and has so 
long eluded the vigilance of naturalists and visitors to the mountains, 
that it is called the 'invisible bird'. From being seen only on the 
Souffriere Mountain, it has acquired the name of the ' Souffriere bird'. 
It is popularly believed to be found only on the Sulphur Mountain, but 
is an inhabitant of all the high ridges containing deep woods and 
ravines. Shy and exceedingly observant, it was not until my third 
search for it that I captured it. Though I fear the popular belief 
that it is a resident of this island only is erroneous, still I was piqued 
at the reputation it held of being invisible, and resolved to capture it. 
To do this I camped five days and nights on the mountain top, 3,000 
feet above the sea, in a cave on the brink of the crater. I got five 
birds by using all my arts of allurement, calling them within shot by 
using a call taught me by the Caribs. 

" The bird is mentioned in Gosse's Birds of Jamaica, and considered 
identical with the 'Mountain Whistler' [Myiadestes genibarbis) of 
Dominica and Jamaica. This was merely conjecture, and should it 
I)rove nothing else, I can claim the credit of settling the doubt. 

" There are differences in the notes of the two birds, though great 
similarity in their habits. I send you seven specimens." 

Mr. Ober quotes Mr. Gosse as considering the St. Vincent bird to be 
identical with the one inhabiting Jamaica. But Mr. Gosse does not 
precisely say that, but says concerning it (Birds of Jamaica, p. 200) 
that he received the following note from Mr. Hill : — "I find among some 
detached notes of mine the following memorandum respecting a similar 
bird in the smaller West India islands. ' The precipitous sides of the 
Souffriere Mountain in St. Vincent,' says a writer describing the vol- 
cano which so disastrously broke out there in 1812, ' were fringed with 
various evergreens, and aromatic shrubs, flowers, and many Alpine 
plants. On the north and south sides of the base of the cone were two 
pieces of water, one perfectly pure and tasteless, the other strongly im- 
pregnated with sulphur and alum. This lonely and beautiful spot was 


rendered more enchanting by the singularly melodious notes of a bird, 
an inhabitant of those upper solitudes, and altogether unknown to the 
other parts of the island ; hence supposed to be invisible, though it cer- 
tainly has been seen, and is a species of Merle.'" 

Neither does Mr. Gosse allude to its being similar to the bird found 
in Dominica. Mr. Ober was misled probably by Mr. Gosse using M. 
genibarhis (which is the correct name for the Dominica species) as a 
synonym of 31. armillatus, which he supposed the Jamaica Solitaire to 
be, but which has been given a distinct name by Professor Baird, viz, 
Myiadestes solitarius. 


7. Thryothorus musicus, Lawr., Anu. N. Y. Acad. Sci. vol. 1, p. 149. 

"Wren; 'Wall Bird.' 

" Length, 5^ in. ; wing, 21 ; alar extent, 7|. 

" The sweet warble of this lively little bird may be heard morning, 
noon, and night about the houses and sugar-mills, as well as far up the 
mountain sides and valleys. It is quite plentiful and often has deceived 
me in its note, as it was mistaken for that of a warbler. It builds its 
nest in the walls of houses and holes in trees. Saw one constructing a 
nest in October. Found on the Souffriere, 3,000 feet above the sea." 


8. Leucopeza bishopi, Lawr., Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. vol. 1, j). 151. 


"Length, $ , 5f in.; alar extent, 8i; wing, 2f. 

" While engaged in my search for the Souffriere bird, I noticed a 
sprightly little bird that came skipping through the trees at my call. It 
seemed rather shy, but this may be owing to the presence of man in such 
a secluded situation, and it was with difficulty I shot two. Since then I 
have shot another ; none of them below 1,000 feet altitude. Its note is 
very sharp; either the male or the female gives utterance to the syllable, 
'few, few, few,' etc., eight or ten times, immediately answered by the 
mate with, 'whit, whit, whit,' etc., the same number of times." 

9. Setophaga ruticilla (Linn.). 
" Not often seen." 


10. Vireosylvia calidris rar. dominicana, Lawr. 
" Vh'eo calidris ? Everywhere abundant. 

'^ Length, $ , 5f in. ; alar extent, 9 ; wing, 3. 
" Length, 9 , 6 in. ; alar extent, 9^ ; wing, 3^." 



11. Progne dominicensis (Gm.). 

" Leugth, S > ''^ io- j alar extent, 15^ ; wing, 5%, 

" I saw the lirst this mouth, February, at the same time with, and in 
the same place as, the Tropic bird (Phsethon). I think, however, both 
are residents." 

Fam. CiEREBID^. 

12. Oerthiola atrata, Lawr., Anu. N. Y. Acad. Sci. vol. 1, p. 150. 
" CertJiiola ? 

'' Length, S, 4§ in. ; alar extent, 8 ; wing, 2|. 

" Length, 2 , 4 in. ; alar extent, 7 ; wing, 2^. 

" This black species seems to have almost entirely replaced the black 
and yellow one of Dominica, etc. It is abundant mixing with the ' black 
bird ' {Loxigilla nocUs) in the cotton-trees and plantains, so as to be 
hardly distinguished. The love for the flowers of the banana and plan- 
tain, and the fruit as well, is the same trait possessed by the Dominica 

13. Certhiola saccharina, Lawr., Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. vol. 1, p. 151. 
" Certhiola. 

"Lengtb, <?, 4| in. ; alar extent, 7f ; wing, 2^. 
" Length, 9 , 4J in. ; alar extent, 7^ ; wing, 2J. 
" Not so abundant as the preceding. Called the 'Molasses bird'." 


14. Euphonia flavifrous (Sparm.). 

" Length, ^, juv., 5 in. ; alar extent, 8; wing, 2f. 

" Only observed in the high valleys, and only one seen. A quiet, 
unsuspicious bird ; feeds on a berry known here as the misseltoe, and 
hence called the ' misseltoe bird'." 

15. Calliste versicolor, Lawr., Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. vol. 1, p. 153. 

" Length, <?, G:^ in.; alar extent, 10; wing, 3f. 

" Length, $ , G in. ; alar extent, 10 ; wing, .SJ. 

"At ' Carabries ', the highest place of residence in the island, I first 
found this bird, feeding on the gommier seeds and others; frequently 
flying into the high woods, but remaining principally in the more open 
tracts bordering the negro provision grounds. In the heat of the day, 
and when it was windy, they kept more in the low shrubbery, feeding 
on the seeds of a low bush." 



16. Loxigilla noctis (Linn.). 

" Length, ^, 5J in. ; alar extent, 9; wing, 3. 

" Length, $, 5 in. ; alar extent, 8.^ ; wing, 2^. 

" The young at first are like the females — gray. Its favorite tree is 
the silk cotton ; it is very plentifully distributed." 

There is but one pair of this species in the collection ; they are of 
rather smaller dimensions than examples from Dominica. The bill is 
also somewhat smaller, but yet very much larger than that cf the bird 
from Guiana, which 1 called var. propinqua in the Bomiuica catalogue ; 
the last is of a much smaller size. 

17. Phonipara bicolor (Linn.). 
" ' Ground Sparrow.' 

"Length, ^, 4J in. ; alar extent, 6f ; wing, 2. 

" The most numerous of any species ; everywhere it is found, except, 
perhaps, in the depths of the ' high woods'. It breeds in nearly every 
month from February to October ; its nest is dome-shaped, like nearly 
all those of small birds iu these islands. I procured many nests and 
eggs iu Dominica." 


18. Quiscalus ? 

"A bird called the ' Bequia Sweet ', from its note ; a black bird, much 
resembling the Crow Blackbird, though smaller, the female the color of 
the female Cowbird ; is plentiful in the adjacent keys, and a few have 
been blown here by storms." 


19. Elainea martinica (Linn.). 
" Flycatcher. 

" Length, (?, 6| in.; alar extent, 11; wing, 3 J. 

" The most common of these birds ; much frequents the silk-cotton 
tree and the low bushes on hill sides." 

20. Myiarchus oberi, Lawr. 

" Flycatcher ; ' Piperee.' 
" Length, c?, 8.J in.; alar extent, 12^; wing, 4. 

"A companion of the preceding species, and found in the same locali- 

21. Tyrannus rostratus, Scl. 
" Piperee. 

" Length,!?, 9 in.; alar extent, 15^; wing, 4f. 
"Common in town and country." 



22. Eulampis jugularis (Lion.). 

" Few are seen below the high valleys, and there, even, it is by no 
means common." 

23. Eulampis holosericeus (Linn.). 

" Exceedingly scarce, and like the above species found more frequently 
iu the highlands than in the lowlands." 

24. Orthoihynchus ornatus, Gould ? 
" ' Doctor bird.' 0. exilis f 

"The only species which is numerous, especially in the gardens. The 
most interesting Hummingbird's nest I have yet seen is one of this 
bird's, being attached to a hanging rope, and containing two eggs; 
found in October." 

Mr. Ober sent but one pair of this species, which he queries if not 
0. exilis. The male agrees closely with 0. ornatus, Gould, as described 
and figured by him (Mon. of Trochilidae), having the ends of the crest- 
feathers decidedly blue. 

Mr. Elliot (Ibis, 1872, p. 355) remarks as follows : — " This species, if it 
is really entitled to such a distinction, is found exactly between 0. cris- 
tatus of Barbadoes and St. Vincent, and 0. exilis of the Virgin Islands 
and Nevis. It has perhaps a little more blue upon the crest; but if 
the locality is wanting, it is not an easy matter to separate specimens 
from 0. exilis, to which the present bird bears a close resemblance." 

Mr. Elliot gives as its localities "Martinique and St. Lucia", and 
names "St. Vincent and Barbadoes" as the homes of 0. cristatus. I 
have 0. cristatus from Barbadoes, but the bird now sent from St. Vin- 
cent agrees well with 0. ornatus, and Mr. Ober states that it is the only 
species of Orthorliynclius found there, and is abundant. I have not 
seen specimens of this genus from either Martinique or St. Lucia. I 
have examined examples of 0. exilis from several islands, and they have 
been remarkably uniform in appearance, the ends of the crest-feathers 
being bluish-green, while iu 0. ornatus the termination of the crest is of 
a clear blue ; in each the color of the tip gradually merges into the 
golden-green of the other portion of the crest. In 0. cristatus, the two 
colors of the crest, violet-blue and golden-green, are about equally and 
trenchantly divided. 


25. "Chaetura? 

" Skims the country everywhere; is different from the Dominica spe- 
cies. Nests have been found in chimneys in the country districts." 



26. "Ceryle alcyon (Linn.). 

"Not abundant. The same habits as the Northern Kingfisher; must 
be a resident. Have seen it in Dominica in April and September; here 
from October to February." 


27. Coccyzus minor (Gm.). 
" 'Cuckoo, Manioc' 

" Wherever there is a field with low bushes, or dense clumps of man- 
goes with open spaces intervening, on hillsides as well as plains, this 
bird may be found. Its peculiar cry is said to be heard always before 
a rain, giving it the name of ' Rain Bird ' — a name, however, not confined 
to this species, as local names are given without any reason, except the 
fancy of the people bestowing it." 

28. Crotophaga ani, Linn. 

" ' Tick Bird.' ' Chapman Bird.' 

" Introduced, but assimilates well. A lazy, unsuspicious bird, fre- 
quenting cattle-fields, and delighting to congregate in bunches of half a 
dozen or so in the tops of small trees. Is said to eat the cattle ticks, 
and for this purpose was introduced. Is always in a state of emaciation, 
but the stomach is generally well filled with ticks and small Coleoptera." 


29. Chrysotis guildingi (Vigors). 

"Length (fresh), <? , 18^ inches; alar extent, 32| ; wing, 10^; tail, 7|. 

"Length (fresh), 9 , 19 inches; alar extent, 33; wing, 11. 

"Is confined to the great central ridge running through the island ; 
on this, and on the thickly wooded spurs this parrot is found. Like 
the Earaier, it feeds in the tops of the highest trees, and its season of 
good condition is the later months in the year. Mates in February, 
March, and breeds in April and May. Is then most easily approached, 
though ever shy and vigilant. Is sometimes caught (but only by break- 
ing a wing by a shot) and takes kindly to confinement. Tlie governor 
of St. Vincent, G. Dundas, Esq., CM. G., has two which can articulate 
a few words. As a rule, however, they are difiicult to teach. This is 
the only species on the island." 

I have appended a description of this rare and beautiful species. 

Male. — The sinciput is of an ashy-white ; the feathers of the top of the 
head have their bases pale orange, which color increases until on the occi- 
put the feathers are entirely of a fine orange; lores and around the eye 
gra> ish-white ; cheeks pale orange ; the feathers of the sides of the neck 
and throat are orange at base, terminating with pale blue; the feathers 
Proc. Nat. Mus. 78 13 Oct. US, 1878. 


of the bind Deck are light olive-greeu, orange at base, and terminating 
conspicuously with black; back, rump, and smaller wing-coverts of a 
brownish-rufous or bay color, the feathers narrowly edged with black; the 
tail-feathers are varied with dark green and blue, with their bases bright 
orange and their ends dirty pale orange; the terminal half of the pri- 
maries is black, the basal portion orange-yellow ; the speculum on the 
secondaries is of a deep orange, succeeded by green and then dark blue 
on the outer webs to their ends ; the inner webs are black ; the tertials 
are olive green, with the outer webs of a lighter blue; edge of the wing 
orange ; the breast and siiles are of a duller bay color than the back, and 
the abdomen dull olive-green ; all the feathers edged with black ; the 
under tail-coverts are dull orange, ending with green; the bill is horn- 
white, the end of the upper mandible dusky, and the sides with just a 
tinge of orange ; feet dark ash. 

The female does not differ essentially in ])lumage from the male, except 
that the sinciput is whiter and the throat of a clearer orange, possibly 
due to difference of age. 

Each specimen is labelled — " Parrot. J. Kirkland, Esq., Langby Park, 
Dec. 15, 1877." 


30. Strix flammea var. nigrescens, Lawr. 
♦'Owl. 'Jumbie Bird.' 

" Length, 9 , 12 in.; alar extent, 33 ; wing, 10. 

" There are two species, it is said ; but I have seen but this one, and 
doubt whether there be another. Evidence from the natives should 
never be accepted without proof. This species is a frequenter of cliffs. 
I know nothing of its habits." 


31. Pandion haliaetus (Linu.). 

" Not seen, but said to appear along the coast to the windward." 

32. Buteo pennsylvanicus (Wils.). 

"Everywhere abundant. Called the 'Chicken Hawk'. Every speci- 
men yet examined very light in color, except the last." 

33. Urubitinga anthracina (Nitzscb) ? 
'" Black Hawk.' 

"Length, ^, juv., 21 in.; wing, 15; tail, 9; tarsus, 3.^. Cumberland 
Valley, Feb. 1, 1878. 

"An inhabitant of the mountains and higher valleys, feeding on crabs, 
cray-fishes, etc., and frequenting the mountain streams. This specimen 
is evidently not in mature stage of plumage. They are very shy, little 
seen, not molesting poultry. A young one of this species has been sent 
to the London Zoological Gardens. 


" Oue pointed out to me as the Black Hawk had the shape and appear- 
ance of the Black Vulture {Cathartes atratus) ; the short tail and pecu- 
liar flight. This not according with my observations of the hawk pre- 
viously, in the forest, leads me to think that it was C. atratus. If so, it 
is the first seen. A 'Black Hawk ' I had before seen had all the appear- 
ance of the American Duck Hawk. They breed on a shelf of some 
high cliff." 

The single specimen sent is immature, but it does not agree satisfac- 
torily with a Mexican example of U. anthracinay in a somewhat similar 
stage of plumage, and if U. gimdlachi inhabiting Cuba is a distinct 
species, a comparison with that will be necessary to determine its true 

It is (though a male) rather larger, and apparently stouter, with a 
shorter wing than the specimen from Mexico, which is a female; it is 
blacker, with the bands on the tail less in number and double the width 
of those on the tail of the Mexican bird ; but there is probably a differ- 
ence of age, and, without precise knowledge on this point, a comparison 
is unsatisfactory. 

The specimen alluded to by Mr. Ober as having been sent to the 
Zoological Society of Loudon is doubtless the one spoken of by Mr. J. 
H. Gurney (Ibis, 187G, p. 487); he says: — "I may also mention that a 
specimen of TJ. anthracina from the island of St. Vincent is now living 
in the Gardens of the Zoological Society ; this example was in immature 
dress when it arrived at the Gardens, but is now in full plumage, with 
the exception of a slight tinge of rufous brown on the back and sides of 
the head, and also on the tertials," etc. 

On page 488 he also remarks : — " The Uruhitinga found in Cuba was 
erected into a distinct species by Cabanis, who assigned to it the specific 
name of gundlacM {vide Journ. fiir Orn. 1854, p. 80); this, however, is 
treated by Mr. Sharpeas a synonym of U, anthracina, whether correctly 
or not I cannot say, as I have never seen a Urubitinga from Cuba," etc. 


34. Fregata aquila (Liuu.). 

"A common sight is that of the ' Man-o'war Bird ' flying high above 
the water. It breeds in numbers on the island of Balliceaux, 15 miles 
distant from St. Vincent." 


35. Phaethon aethereus, Linn. 

" Length,^, 37 in.; alar extent, 38 : wing, 12|. 

" Breeds in the cliffs on the Leeward coast ; habits, etc., same as the 
Dominica bird. I found this species in great numbers, at Balliceaux, a 
small key near St. Vincent ; found a young bird and one egg ; they 
breed later in the season." 



36. Pelecanus fuscus (Linn.). 

"Length,^, 4G in. ; alar extent, 80; wing, 20. 
" Seen off the coast, but not in any abundance." 

37. Sula fiber (Linn.) ? 

"An inhabitant of the Leeward coast." 

Fam. ARDEID^. 

38. Ardea herodias, Linn. 

" Visits the island, but not often seen ; called the ' Gray Heron V 

39. Garzetta candidissima (Gm.). 
" Very few ever seen." 

40. Florida caerulea (Linn.). 
"In small numbers." 

41. Butorides virescens (Linn.). 

" Length,?, 17 in. ; alar extent, 25 j wing, 7. 
" Common ; the only Heron plentiful." 


42. Columbo corensis (Gm.). 

"Length, 9, 16 in. ; alar extent, 25^; wing, 8|. 

"Abundant, but shy ; inhabits the high woods. Feeds on the berries 
of the gommier tree and many others. Is in best condition in i!^ovem- 
ber and December ; but most easily obtained in February and March, 
when the woods resound with its call notes and loud cooing. Is strictly 
arboreal, never touching the earth." 

43. Zenaida martinicana, Bp. 

" Length, $ , 10^ in. ; wing, 5f ; tail, 3^. 

" ' Turtle Dove.' Balliceaux Island, near St. Vincent. Breeding abun- 

44. Chamaepelia passerina (Linn.). 

"Length, <?, Gf in. ; alar extent, lOi; wing, 3^. 
"Abundant, more so than in Dominica; especially will it be found in 
rocky situations near the shore." 

45. Geotrygon montana (Linn.). 

"Length, <?, lOJ in.; alar extent, 18; wing, 6|-. 
"Length, $, 9^ in.; alar extent, 16^; wing, 5J. 
" Rather plentiful in the high woods, where only it resides. Is as 


strictly terrestrial as the Ramier is arboreal. Feeds on follen seeds 
mostly; when alarmed, springs into a tree, or flies a short distance and 
alights in a low tree, whence it soon seeks the ground." 

Fam. RALLID^. 

46. Porphyrio martinicus (Linn.), 

'■'■GalUnula martmicaf Seen by me in October, but not obtained. 
One has since been shot in Dominica, and is awaiting my return there. 
It is undoubtedly the same species as this." 


47. Squatarola helvetica (Linn.). 
"Autumn migrations." 

48. Charadrius virginicus, Borkh. 

" Visits the island in the months of September and October, but does 
not remain. There are few open fields, rounded hills, or lowlands, so 
that the Plover make but a very short stay." 

49. .Slgialitis semipalmata (Bp.). 

50. Strepsilas interpres (Linn.). 
" In October." 


51. Himantopus nigricoUis (Vieill.). 

52. Gallinago wilsoni (Temm.). 
" Only in winter months." 

53. Tringa minutilla, Vieill. 

54. Calidris arenaria (Linn.). 

55. Gambetta flavipes (Gm.). 

56. Tringoides macularius (Linn.). 

"Length, <?,7 in.; alar extent, 12; wing, 4. 

"A visitant ; remains through the winter months. Some few may 
remain the whole year; not very plentiful." 

57. Numenius longirostris (Wils.). 

"Of the preceding, eight species are on the authority of a resident. 
There is no doubt that they occur. All are migrants, visiting only in 


Fam. LARID^. 

58. Sterna maxima, Bodd. 
" Sterna regia. 

" I am very sure that the Tern seen here is of this species, though I 
have not yet obtained it." 


59. "Pcdiceps? 

"A species of 'diver' is often spoken of as occurring during the 
autumn months. I have not obtained it." 

"A few ducks and one species of teal visit this island, but do not 
remain. There are few ponds or bodies of water, no salt-water lagoons 
and no marshes of any extent, so that all kiuds of water fowl soon 
leave for better feeding grounds." 

New York, July 22, 1878. 


By TABI.ETO]\' BI. BEAi^. 

A preliminary description of this species was published in Forest and 
Stream. June 13, 1878. Mr. G. Brown Goode, Assistant Curator of the 
United States National Museum, found it on the 29tli of March, 1878, in 
the market of Charleston, S. C, where it is known as the "Bream". 
Prof. D. S. Jordan has recently collected the species at Beaufort, N. C. 

The description is drawn from the six specimens (United States Na- 
tional Museum Catalogue, Fishes, No. 20,979) sent by Mr. Goode from 
Charleston. These specimens range from 256 to 300 millimetres (10^^ 
to llyf inches) in length to end of middle caudal rays. This measure- 
ment is the basis of comparison for all the rest. 

The species is dedicated to John Edwards Holbrook, M. D., author of 
the "Ichthyology of South Carolina", &c., &c. 

Sargus Holbrookii, Bean, sp. nov. 

Body ovate, resembling Sargus vulgaris, Geofifr., in shape, rather than 
S. caudimacula., Poey, compressed, a very slight protuberance above the 
upper anterior margin of the orbit, and a very marked one in the supra- 
occipital region. Height of body at ventrals, measured from origin of 
ventral to origin of spinous dorsal, is contained slightly less than 2J 
times in length of body, and usually equals the distance of the dorsal 
from the end of upper jaw. Least height of tail is about equal to length 
of middle caudal rays, slightly exceeds the length of upper jaw, and is 
contained from 10 to lOJ times in total length. 


Greatest length of head is contained 3f times in total length. Inter- 
orbital area is about ^ of length of head. Snout, measuring from end 
of upper jaw to perpendicular through anterior margin of orbit, is ^^ of 
total length, and about equals mandible. Length of maxillarj- nearly 
equals length of middle caudal rays. Mandible is contained 9^ times 
in total length. The eye is contained 4i times in head, and almost 16 
times in total length. 

Distance of spinous dorsal from end of upper jaw is nearly equal to 
height of body at ventrals. Longest dorsal spine is contained from 8^ 
to 10 times in total length. The first dorsal spine does not equal the 
first anal, and is contained from 1^ to 2 times in the second dorsal spine. 
The last dorsal spine equals longest dorsal ray. The rays of the soft 
dorsal gradually diminish in length from the first to the last but one, 
which is shorter than the last. 

Distance of anal from snout is contained If times in total length. 
The first anal spine is usually J the length of the second, which is some- 
what longer and stronger than tbe third. The second anal spine is con- 
tained 12 times in total length. The third anal spine is, in most cases, 
scarcely greater than the last dorsal spine. The anal rays diminish in 
length to the one before the last, which does not equal the last. 

The middle caudal rays are about ^ as long as the external rays, and 
^ of total length. 

The distance of pectoral from snout is contained 3^ times and its 
length about 3 times in total length. 

The distance of ventral from snout is about 2V of total length. Ven- 
tral length is usually twice length of snout. 

Eadial Formula.— B. VI; D. XII, 13—14; A. Ill, 13—14; P. 15—16; 
V. I, 5. 

Scales.— 8, 60—62, 16. 

Teeth. — Eight incisors in each jaw; their greatest width equal to half 
their length. Many small, granular teeth behind the incisors. Three 
rows of molars in the upper jaw ; two in the lower. Two of the speci- 
mens examined show a slight tendency to increase the number of rows 
of molars. 

Color. — Dorsal, caudal, anal, ventrals, axil of pectoral, posterior 
border of operculum, blackish. A black spot on the caudal peduncle, 
extending almost as far below as above the lateral line, and involving 
about eight longitudinal rows of scales. Upper part of head very dark 
brown. Cheeks and greater part of body dull silvery. No cross-bauds. 
I have not seen the living fish. 

JS^otes. — In the table of measurements, all the measurements except 
the first are given in hundredths of length to end of middle caudal rays. 

Mr. Goode informs me that the "Bream" was abundant in Charleston 
market at the time of his visit, and that it met with a ready sale. 

Prof. D. S. Jordan, writing from Beaufort, N. C, has kindly furnished 
me the following information concerning the species : — 


" There is a species of Sargus, very abuudant here, which I take to be 

your S. HoIbrooMi, as I kuow of uo other Sargus on our coast " 

(From the description which Professor Jordan includes in his letter, I 
have no difficulty in recognizing the Sargus which he has observed as S. 
EolbrooJcii.) " This tish abounds off the wharves here. . . . The fisher- 
men call it Piufish (Paufish"?), not distinguishing it from Lagodon. I 
have obtained 50 or more specimens, all of them about 3 inches long ; 

none over four Color silvery ; bluish above ; a few rather 

faiut narrow dark bars along the sides and a broad and conspicuous 
dark blotch at base of caudal peduncle above, extending down the sides 

like a bar. Specimens seen, all small The black bar on 

the caudal peduncle is very conspicuous. The fish may be known by 
this spot when in the water." 

Table of Measurements. 

Current number of specimen. 

Length to end of middle caudal rays millimetres. 


neiobt at ventrals 

Least lif i"jbt of tail 

Head : 

Groatei-'t length 

Width of interorbital area 

Length of snout 

Lengt h of maxillary , 

Length of mandible , 

Diameter of eye 

Dorsal (spinous) : 

Distance from snout 

Greatest height 

Length of first spine 

Length of second spine 

Length of last spine 

Dorsal (snft): 

Length of first ray 

Length of longest ray 

Length of last ray 

Anal : 

Distal ce from snout 

Length of first spine 

Length of second spine 

Length of third spine 

Length of first ray , 

Length of longest ray 

Length of last ray 

Caudal : 

Length of middle rays 

Length of superior external rays 

Pectoral : 

Distance from snout 



Distance from snout : 



Dorsal \l\.\" [[[][." [[" 


Savannah Bank, Charleston. 




• OCi 


.04 I 
. Oof, 




V e n t ' a 1 ".!.!!!.....!]!! 

Number of scales in lateral line 

Number of tjansverso rows above lateral line 
Number of transverse rows below lateral line. 

■ O'i 






XII, 13 

III, 13 









. 26.' 



. 08?, 







XII, 14 

III, 13 










. Of-: 

. 10 




. 12 



xn, 14 

III, 14 



















■. I9i 


XII, 13 

III, 13 









. 0'.;* 


. 03 J 



• 62|- 

• 08i 






XII, 14 

III, 13 















. 0.-)f 












XII, 14 

IIL 13 






Washixgtox, D. C, August 1-^, 1878. 


CAPT. R. H. PRATT, U. S. A. 

The atteutioii of anthropologists in later years has been directed very 
closely to the shape of the head, of the lineaments, and of the external 
form generally of mankind during life, instead of being confined to that 
of the cranium and the skeleton, and every opportunity of securing 
accurate casts, in plaster, of the native races of a country is eagerly 
embraced. The face masks made by the brothers Schlagintweit, of 
Asiatic tribes, are well-known standard objects in the principal eth- 
nological collections of tbe world and constitute the largest single 
series yet brought together. 

It has always been difficult to obtain face casts of the North Ameri- 
can Indians. They manifest a deeply rooted aversion to the process 
required, and, indeed, a superstitious fear generally of being imitated 
in any manner, even by the pencil or camera. The face masks from 
nature now in existence have, for the most part, been taken from the 
dead, with tbe consequent lack ot vital expression, and the opportunity 
of obtaining life-like similitudes of 64 Indian prisoners of war, of at 
least six different tribes, was promptly embraced by the Smithsonian 
Institution. No difiBculty was experienced in securing these casts, as 
the Indians had every confidence in the statements of Captain Pratt, 
who had them in command, that there would be nothing detrimental to 
either soul or body in the process, and, indeed, he himself was first sub- 
jected to it to reassure them. In fact, understanding that the casts 
were destined for the city of the Great Father at Washington, there to 
be preserved forever, one invalid whose treatment was deferred until the 
last could scarcely be satisfied even with the assurance that he should 
not be neglected. — S. F. Bated. 

Letter from Captain Pratt. 

Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla., 

February 9, 1878. 
Prof. Spencer F. Baird, 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. : 
Dear Sir: In reply to yours of the 23d of January, I am authorized to 
forward the categorical list and offenses of the prisoners, compiled 
from the official reports of the officers having tbe matter of looking up 
offenders in charge at Indian agencies. I have added to that list the 
date and place of arrest or capture, and the date of death of those who 
have died. To give the other information asked, I add in general some 
account of our later dealings with these people. This you can abridge 
or rearrange to your purpose. 

Down to less than thirty years ago these tribes roamed without hiu- 
derauce from the Platte Eiver to the Gulf of Mexico, ranging through 


jSTew Mexico, Eastern Colorado, the western parts of Kansas, the Indian 
Territory, and Texas, having little care or oversight from the govern- 
ment. From time to time their limits were decreased, until, in 1867, 
they had been given fixed reservations in the Indian Territory; the 
Cheyennes and Arapahoes west of the Cherokees and north of the 
Washita Kiver, with hunting privileges in Western Kansas, while the 
Kiowas and Comanches were south of them and west of theChickasaws, 
with privileges to hunt in Northwestern Texas. The opposition to 
abridgment of their ancient freedom required an active military force 
to get them within these limits. At the end of 1868, after several 
engagements and continued unrest from pursuit of troops, they were 
brought directly under care of their agents upon their reservations. The 
period of quiet was short. They soon commenced raiding along the 
frontier, more particularly on those parts they had thought their own. 
The few cases of punishment received in these forays from the troops 
or outraged border settlers were only sufficient to give them a relish. 
Buffalo hunters invaded their territory and angered them by a whole- 
sale destruction of the best resource of their nomadic life. Individual 
Indians were not held accountable for notorious offenses, and their 
reservations grew to be places of refuge, from which they raided and 
to which they lied in comparative protection. Moving in small parties 
they enforced terror far into the settlements and wreaked vengeance 
upon the weak and isolated, not sparing women and children, whom 
they sometimes carried captives to their camps. This was their war, 
and recitals of adventure on these incursions formed a staple interest 
in their ceremonies and around their camp-fires. Stealing horses, mules, 
and cattle from settlements near was largely indulged in. This stock, 
if not desired for home use, found purchasers on another border or 
within their own limits. Sometimes the thieves were traced out and 
called upon to return the stock, but oftener it was clear gain. In this 
business they had strong competitors and much encouragement by con- 
tact and example from the bad white men who leech upon the sparsely 
settled districts of the frontier. The worthy settler suffered many losses 
from these men, who, often personating the red man, organized a system 
of depredations of incredible magnitude, and succeeded in attaching 
much additional blame on the Indians. Throughout 1870, '71, '72, and 
'73, things went on from bad to worse. Texas furnished their richest 
field, but all settlements bordering their reservations suffered ; so that 
in these years scarcely a neighborhood but could tell of some murders 
or depredations. Surveying parties, emigrants, the lone settler, wagon- 
trains with supplies for the military, their own consumption, or traders' 
use, all fell under their lawlessness and barbarous rapine. The counsels 
and urgings of their agents and other authorities were fl ing to the 

Early in 1874 it was determined to end by force what other measures 
were clearly unable to stay. To this end, a day was fixed, about mid- 


summer, on which all Indians of these tribes who wished to be at peace 
were to come to their agencies, submit to an enrollment, such roll-calls 
and other oversight as might be established to hinder their absence. 
Those who remained out after this date were to be declared hostile and 
forfeit whatever rights and privileges, heretofore enjoyed, the govern- 
ment might determine to remove. This intention was fully published, 
but many were incredulous, and when the day arrived, about half each of 
the Kiowas and Comanches, with a greater proportion of the Cheyennes 
and a few Arapahoes, had accepted hostilities. They found their error 
when commands from Kansas, Texas, New Mexico, and the Indian Ter- 
ritory moved upon them simultaneously, and throughout the fall of 
1874 and the subsequent winter followed them to their supposed safe 
retreats on the Staked Plains, or in the canyons of Red River. By 
spring all of the tribes named, excex)t a few score of Quahada Co- 
manches, were driven in about their agencies. Many were captured in 
the open field and sent in, while others, evading the troops, threw 
themselves upon the mercy of the government by surrender to the mili- 
tary authorities at the agencies. As fast as they were taken, or sur- 
rendered, all horses, mules, and war material were taken from them, 
and the warriors confined or paroled within close limits. All against 
whom good evidence of having committed crime could be found were 
taken out, and charges were alleged with a view to legal action. An- 
other class, composed of those who were notoriously guilty of crime, 
but against whom no good evidence could be brought, and also of those 
who were notoriously insubordinate and stirrers up of bad feeling, was 
selected to be sent east for confinement in some fort. Not man^' of the 
first class could be found, because of difficulties in identifying, as usu- 
ally, in Indian murders, none live to tell the tale, and Indian testimony 
is not accepted. When the time came to send them east, for some rea- 
son the first class accompanied the second, and all were sent here, where 
they arrived on the 21st of May, 1875. 

In looking up these cases, it was found difficult to strike amiss among 
so many offenders. Those who accepted the position of friendship to 
the government by remaining at their agencies, averaged little better 
than the hostiles, their opposition and offenses, generally, simply ante- 
dating those of the hostiles. 

Personal history sufficient for your purpose will probably be found in 
the list, but the charges are only alleged and not proven. 

It is simply just to say that since being here these men have set an 
example to civilization in good behavior; twenty-two of them have 
learned to read and write, understandingly ; while in the matter of labor, 
at such as could be given, they have not failed or weakened in the 
slightest degree. 

Eesp,ectfully and sincerely yours, 


U. 8. Army. 




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30676 (1) Heap of Birds.— Chief. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, April 3, 
1875. Died October 9, 1877. 

30677 (2) Bear Shield.— Chief. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, April 3, 
Killed Watkins. 

30678 (3) Minimic— C/iiV/. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, April 3, 


30679 (4) Medicine 'Water.— Warrior. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, March 
5, 1875. 

Charge 1st. — Wilful and deliberate murder. Did kill or 
assist in killing a party of surveyors, white men, consisting 
of Capt. Oliver F. Short and his son, F. D. Short, James 
Shaw and his son, J. Allen Shaw, and J. H. Reuchler, resi- 
dents of Lawrence, Kans. Also, Henry C. Jones. 

Charge 2d. — Abduction. Illegal detention. Kidnapping. 
Did carry off or assist in carrying off Catherine, Sophia, 
Julianne, and Mary Germain, aged, respectively, 18, 13, 7, 
and 5^ years. Held the first two as captives from Septem- 
ber 11, 1874, until March 1, 1875. 

30680 (5) LongBack.— ,SM6c/i«V/. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, March 
18, 1875. 
Held and abused Germain girls. 

30681 (6) White Man.— Warrior. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, March 
5, 1875. 

Accomplice in Short and Germain murders ; pointed out 
by Medicine Water. 

30682 (7) Rising Bull.— Warrior. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, March 
5, 1875. 

Accomplice in above murders; pointed out by Germain 

30683 (8) Cohoe.— Warrior. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, January 
9, 1875. 

Accomplice (pointed out by Big Moccasin and Medicine 
Water) in Germain murder. 


30684 (9) Bear's Heart.— Warrior. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, April 3, 

Accomplice (pointed out by Big Moccasin and Medicine 
Water) in Germain murder. 

30685 (10) Star.— Warrior. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, April 3, 
No offence charged., 

30686 (11) Howling Wolf (Minimic's Son).— Warrior. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, April 3, 

30687 (12) Making Medicine.— /Famor. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, April 3, 

30688 (13) Antelope.— JFan-ior. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, April 3, 

30689 (14) Come-uh-see-vah ("Wolfs Marrow).— TFamon 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, April 3, 

30690 (15) Little Medicine.— C7nV/. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, April 3, 

30691 (16) Shave Head.— fTftmor. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, April 3, 


30692 (17) Homan Nose.— Warrior. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, April 3, 

30693 (18) Big Nose.— Warrior. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory. April 3, 

30694 (19) Squint Hyes.— Warrior. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, April 3, 


30695 (20) Little Chief.— Warrior. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, April 3, 


30696 (21) Matches.— Warrior. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, April 3, 

30697 (22) Buffalo Meat.— Warrior. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, April 3, 

30698 (23) Buzzax A.— Warrior. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, April 3, 

30699 (24) Soaring Eagle. — TFamor, 

Arrested at Fort Wallace, Kansas, December 25, 1874. 
Brown murder, near Wallace. Had Brown's pistol when 
captured by Lieutenant Hiukle. 

30700 (25) Moconista.— fFamor. 

Arrested at Fort Wallace, Kansas, December, 25, 1874. 
Brown murder. 

30701 (26) Left Hand.— TTam'o?-. 

Arrested at Fort Wallace, Kansas, December 25, 1874. 
Brown murder. 

30702 (27) Chief KiUer.- Warrior. 

Arrested at Staked Plains, Texas, September 24, 1874. 

Participated in the killing of the Germain parents and 
son and daughter, and in the carrying away into captivity 
of the four sisters. 

30703 (28) Mochl— Squaw. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, March 
5, 1875. 

Put an axe in head of Germain girls' father. 
Grey Beard. — Chief. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, April 3, 

Jumped from the train en route, near Houston, Fla., May 
21, 1875, and was shot by the guard and died in two hours. 

Big Moccasin.— Warrior. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, Decem- 
ber 14, 1874. Died November 4, 1875. 

Captured by Captain Keys, and pointed out by Medicine 

Ringleader and murder. 
Lean Bear. — Chief. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, April 3, 
1875. Died July 24, 1875. 

Shaving "Wolf. — Warrior. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, April 3, 
1875. Died December 5, 1876. 
Spotted Elk. — Warrior. 

Arrested at Clieyenne Agency, Indian Territory, April 3, 
1875. Died January 2, 1877. 


30704 (29) Packer.— TTrtm'or. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, March 
5, 1875. 

Charge. — Wilful murder. Killed Leon Williams, a Mexi- 
can herder in the employment of the United States Govern- 
ment, at Arapahoe and Cheyenne Agency. 

30705 (30) White Bear.— fTarnor. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, March 
5, 1875. 

Attempt to kill. Did shoot at, with intent to kill, F. II. 
Williams, an employe of the United States Government, at 
the Arapahoe and Cheyenne Agency. 

Woman's Heart. — C¥ief. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, October 
3, 1874. Released by order of the Secretary of War, April 
18, 1877. 

Participated in the assaults on Amos Chapman and party, 
and on Major Syman's train, near the source of the Washita 
Eiver, Texas, September 9 to 13, 1874. Participated in the 
murder of Jacob Dilsey, on the North Fork of the Canadian 
Eiver, below Camp Supply, near Cottonwood Grove, Indian 
Territory, November 21, 1873. 


30706 (31) Huh-nah-nee.— PromiHe?i( J/ffl». 

Arrested at Fort Sill, Indian Territory, April 7, 1875. 
Killed E. P. Osborne (Black Beaver's son-in-law) near the 
Wichita Agency, Indian Territory, August 22, 1874. 

30707 (32) White Horse.— C/iic/. 

Arrested at Fort Sill, Indian Territory, 17th December, 

Led the party killing Manuel Ortego and Lucien Munos, 
near Dr. J. J. Sturms, on the Little Washita Eiver, Indian 
Territory, August 22, 1874. Participated in the Howard's 
Wells Texas massacre, 1872. Led the party killing the Lee 
family and abducting the Lee children, near Fort Griffin, 
Proc. Nat. Mus. 78 14 ©ct. IT, 18T8. 


Texas, 1872. Led the party killing Mr. Koozier, near Hen- 
rietta, Texas, and carrying his wife and four children in 
captivity, 1870. Led the party attacking the mail stage, 
dangerously wounding the driver, robbing the stage, killing, 
wounding, and robbing the stage of its mules, near John- 
son's Station, 25 miles west of Fort Concho, Texas, July 
14, 1872. Notoriously a murderer and raider. 

30708 (33) V/o haw (Beei).— Warrior. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, October 
3, 1874. 

Participated iu the murder of Manuel Ortego and Lucien 
Munos. Was in the party killing Jacob Dilsey. 

30709 (34) Bird Chief, alias Bird Medicine, alias Bad Eye. — Warrior and Leader. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, October 
3, 1874. 

Participated in the assaults on Amos Chapman and 
party, and Major Sy man's train near the source of the 
Washita River, Texas, September 9 to 13, 1874. Led the 
party, killing Jacob Dilsey on the North Fork of the Cana- 
dian Eiver, below Camp Supply, near Cottonwood Grove, 
Indian Territory, November 21, 1873. Was in the party 
killing J. H. Martin, Mr. Canala, and Mr. Himes near Ki- 
owa or Medicine Lodge Creek, Barbour County, Kansas, 
June IC, 1874. Participated iu the murder of Earnest 
Modest; seized Modest by the wrist and held him while 
another shot him, near Wichita Agency, August 22, 1874. 

30710 (35) Double Vision.— Pe«^ Chief. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, October 
3, 1874. 

Was iu the party murdering Earnest Modest. Held the 
bridle of Romero's horse all the time the murder of Earnest 
Modest was being accomplished. ' 

30711 (36) Sa-a-ini-da (Bear in the Clouds).— Leather. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, October 
3, 1874. 

Participated in the murder of Earnest Modest. Took 
care of the horses of the party, while the other Indians 
hammered Earnest to death with their hatchets. 

30712 (37) Lone V7oU.— Chief. 

Arrested at Salt Fork, Red River, Indian Territory, Feb- 
ruary 18, 1875. 

Headed a party of Kiowas, killing two buffalo-hunters, 
Dudley and Wallace, on the Canadian River, below Adobe 
Walls, early in 1874; led a party of 100 Indians, more or 
less, in assailing a party of non-combatants, citizens of the 
United States, viz, E. P. Osborne, E. H. Barrett, Jackson 
Clark, and Charles Losson, and did murder, or aid iu, assist, 


and abet the murder, with firearms of three of the aforesaid 
uon-combatants, viz, Osborue, Barrett, and Clark. 

30713 (38) Zo-tom {Bitei).— Warrior. 

Arrested at Salt Fork, Eed River, Indian Territory, Feb- 
ruary 18, 1875. 

Was in party headed by Mah-mante, killing two colored 
men on Salt Creek Prairie, between Jackson and Belknap, 
Texas, 1870 or 1871. Participated in the attack on buffalo- 
hunters at Adobe Walls, early in spring of 1871. 

30714 (39) On-ko-eht (Anlile).— Warrior. 

Arrested at Salt Fork, Red River, Indian Territory, Feb- 
ruary 18, 1875. 

Bad man ; was with Mah-mante, killing two colored men, 

30715 (40) Ohet-toint (High Forehead).— TFamor. 

Arrested at Salt Fork, Red River, Indian Territory, Feb- 
ruary 18, 1875. 

Was with Mah-mante when he killed the man in the 
wagon ; was with Lone Wolf killing two buffalo hunters. 

30716 (41) E-tah-dle-uh (Boy).— TFamor. 

Arrested at Salt Fork, Red River, Indian Territory, Feb- 
ruary 18, 1875. 

Was with Lone Wolf killing buffalo-hunters (Dudley and 
Wallace); was in the party attacking buffalo-hunters at 
Adobe Walls, early in spring of 1874. 

30717 (42) Zo-pe-he (Toothless).— TF«rrior. 

Arrested at Salt Fork, Red River, Indian Territory, Feb- 
ruary 18, 1875. 

Participated in the killing of two colored men. Went to 
Texas witii a party of Comanches' and participated in the 
killing of two men on the Clear Fork of the Brazos in the 
summer of 1873. 

30718 (43) Tsah-dle-tah ("White Goose).— Warrior. 

Arrested at Salt Fork, Red River, Indian Territory, Feb- 
ruary 18, 1875. 

Was with Lone Wolf, killing two men, buffalo-hunters, 
I Wallace and Dudley ; was prominent in the attack on troops 

at the Washita, August 22, 1874 ; helped to kill the white 
men Modest, Osborne, and others. 

30719. (44) Zone-ke-uh (Teeth).— TFamor. 

Arrested at Salt Fork, Red River, February 18, 1875. 

Was with Mah-mante killing the two colored men. Was 
with Lone Wolf killing two buffalo-hunters, Dudley and 

30720. (45) Beah-ko (Old Man).— TFam'or. 

Arrested at Salt Fork, Red River, Indian Territory, Feb- 
ruary 18, 1875. 


Helped rob Shirley's store at the Wichita Agency, In- 
dian Territory, August 22, 1874. 
30721. (46) To-un-ke-up (Good Talk.).— Warrior. 

Arrested at Salt Fork, Eed Elver, Indian Territory, Feb- 
ruary 18, 1875. 

Stealing in Salt Creek Yalley, Texas, late in 1871. Was 
with Lone Wolf killing Dudley and Wallace, buffalo-hunt- 

30722 (47) Ko-ba (Wild Horse).— TTamor. 

Arrested at Salt Fork, Eed Eiver, Indian Territory, Feb- 
ruary 18, 1875. 

Was with Mah-mante stealing a lot of mules in the Brazos 
country in 1872. Participated in the attack on General 
Davidson's command at Wichita Agency, August 22, 1874. 

30723 (48) Mau-ko-peh (Flat Nose). — JVarrior. 

Arrested at Salt Fork, Eed Eiver, Indian Territory, Feb- 
ruary 18, 1875. 

Stealing horses, and was with Mah-mante stealing a lot 
of mules in the Brazos country in 1872. 

30724 (49) Au-lih (Wise).— /ran-ior. 

Arrested at Salt Fork, Eed Eiver, Indian Territory, Feb- 
ruary 18, 1875. 

Was with Lone Wolf killiug Dudley and Wallace. Was 
with Mah-mante when he killed the man in the wagon. 
Stealing horses. Helped rob Shirley's store. Participated 
in the attack on General Davidson's command. 

30725 (50) Ko-ho (Kicking).— TTflrnor. 

Arrested at Salt Fork, Eed Eiver, Indian Territory, Feb- 
ruary 18, 1875. 

Was with Lone Wolf killing Dudey and Wallace. Was 
with Mah-mante killing the two colored men. Helped rob 
Shirley's store. Participated in the attack on General 
Davidson's command. Stealing mules. 

30726 (51) To-o-sape (Bull with Holes in his Ears). — Warrior. 

Arrested at Salt Fork, Eed Eiver, Indian Territorj'^, Feb- 
ruary 18, 1875. 

Was with Mah-mante killing the two colored men. Was 
with Lone Wolf killiug Dudley and Wallace. Stealing 

30727 (52) Tsait-kope-ta (Bear Mountain).— TTamor, 

Arrested at Salt Fork, Eed Eiver, Indian Territory, Feb- 
ruary 18, 1875. 

Helped rob Shirley's store. Stole horses. Was with 
Lone Wolf killing Dudley and Wallace. 

30728 (53) Pedro.— TTamor. 

Arrested at Salt Fork, Eed Eiver, Indian Territory, Feb- 
ruary 18, 1875. 
Killed a colored man, known as Frenchy, near the 


Wichita Agency, Indian Territory, Angust 22, 1874. Was 
in a party killing two white men below Fort Griffin, 
Texas, in the winter of 1872-'73. One of the men was 
riding a mule, and the other a horse, at the time. Was 
a prominent character in the party robbing Shirley's store. 
Stole horses and mules. Was with Mah-mante killing the 
man in the wagon. 
Ih-pa-yah (Straightening an Arrow). — JVairior. 

Arrested at Salt Fork, Eed Eiver, February 18, 1875. 
Died October 5, 1875. 

Stealing horses in or near the Salt Creek Valley, Texas, 
in the spring of 1873. 
Co-a-bote-ta (Sun). — Warrior. 

Arrested at Sulphur Ct. H., Indian Territory, October 
23, 1874. Died May 24, 1875. Participated in the murder , 
of Jacob Dilsey. 
Ah-ke-ah, alias Pah-o-ka (Coming to the Grove). — Warrior. 

Arrested at Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, October 
3, 1874. Released by order of Secretary of War, April 18, 
Participated in the murder of Jacob Dilsey. 
Mah-mante, alias Swan (Man w^ho "Walks above the Ground).— CViie/. 

Arrested at Salt Fork, Eed Eiver, Indian Territory, Feb- 
ruary 13, 1875. Died July 29, 1875. 

Led a party, killing two colored men, on the Salt Creek 
Prairie, between Jacksboro' and Belknap, Texas, 1870 or 
1871. Killed a man on the road south of Fort Griffin, Texas, 
some time in 1870. Two men were riding in a lone wagon, 
Mah-mante lay concealed and shot one. Led a party steal- 
ing a large lot of mules in the Brazos country in 1871. One 
mule was spotted. Killed a white woman and child in re- 
venge for the loss of two of his men, while on a raid in South- 
western Texas, in fall of 1874. Was with Lone Wolf, killing 
two buflalo-hunters, Dudley and Wallace, &c. 


30731 (56) Eck-e-mah-ats (Buck Antelope.)— TTarnor. 

Arrested at Elk Creek, Indian Territory, October 26, 1874. 
Was in Texas with a party and stole horses about Decem- 
ber, 1873. 

30732 (57) Wy-a-ko (Dry Wood).— rramor. 

Arrested at Elk Creek, Indian Territory, October 20, 

Has been in Texas stealing horses j was in Texas last in 
the winter of 1873-74. 


30733 (58) Black Horse.— C7(?f/. 

Arrested at Fort Sill, Indian Territory, March 7, 1875. 

Talked defiantly in council with Governor Davis at Fort 
Sill, Indian Territory, 1873. Killed a white man near Fort 
Cobb, Indian Territory, 1867. The man went in his com- 
pany on a hunt, and it was thought at the time that Black 
Horse procured him to go for the purjiose of killing him. 
That the Indian Agent Leavenworth and an innkeeper 
named Lewis had engaged him to do the job on account of 
some trouble they had had with the man, who was a bad 

30734 (59) Mad-a-with-t.— TTam'or. 

Arrested at Fort Sill, Indian Territory, March 7, 1875. 
Died July 21, 1877. 

A raider. A bad man. Always trying to persuade young 
men to go off into Texas, always going himself. 

30735 (60) Ta-a-way-ite (Telling Something). — Warrior. 

Arrested at Fort Sill, Indian Territory, April 18, 1875. 

A raider. A bad man. Always stealing horses or on 
a war-path. Never brings his horses to Sill. Steals them, 
and takes them to the Quahada Camp on the Staked 

30736 (61) Pe-eh-chip (Tail Feathers ).— 7ramor. 

Arrested at Fort Sill, Indian Territory, April 18, 1875. 

He is one of the five fellows that shot their father and 
was outlawed ; that Captain Lee (Tenth Cavalry) was sent 
down to Double Mountain after, in the fall of 1873. He has 
been on the war-path ever since. 

30737 (62) Tis-cha-kah-da (Always Sitting Down in a Bad Place).— Warrior. 

Arrested at Fort Sill, Indian Territory, April 18, 1875. 

A bad man. Always off trying to steal horses, or on the 
war-path, &c. He is one of the desperadoes Captain Lee 
(Tenth Cavalry) was sent down to Double Mountain after 
late in 1873. 
Quoiyo-uh. — Warrior. 

Arrested at Fort Sill, Indian Territory, April 8, 1875. 

Bad man. Stealing horses. Stole thirty or more horses 
from the Chickasaws. 
Pa-vdor4te (Little Prairie Hill). — Warrior. 

Arrested at Wichita Agency, Indian Territory, Decem- 
ber 25, 1874. 

Helped steal forty-six horses from near Fort Sill belong- 
ing to K[iowa'?] and C[omanche'?] Agency and John Mad- 
den, citizen, May 11, 1874. Threatened to kill Mr. Clark, 
Comanches inn-keeper, on the day of the Wachita disturb- 
ance, August 22, 1874. Drew pistol on Clark. 




The present sketch of the North ximerican Pedieulate Fishes is ex- 
tracted from a general work on the fishes of tlie corresponding region, 
which it is proposed to publish in instalments and as convenience 
may dictate. The issue of that Relative to the Pediculates seems to be 
at least as much called for as any other on account of the recent addi- 
tions to our knowledge of the group and the rarity of the volumes in 
■which those additions have been recorded. The recent discovery, too, 
of so many northern and deep-sea forms not far from our eastern coast 
renders it possible that any of the types herein enumerated may be 
found in the same waters, and the present synopsis may lead to their 
ready identification. The knowledge qf the northern forms is chiefly 

due to Dr. Liitkeu. 

Syuopsis of Families. 

la. Branchial apertures i a or behind the inferior axillse of the pectoral fins ; anterior 
dorsal ray superior ; mouth more or less opening upwards ; the lower jaw 
generally projecting beyond or closing in front of upper. 
2a. Pseudobrachia with three actinosts ; pseudobranchias not developed. 

3a. Pectoral members geniculated, with elongated j)3eudobrachia ; ventral flns 

developed , ANTENNARiiDiE. 

36. Pectoral members not geniculated, with moderate pseudobrachia ; ventral 

fins suppressed Ceratiid^. 

2b. Pseudobrachia with two actinosts ; pseudobranchijs developed. 

3. Pectoral members little geniculated, but with elongated pseudobrachia ; 

ventral fins separated bj' wide interval Lopuiid^. 

lb. Branchial apertures in the superior asilhe of the pectoral fins ; anterior dorsal ray 
in a cavity overhung by the anterior margin of the forehead ; mouth sub- 
terminal or inferior, the lower jaw being generally received within the 
upper Maltheid^. 


Pediculates with elongated geniculate pseudobrachia, provided with 
three actinosts, i. e., 

Pediculates with a compressed body; the mouth opening upwards; 
the branchial apertures i>erforated in the lov/er axils of the pectorals; 
no pseudobranchiae ; the dorsals represented by (1) at least a frontal or 
superior rostral spine, and (2) an oblong soft dorsal ; the pectoral mem- 
bers distinctly geniculated, with elongated pseudobrachia and three 
actinosts ; and with well developed and approximated ventrals. 


Antennariids with the body oval and with tumid abdomen, the head 
compressed, the mouth quite large ; teeth on the palate as well as jaws ; 
spinous dorsal represented by three spines ; soft dorsal quite elevated ; 
and pelvic bones elongated. 



Antenuariines with skin naked and smooth; caudal peduncle free; 
mouth oblique 5 dorsal spines completely exserted ; soft dorsal and anal 
expanded vertically ; pectorals and wrists slender, and ventrals elon- 

Pterophryne histrio. 

Comvion Frog-fish. Mouse-fish. 

1758 — Lcpbius histrio, Linne, Systema Natura?, ID. ed., p. 237 ; 12. ed., 1. 1, p. 403; Gmel. 

ed., t. 1, p. 1481. 
1815— Lophiusgibbus, MUchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. N. Y., v. 1, pi. 4, f. 9. 
1837 — Chironectes pictus, Cuv. tj' Val., Hist. Nat. des Poissous, t. 12, p. 393, pi. 363. 
1837 — Chironectes tumidus, Cuv. cf VaL, Hist. Nat. des Poissons, t. 12, p. 397. 
1837— Chironectes loevigatus, Cuv. cj- Val., Hist. Nat. des Poissous, t. 12, p. 399. 
1837 — Chironectes nesogallicus, Cuv. ^- Val., Hist. Nat. des Poissons, t. 12, p. 401. 
1837 — Chironectes marmoratus, Cuv. 4~ VaL, Hist. Nat. des Poissons, t. 12, p. 402. 
1839 — Chironectes lavigatus, Slorei-, Boston Journ. Nat. Hist., v. 2, p. 383 ; Eep. Ich. 

and Herp. Mass., p. 73. 
1842 — Chironectes loevigatus, DeKaij, Zoology of New York, Fishes, p. 165, pi. 27, f. 83. 
1842 — Chironectes gibbus, DeKaij, Zoology of New York, Fishes, p. 164, pi. 24, f. 74. 
1853 — Chironectes Isevigatus, Storer, Mem. Am. Acad. Arts and Sc, u. s., v. 5, p. 270 3 

Hist. Fishes Mass., p. 104, pl. 18, f. 3. 
1861 — Antennarius marmoratus, Gilnlher, Cat. Fishes in Brit. Mus., v. 3, p. 185. 
1863— Pterophryne lajvigatus, GiU,Tvoc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila., [v. 15,] p. 90. 
1878— Pterophryne histrio, GUI, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v. 1, p. 216. 

Pterophryne with the skin of head and body, as well as dorsal fins, 
emitting cutaneous tentacles, which are generally most numerous on the 
second and third dorsal spines and abdomen ; the first dorsal spine short 
and filamentous with a smaller tip surmounted by a small tag ; the color 
light for the ground, with spotted white dots and marked with blackish 
brown around the ocular region, with several dark radii diverging from 
the eyes, and on the fins more or less interrupted blackish bands, five 
or six obliquely crossing the soft dorsal, three rectangularly crossing the 
anal, and others on the pectotals, ventrals, and caudal. 

An inhabitant of the Sargassum Seas, but occasional straggler to the 
North American coast. 


Pediculates uou-pediculate and deprived of ventral fins, ?. e., 
Pediculates diversiform in shape, with the mouth opening more or less 
upwards; the branchial apertures in the lower axils of the pectorals ; 
no pseudobranchioe ; the dorsals represented by at least a frontal or 
superior rostral spine, the pectoral members not geniculated, with short 
pseudobrachia and three actiuosts, and without ventrals. 

Apparently inhabitants of the depths of the ocean in their adult con- 
dition, and, in some cases at least, near the surface in their juvenile 
state. All the known species are unicolored and blackish. 

* Pterophryne, Tt-epov, wmg, quaul fin, and (ppwi], toad. If considered to be too near 
Pterophryims, the genus may be called Plerophrynoidbs ((ppwoeidric, toad-like). 



la. Mouth moderate ; cephalic spine with its basal element exserted and con'iuuous 
with the distal ; pyloric ccEca develojied (2). 
2a. A second dorsal spine typically developed ; mouth with the cleft subvertical ; 
Ist D. with few rays ; branchiae in 2-J pairs ; branchial arches unarmed ; 

skin with scattered spinigerous scuteUse Ceratiin^. 

Cer alias. 
\a. Mouth moderate ; cephalic spine with its basal element subcutaneous, procumbent, 
and at right or acute angle with the distal ; pyloric cceca none. 
2a. A second dorsal spine developed; branchise in 2^ pairs; branchial arches un- 
armed ; body' naked. 
3. Body and head compressed ; mouth with the cleft nearly horizontal, and 

mandibular articulation behind eye Oneirodinje. 


2. No second dorsal spine developed; branchiae in |2| pairs; branchial arches 

armed with dentigerous tubercles ; body with ecattered tubercular 


3. Body and head compressed ; mouth with the cleft oblique ; mandibular 

articulation under or behind eye Himantolopiiix^. 

4a. Body oblong oval ; dorsal fin with about 9 rays, and pectoral with 

about 12? nimantoloplius. 

46. Body short oval ; dorsal fin with 4 rays, and pectoral with about 
17 Corynolopliiis. 


Ceratiids with the body and head compressed ; moath with moderate 
and almost or quite vertical cleft; branchiae in 2h pairs; branchial 
arches unarmed ; spinous dorsal represented by a rostral spine, as well 
as, generally, by a second, whose hasal element is exserted; soft with few 
rays, placed quite far back of the head ; pyloric cceca developed (2;. 


Ceratiiues with an oblong form; skin prickly; vomer toothless; 

cephalic spine elongated, and with a simple capitate extremity; second 

dorsal spine well developed, and pectorals multiradiate {L e., with about 

20 rays). 

Ceratias Holbollii. 

1844 — Ceratias Holbollii Kroyer, Naturhist. Tidskrift, 2. rsekke, b. i, pp. 639-649. 
18G1 — Ceratias Holbolli Gilnther, Cat. Fishes in Brit. Mus., v. 3, p. 205. 

Ceratias with cephalic spine reclinable beyond base of caudal fin, and 
candal fin longer than body exclusive of head. 
Deep sea along Greenland (known from several specimens). 


Ceratiids with the body and head compressed ; mouth with moderate 
and almost horizontal clelt; brancbiai in 2J pairs; branchial arches 
unarmed; spinous dorsal represented by a (1) rostral spine, whose basal 
* Ceratias, ictfjanar, ov, />, one that has horns, in allusion to the frontal ray. 


element is procumbent and subcutaneous-, and (2) a second spine, about 
intermediate hetiireii the firat and the dorsal Jin; soft dorsal with about 
4 rays 5 and without pyloric cceca. 


OneirodiniB with oval form ; tlie skin naked; the vomer dentigerous; 
and the cephalic spine with a bulbous termination, surmounted by slen- 
der filaments in several transverse rows. 

Oneirodes Eschrichtii. 

1871 — Oueirodes Eschrichtii Liitken, Overs. overDansk. Vitlensk. Selsk, Forhandl., 1871, 
pp. 57-74 ; res. fr., pp. 9-18, pi. 2. 

Oneirodes with the terminal element of the cephalic spine ratber 
longer than the proximal subcutaneous ; the caudal shorter than the 
distance between its base and the branchial apertures ; and the color 
black except the terminal half of the spinal bulb, which is whitish. 

Deep sea off Greenland: known from a single specimen 205 millimetres 


Ceratiids with the body and head compressed, with moderate oblique 
cleft mouth, the mandibular articulation under the eyes; branchiai iu 
^2^ pairs; branchial arches armed with dentigerous tubercles; spi- 
nous dorsal represented only hy a rostral spine, whose basal element is 
procumbent and subcutaneous; and soft dorsal with about 5 — 9 rays. 


Himantolophines of an oblong oval form, a dorsal of about 9 rays, and 
pectorals with about 12 rays each (?). 

Himantolophus Groenlandicus. 

1837 — Ilimautolophns Groeulandicus Beinhardt, Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Nat. og Math. 
Afh., 4. raekke, b. 7, p. 74. 

Himantolophus with the height of the body equal to two-fifths of the 
length, and the frontal ray provided with 11 tentacles (Liitken). 

Habitat. — Sea off Greenland (known only from the remains of a speci- 
men 23 inches long). 


Himantolophines of an abbreviated oval form, a dorsal of about 5 
rays, and pectorals with about 17 rays each. 

*Ontirodcs, 'oveipudj^g, dream-like, in allusioa to the small and almost covered eyes. 
i Himantolophus, l/xdg, avrog, a thons, and 7M<i>0Q, a tuft. 

X Corynolophiis, Kopvvr}, rjc, " a stick with a knob at the end ", or club, and Tiocpog, a 


Corynolophus Reinhardti. 

1878 — Corynoloplins Reinhardti, LUtken, K. Dausk. Videcsk. Selsk. Skr., Nat. og Math. 
Afh., 5. rsekke, b. 5, p. 321, etc. 

Corynolophus with the height of the body equal to three-fourths of the 
total leugth, and the frontal ray furnished with 8 tentacles. 

Mahitat. — Sea off Greenland (described from a specimen 14 inches 


Pediculates with pseudobranchice, i. e.. 

Pediculates with the body differentiated into a wide depressed head and 
contracted conical trunk; the month opening forwards and upwards; the 
branchial apertures in the inferior axils of the pectoral members ; pseudo- 
branchiae; the spinous dorsal represented by a group of independent 
cephalic spines (3) and a small postcephalic finlet (with 3 spines); the 
pectoral members scarcely geniculated, but with elongated pseudobra- 
chia, and with three actinosts; and with ventrals well developed. 


Lophiids with vomerine teeth. 

Lophius piscatoriiis. 


1758 — Lophius piscatorius, Linnccus, Syst. Nat., 10 ed., t. 1, p. 236 (12 ed., t. 1,. p. 402; 

Guil. ed., t. 1, p. 1479). 
1815 — Lophius foliatus, Mitcliill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. N. Y., v. 1, p. 457. 
1815 — Lophius piscator, Mitcliill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. N. Y., v. 1, p. 467. 
1837 — Lophius i^iscatorius, Cuv. ^- Vol., Hist. Nat. des Poissons, t. 12, p. 344, pi. 362. 
1837 — Lophius americanus, Cuv. <J- Val., Hist. Nat. des Poissons, t. 12, p. 381. 
1839 — LophiuS piecatorius, Siorer, Boston Jouru. Nat. Hist., v. 2, p. 3d0 ; Rep. Ich. aud 

Herp. Mass., pp. 71, 404. 
1842— Lophius americanus, DcKay, Zoology of New York, Fishes, p. 162, pi. 28, f. 87. 
1853 — Lophius americanus, Sioi^er, Mem. Am. Acad. Arts aud Sc, n. s., v. 5, p. 267 ; Hist. 

Fishes Mass., p. 101, pi. 18, f. 2. 
1861 — Lophius piscatorius, Giinther, Cat. Fishes in Brit. Mus., v. 3, p. 179. 
1861 — Lophius americanus, Giinther, Cat. Fishes in Brit. Mus., v. 3, p. 181 (d. s.). 
1872 — Lophius piscatorius, Lyman, 6ih Ann. Rep., lul. Fish., ji. 44 (Waquoit Weir). 

Loiihius with a tridentate humeral ppiue, 11-12 rays in the dorsal fin, 
and the mouth behind the hyoid boue immaculate. 
Habitat. — Coast waters from Newfoundland to North Carolina. 


Pediculates with the branchial apertures in the superior axils of the 
pectorals, i. e., 

Pediculates with a depressed body; the mouth subterminal or inferior, 
and the lower jaw generally received within the upper; the branchial 
apertures in the superior axils of the pectoral fins ; no psendobranchia} ; 

*Lo2)kius, the ancient Latin name of the type of the genu-. 


the spiuous dorsal represented by a tentacle in a cavity overhung by the 
forehead, and the soft small and far behind; the pectoral members 
strongly geniculate, and with long pseudobrachia and three actinosts; 
and the ventrals well developed. 
Inhabitants of temperate and tropical seas at moderate or great depths. 


Maltheids with a cordiform cephalic disk and a stout caudal portion, 
and with the frontal region elevated. 

Maltheines of unique genus. 

Malthe vespertilio.t 

1758— Lophius vespertilio, Linne, Syst. Nat., 10 eel., 1. 1, p. 236 (12 ed., t. l,p. 402 ; Gniel. 

ed., t. 1, p. 1480). 
1837 — Malthea vespertilio, Cur. tf- Vah, Hist. Nat. des Poissons, t. 12, p. 440. 
1837— Malthaea nasuta, Cuv tj- Val, Hist. Nat. des Poissons, t. 12, p. 4.52. (In part.) 
1837— Maltbsea notata, Cuv. ^- Val, Hist. Nat. des Poissons, t. 12, p. 453. (In part.) 
1842— Malthea nasuta, DeKaij, Zoology of New York, Fishes, p. 107. (In part; not 

1842 — Malthea notata, DeEay, Zoology of New York, Fishes, p, 167. 
1842— Malthea vespertilio, DeKay, Zoology of New York, Fishes, p. 167. 
1861 — Malthe vespertilio, GUntlier, Cat. Fishes in Brit. Mus., v. 3, p. 200. 

Malthe with the forehead produced into a more or less elongated sub- 
conical process, its width greater between the anterior angles of the 
orbit than between the posterior ones, and the frontal cavity higher 
than wide. 

Xewfoundlaud to West Indies. 

Malthe cubifrons. 

1836 — Lophfus (Malthe) cubifrons, liichardson ,Fanna Bor.-Am., Fishes, p. 103, pi. 96. 
1837 — Malthiea nasuta, Cuv. ^- Val., Hist. Nat. des Poissons, t. 12, p. 452. (In part.) 
1842— Malthea nasnta, DeKaij, Zoology of New York, Fishes, p. 1L6, pi. 28, f. 89. (In 

part, i. e. fig., copied from Richardson.) 
1861 — Malthe cubifrons, Giiniher, Cat. Fishes in Brit. Mus., v. 3, p. 203. 

Malthe with the forehead decurved and in front with a button-like 
tubercle, the width between the anterior angle of the orbit nearly equal 

■*Malthe, fiuldrj, the Greek name of a loose-bodied fish. — "Md^i?^signifiede lacirera- 
moUie. Oa trouve ce nom dans Oppien j)armi ceux de plusieurs grands poissons cartila- 
gineux, et I'esp^ce qui le iiorte y est d6sigu4e comme remarquable par sa mollesse. 
Suidas, qui la place dans une 6uum6ration du meme genre, dit qu'elle est difficile a 
vaincre. Sur ces deux traits B^lou a peusd que la malthee 6ta\t la baudroie, et, bien 
que son opinion n'ait pas 6i6 adoptde, et n'ait pent-etrepas dil I'etre, M. Cuvier a cru 
pouvoir s'en pr6vaIoir pour d<5river de /zu?.t9?? le nom de maltha'a, qu'il adonud a uu petit 
genre ddmembre de celui des baudroits." — Cuv. et. Val.. Hist. Nat. des Poissons, t. 12, 
p. 438. 

t Whatever may be the value of the nominal species introduced by Cuvier and Va- 
lenciennes, all those found along the United States coast, recently examined by myself, 
belong to one species. I think, however, that formerly I saw a second species of the 
M. respcriilio type. 


to tbat between the posterior ones, and the frontal cavity much broader 
than high. 

Until lately, known from a single specimen obtained in Labrador by 
Audubon, the ornithologist, and now preserved in the British Museum. 
There is, however, a specimen in the collection of the Smithsonian In- 
stitution from St. Augustine, Florida, whence it was sent by Dr. J. M. 
Lainff, TJ. S. A. 

The relations of the North American genera to the other members of 
the families in question will be exhibited in the subsequent notes. 



The relations of the only known North American representative of 
the family of Antenuariids to the other members of the family is exhib- 
ited in the following analytical synopsis, which is essentially the same 
as that published by the author in 1863. In the present synopsis, how- 
ever, the most generalized forms (or those supposed to be such) are 
placed first and followed by those successively more aberrant or spe- 
cialized. The two species hitherto retained under the generic designa- 
tion BrachionichtJiys are also differentiated as distinct generic types. 
Dr. Liitkeu has recently expressed the opinion that Pterophryne and 
Histiophryne appear to be congeneric, but they really seem to be not 
even closely related. 

la. Head compressed ; the rostral spine or tentacle as well as two other robust spines 
developed ; soft dorsal well developed. 
2a. Body oblong claviform ; mouth comparatively small ; palate unarmed ; second 
and third spines approximated and well connected by membrane and 

forming a fin; pelvic bones short Brachionichthyin^. 

3a. First dorsal spine connected with second, and third with soft dorsal fin 

by an incised membrane Sympterichthys. 

3&. First dorsal spine free from second, and third from soft dorsal fin. 

2b. Body oval, with tumid abdomen ; mouth quite large ; palate armed with 
teeth ; second and third spines distant and not at all or scarcely con- 
nected; pelvic bones elongated .• Antennariin^. 

3a. First and second dorsal spines disconnected; the first filamentous, with 

tentacle at end. 

4a. D. 12, A. 7. Caudal peduncle free; skin smooth or scarcely granular; 

mouth oblique ; wrists and pectorals slender ; ventrals elongated ; 

dorsal spines free from membrane ; dorsal fin more than half as long 

as body ; anal extended downward Pieropliryne. 

Ah. D. 12, A. 7 — 8. Caudal peduncle free ; skin rough with spines ; mouth 
vertical; wrists and x)ectorals widened; ventrals short; 3d dorsal spine 
partly immersed in skin ; dorsal fin less than half as long as body ; 
anal oblong : Antennarius. 


4c. D. 15, A. 8. Caudal peduncle with dorsal and anal attached by mem- 
brane ; skin smooth; mouth vertical; dorsal spines scarcely exserted 

from skin EiaUopliryne. 

3&. First and second dorsal spines connected; the first slender, but rigid, and 

■with tentacle at end Saccarius. 

lb. Head cuboid ; a rostral spine or tentacle only developed ; soft dorsal low. 


The references to the original descriptions of these genera, as weil as 
to their typical species and habitats, are indicated in the following enu- 
meration : — 



Sympterichthys, GUI, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v. 1, p. 222, 1878. 
Type: Sympterichthys Isevis = Lophius lajvis Lac. 
Sea near Van Diemen's Land. 


Brachionichthys, Bleeker, Natuurk. Tijdschr. Nederl. Ind., t 7, p. 121, 18.54. 
Type : Brachionichthys hirsutus = Lophius hirsutus Lac. 
Sea near Van Diemen's Land. 



Pterophryue, GiU, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila., [v. 15,] p. 90, 1863. 
Tyiie: Pterophryne histrio^ Lophius histrio Linn. 
Tropicalia and warm streams in floating seaweeds. 


Antennarius, Commerson, Laa^jyede, Hist. Nat. des Poissons, t. 1, p. 421, 1798. 
Les Cbironectes (Antennarius), Cuvier, R^gne Animal, 1^ ed., t. 2, p. 310, 1817. 
Chironecte?, Cuvier, M^m. Mus. d'Hist. Nat., t. 3, p. 418, 1817 (not Illiger). 

Type: Antennarius chironectes Comm. 

Tropicalia, in coral groves chiefly. 


Histiophryne, Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila., [v. 15,] p. 90, 1863. 
Type : Histiophryne Bougainvillii = Chironectes Bougainvillii Cuv. ij- Vol. 


Saccarius, Gilnther, Cat. Fishes in Brit. Mus., v. 3, p. 183, 1861. 
Type: Saccarius lineatus G^iftj-. 
Sea off New Zealand. 



Chaunax, Lowe, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, v. 3, p. 339, 1846-49. 
Type : Chaunax pictus Loive. 
Atlantic Ocean off the island of Madeira. 




The most commou aiul widely distributed of the Antennariids, aud 
which is the i^eculiar species of the high seas, has been entered in the 
most recent systematic lists under the names Antennarius marmoratuis* 
and Pterophryne pibfa.f In this connection, it has been assumed that 
the species had first received names from Bloch and Schneider in 1801. 
I propose, however, to show, (1) that the species itself had long before re- 
ceived a name from the founder of the binomial nomenclature, aud (2) that 
neither of the names of Bloch and Schneider is referable to these species. 
Long ago recognizing that the names of Bloch and Schneider had 
nothing to do with a Pterophryne, but without the bibliographical aids 
for certainly ascertaining what name had priority, I have hitherto 
adopted the provisional name Pterophryne Iccvigata, as Liitken has also 

recently done. 


It behooves us, first, to inquire what was the basis of the LopMus 
Mstrio of Linnceus. 

In 1747, in his " Wiistgota resa forrattad ar 171G", Linnseus described, 
as "Balistes, qvae Guaperva c\nnems^\ a small fish scarcely exceeding in 
length the last joint of the thumb, in the following terms, as translated 
in the German edition of 17G54 

'^Balistes, quae Guaperva chinensis. Corpus acutum, compressura. 
Dorsum antice gibbum. Pectus compressum, pinnis pectoralibus termina- 
tutu, prominulum. Latera corporis picta lituris lacteis, annularibus, 
interruptis, puncto centrali lacteo notatis. Caput magnum, thoraci 
immersuui, dentibus minutissimis iustructum. Fllamentum subulatum, 
erectum, loco narium. Pinna dorsalis anterior retrorsum falcatosub- 
ulata, mollis, alta, e gibbere dorsi juxta caput euata, radio I. Pinna 
dorsalis posterior radiis 12. Pinnse pectorales brachiorum iustar manu- 
bris iustructae, et antrorsum mauuum instar inflexae (quod in pisci- 
bus singulare), radiis 10. Pinnae ventrales approximatae, radiis 5. 
Pinna caudae radiis 9. Pinna ani radiis 7. Iris ocnlorum alba. Magni- 
tudo totius piscis vix extimum pollicis articulum superat. Diversissima 
species a Guaperva lonstoni T. VI. f. G. quam ex America possideo. Die 
Figur dieses Fisches in natiirlicher Grosse ist die 5*'^ auf der 3"^° Tafel, 
wo er bey a von der Seite, bey h aber auf dem Riicken vorgestellet ist, 
dass die Aerme an den pinnis pectoralibus deutlich in die Augen fallen." 

The acute compressed body, the round milky spots, the small ros- 
tral filament (none is represented in the figure), the well developed fins, 

*Anteuuariusmarmoratus, GM«//i6T, Cat. risbesiaBritMus.,v. :5,p. 1H5, 18G1 ; Bleeker, 
Atlas Icbthyologiqne Indes Orient. Nderland., t. 5, p. 23, 1865. 
tPterophryue picta, Goode, Bull. U. S. Nat Mus., No. 5, p. 20, 1876. 
tLiuu6, Eeiseu durcli Westgothland. 8vo. Halle, 1765. p. 160, S. 138. 


the five rays of the ventrals, and the white irides all better suit the com- 
mon Pterophryne than any other Antennariid. 

In 1754, in his Offtalogne of the Museum of King Adolphus Fred- 
erick,* Linnteus again described, under the name "•Lophhis tumidus'\ evi- 
dently the same species, as follows : — 
" tumidus. LOPHIUS pinnis dorsalibus tribus. 

Balistes quos Guaperuachinensis. It. W. goth. 137. t. 3. f. 5. 
Guaperua. Marcgr. bras. 150. Will. icht. 50. t. E. 2. f. 2. 

Habitat in Pelago inter Fucos natantes. 

Corpus raoUe instar Eanae, adspersum ramentis cutaceis. Apertura 
branchiarum ad axillas brachiorum s. pone pinnas pectorales, quns de- 
currit ad pulmones ; alia apertura nulla, quod indicat aftiuitatem cum 
Kanis. Pinnce in dorso tres: prima radio uno capiti insidet; altera pec- 
tori radio uno instructa; tertia dorso radiorum duodecim, quorum duo 
vel tres bifidi. Pectorales radiis 10, quoe ulnis s. brachiis instructse. 
Ventrales radiis 5, hae ante i)ectorales basi ad jDectus connexse. Ani 
radiis 7 bifldis. Caudae radiis 10 bifidis." 

The soft body. like that of a frog (and therefore naked and not rough) 
and the cutaneous filaments are additional characters which corroborate 
those given in the former work, and certify the relevancy of the descrip- 
tions to the common Pterophryne. The habitat is also not the least im- 
I)ortant element in the determination of the Linnrean species, inasmuch 
as the true Antennarii, so far as known, frequent chiefly coral groves, 
while the Pterophryne is a pelagic species, principally affecting the 
floating sea-weeds. There can then be no reasonable doubt that the 
Antennariid of Liunceus was the common Pterophryne. 

In 1758, in the tenth edition of the " Systema Naturte*', Linnaeus first 
introduced, and in 176C, in the twelfth edition, retained, the name 
^'■LopMiis histrio-\ and in the synonymy of the species included refer- 
ences to the two works just cited. The entire passage relative to the 
species is as follows, in the twelfth edition (p. 403) : — 

"histrio. 3. L. compressus. 

Chin. Lagerstr. 21. Lophius pinnis dorsalibus tribus. 

Mus. Ad. Fr. I. p. 56. Balistes s. Guaperua chinensis. 

It. icgoth. 137. t. 3. /. 5. Balistes s. Guaperua. 

Marcgr. bras. 150. Guaperua. 

Pet. gas. t. 20. /. 6. Piscis bras, cornutus. 

Will. icht. 50. i. E. 2. /. 2. Guaperua. 

Osb. iter. 305. Lophius tumidus. 

Habitat in Pelago inter Fucum natantem. 

Pinnae D. I, I, 12. P. 10. Y. 5. A. 7. C. 10." 
The reference to Petiver's Gazophylacium was added in the twelfth 

* Musem S:^'* E.«e M."^ Adolphi Friderici. Car. LinnsBO. Fol. Holmise, 1754. p. 56. 


Although the descriptions of Linnaeus are unequivocal and based 
solely on specimens of Pterophryne, in the synonymy above copied are 
confused several species. As he seems, however, only to have known 
through autopsy the species of Pterophryne, and to have been unpre- 
pared for the polymorphous character of the type, his confusion under 
the synonymy is not at all to be wondered at, and is paralleled by many 
modern naturalists, especially Giiutber. His compatriot, Osbeck, had 
also the same species of Pterophryne in view in his description* of the 
Lophius histrio, viz : — 

"Die riossquabbe, Xo|)/<{?is Hisfrio L. S. N. Lophius tumidus Mus. 
Reg. p. 56, und Linn. Westgoth. Eeise Tab. 3, Fig. 3, aber der Faden 
und die erste Riickentiossfeder sind an den Spitzen borstig, die Borsten 
■weich. Der gauze Korper ist mit einer schleimigeu Haut, und kleinen 
bliittrigen Stlitzen {fulcris) bedeckt, die man ausser dem Wasser kaura 
bemerkt, well sie fest anschliessen. Der Eachen und Bauch sind gross, 
damit sie viele Krebsarten oder junge Krebse verschlingeu konnen. 
Vielleicht hat die Vorsicht diesen Fisch deswegen so bliittrig gekleidet, 
damit ihn die Eaubtische mit dem Seegrasse verwechseln und nicht gar 
ausrotteu mochten.*' 

The smooth skin and the tag-like appendages evidently proclaim the 
fish of Osbeck to be a Pterophryne. 

It is also to be remarked that the naturalist who first recognized spe- 
cific difierentiation among the Antennariids (Shaw), in his "General 
Zoology" (V. 5, p. 384, pi. 164), restricted the name to the Pterophryne, 
and gave, under the term Lophius histrio, a quite recognizable figure of 
that form, whose only great fault is the delineation of the first spine. 


The names subsequently applied to Pterophryne now demand consid- 

Those accepted by the latest systematists have been attributed to 
Bloch's Systema Ichtliyologiae, edited by Schneider, but, as will presently 
be shown, erroneously. 

In the Systema Ichthyologise (p. 142) only one species of Antennariids 
is admitted under the name Lophius histrio, but four varieties are distin- 
guished under it, viz : — 

Var. a, "Striated Loph. Shaw Miscell. No. 58" ; 

Var. h,pictus; 

Var. c, marmoratus ; and 

Var. d, ocellatus. 

As no references have been made to previous publications, except in 
case of var. a, it seems to have been generally assumed that the varietal 
names originated in the work in question. This, however, is not the 

• Osbeck, Peter. Eeise nach Ostindien und China. 8vo. Rostock, 17C5. p. 40p. 

Proc. Nat. Mus. 78 15 Dee. 9, 1 8 78. 


In 1794 (as appears from the dates on the plates), Sbaw published a 
number of his "Naturalists' Miscellany", in which he described three 
fishes under the generic name Lophius. These were designated as — 

(1) Lophms striatus (the Striated Lophius), pi. 175 ; 

(2) Lophius pictus (the Variegated Lophius), pL 176, upper fig. ; and 

(3) Lophius mannoratus (the Marbled Lophius), pi. 176, lower tig. 
The originals of these are evidently the varieties (a, h, and c) of Lophius 

histrio admitted by Bloch and Schneider. It is quite clear that the first 
two were based on species of typical Antennarius (not Pterophryne), 
while the third is incomprehensible, and, if the figure is at all correct, 
must represent a factitious fish; it most certainly has nothing to do 
with Fterophryne. The other species, however, notwithstanding the bad 
figures, are readily identifiable. 

The Lophius striatus (as has recently been recognized by Giinther)* 
is the first liame of an Antennarius peculiar to the Pacific, and quite dis- 
tinct from the Caribbean Antennarius scaler {■=A. histrio Gthr.), with 
wliich it was at first confounded by Glinther.t 

The Lophius pictus was evidently based on the species or variety of 
Antennarius which was afterwards named Antennarius phymatodes by 
Bleeker, and it agrees very closely, in the distribution of colors, with a 
specimen figured by that ichthyologist,| and would probably be consid- 
ered by Giinther § as a variety of his Antennarius Commersonii. 

But whatever may be the value of the forms embraced under the 
name Antennarius Commersonii by Giinther, — whether species or varie- 
ties, — the name Antennarius pictus must be revived from Shaw, either 
especially for the Antennarius phymatodes of Bleeker or for the collection 
designated as Antennarius Commersonii. 

It has thus been demonstrated (1) that the Linnaean name Lophius 
histrio was originally created for the common Fterophryne^ and (2) that 
the names generally employed for the Fterophryne were originally ap- 
plied to very different forms, and members of even a different genus. 
Hence, if the laws of priority as formulated by the British and Amer- 
ican Associations for the Advancement of Science are to guide us, there 
can be no question that the species of Fterophryne must hereafter be 
designated as Fterophryne histrio; if, however, it is allowable to go be- 
hind even the tenth edition of the Systema Naturse, and to take the 
oldest binomial name, without other considerations, the designation tu- 
midus must be revived. It seems best, however, to follow general 

'Giinther, Andrew Garrett's Fische der Siidsee, v. 1, p. 162, 1876. 

t Giinther, Cat. Fishes in Brit. Mus., v. 3, p. 188. 

t Bleeker, Atlas Ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Nderlandaises, t. 5, pi. 199, fijj. 5, 
1865. — It must be remarked that Shaw represents 5 ventral rays in his A. pictus, while 
Bleeker attributes 6 to his A. phymatodes. 

§ Giinther, in Cat. Fishes in Brit. Mus., v. 3, p. 195, has referred Shaw's name to "An- 
tennarius multioccllatus var. y. — Ieucosoma", but in the "Fische der Siidseo" did not 
refer to the L. pictus, and places the L. mannoratus as a synonym of A. Commersonii, 
having evidently transposed the names of the two. 


note: on the ceratsshje. 

Since the publication of the third volume of Giinther's " Catalogue of 
the Fishes in the British Museum" (18G1), and the present author's Note 
on the Pediculati (18G3), the then monotypic family of Ceratiidw has 
received notable additions, and this year (1878) one genus or rather type 
of hitherto doubtful character has been substantiated, and two new allied 
ones added. All the representatives of the group appear to be inhabi- 
tants of the deep or open seas. The relations of the genera seem to be 
approximately as follows: — 


la. Mouth moderate ; cephalic spine with its basal element exserted and continuons 
with the distal ; pyloric cceca developed (2). 
2. A second dorsal spine typically developed; month with the cleft subvertical; 
1st D. with few rays ; branchiai in2i pairs; branchial arches unarmed; 

skin with scattered spinigerous scutelloe Ceratiin^. 

3a. A second dorsal spine developed, and two fleshy tubercles behind it ; pec- 
torals with nearly 20 slender rays Cerallas. 

3&. No second dorsal'spine developed, but two fleshy claviform tubercles exist- 
ing as in Cer alias ; pectorals with about 10 slender rays Mancalias. 

lb. Mouth moderate ; cephalic spiue with its basal element subcutaneous, procumbent, 
and at right or acute angle with the distal ; pyloric cceca none, 
2a. A second dorsal spine developed ; branchiae in 2^ pairs ; branchial arches un- 
armed ; body naked. 
3. Body and head compressed; mouth with the cleft nearly horizontal, and 

mandibular articulation behind eye Onkihodin^. 


26. No second dorsal spine developed; branchiiE in 12^ pairs; branchial arches 

armed wilh dentigeroas tubercles; body with scattered tuLercular 


3a. Body and head compiessed; mouth with the cleft oblique; mandibular 

articulation under or behind eye Himantolopuin^e. 

4a. Body oblong oval; dorsal fin with about 9 rays and pectoral wi h 

about 12 ? ,. Himantolophns. 

46. Body short oval ; dorsal fin with 4 rays and pectoral with about 17. 

36. Body and head depressed ; mouth with the cleft vertical or inclined for- 
wards ; mandibular articulation under or in advance of snout 


Ic. Mouth enormous; (cephalic spine with its basal element subcutaneous, procum- 
bent, and at an acute anyle with its distal ?). 
2. No second dorsal spine developed. Mouth with the cleft subvertical. 1st D. 
with about 14 rays; branchia; in 2\ pairs; branchial arches un 

armed; skin naked Melanocetin^. 




Ceratias, Kroijcr, Naturhist. Tidskrift, 2. roekko, b. 1, p. 639, 1844. 
Type: C. Holbolli"A>o!/er. 
Deep sea otf Greenland. 



Mancalias, Gill, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v. 1, pp. 227, 228, 1878. 
Type: M. urauoscopus = Ceratias uranoscopns, Murray, Wyvllle Thompson, Yoyage 

of tlie Challenger, v. 2, p. 67, with tig., 1878. (Am. ed.) 
Atlantic Ocean (taken at a depth of 2,400 fathoms), between Canary and Cape Verde 

'^^'^°'" ONEIRODm^. 


Oneirodes, Lilfken, Overs, over d. K. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Forhandl., 1871, pp. 5G-74 
(fr. pp. 9-18). 
Type : O. Eschrichtii Liitken. 
Deep sea oflf Greenland. 



Himantolophus, Eeinhardt, K. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Nat. eg Math. Afh., 4. rsekke, 
V. 7, p. 74, 1837 ; LUtken, 1878. 
Type: H. Grcenlandicus iJeiwftardt. 
Deep sea off Greenland (adults). 


Type : Corynolophns Reinhardtii = Himantolophus Reinhardtii LutJcen. 

Deep sea off Greenland (adult), and open sea between Africa and America (young) ? 



^ga;onichthys, T. E. Clarke, Trans. New Zealand Institute, v. 10, p. 245, 1878. 
Type : ^. Appellii T. E. Clarke. 
Deep sea off the island of New Zealand. 



Melanocetns, GUntJier,FTOc. Zool. Soc. London, 1864, p. '.W. 
Type : Melanocetus Johnsonii Giinther. 
Deep sea off the island of Madeira. 

lu the words of Liitken, t " tbe general form and the physiognomy es- 
pecially are quite similar in the [known] genera; common to all is, also, 
the absence of ventral fins, of the lateral line and its ramifications, of the 
air bladder, of the pseudobranchijB, and of the teeth of the lower pha- 
ryngeal and palatine bones ; % the .smallness of the eyes and of the pectoral 

* Mancalias, from mancus, defective, with a quasi-diminutive termination, to corre- 
spond with Ceratias. The single specimen obtained was only 90 millimetres long. 

t Vidensk. Selsk. Skr., 5. rsekke, Naturv. og Math. Afd., lite Bd. V, fr. tr.,p. 343. 

t In Melanocetus, according to Giinther, " the vomer is armed with a transverse series 
of single teeth, and extends across the whole width of the roof of the mouth ; the 
palatine and pterygoid teeth are situated at some distance behind the vomer, and form 
two bundles irregular in form "; but, according to Liitken (and since admitted by Giin- 
ther), " the so-called palatine and pterygoid teeth " " belong in reality to the upper 


fins, the short peduncles of the latter, the conformation of the teeth, 
the black color, the number of branchiostegal rays (6) as well as of the 
rays of the anal (4) and caudal (!)), and the half-spongy consistence of 
the skeleton are also, apparently, characters common to all the [known] 

Another character shared in common by all the species, and at least 
as uoteworthy as several of those thus enumerated by Dr Liitken, is the 
differentiation in the color of the extremity of the bulbiform termination 
of the cephalic spine. In all the known species (unless Melanocetus 
may be excepted), the apical portion or elements of the bulb are of a 
grayish or whitish color, and thereby quite abruptly differentiated from 
the rest of the spine, which is of a black color. Some sj^ecial significance 
is probably inherent in this characteristic, and it is quite possible, if not 
probable, that the difference of color is expressive of a differentiation in 
histological structure, and that the grayish portions are phosphorescent. 
When the complicated " angling" apparatus of the fishes of this group 
is considered, it will be thought not unlikely that their power of attrac- 
tion should be enhanced by a luminosity which may excite the attention 
or curiosity of their prey, and still more strongly tempt them within the 
easy reach of their capacious mouths. It is certainly scarcely likely 
that the characteristic in question, manifested as it is in such widely 
diverse types, should be a simple immaterial color feature, destitute of 
other significance. The not few pelagic and deep-sea animals that ex- 
hibit phosphorescence enhance the probability of the attribute suggested. 
The verity of the suggestion must, however, be established by histo- 
logical and physiological data. It can only now be assumed that there 
is a teleological import in the differentiation of color, and that it is more 
probable that the whitish area has a phosphorescent property than that 
it simplj' serves as a relief for the filaments of the bulb. Especially is 
this more probable in view of the great depths which the species in- 
habit, and the consequently limited quantity of light which they enjoy. 
That the provision, whatever it may be, is an effective one, is apparent 
from the variety of the forms already discovered, and it seems probable 
that the family is not only quite characteristic of, but well represented 
in, the depths of the ocean. 

As to Melanocetus, it is simply said, by Dr. GUnther, to have the ce- 
phalic filament "more than half as high as the head, and dilated into a 
small lamella at its extremity". The "lamelliform" character of the 
dilatation at least requires confirmation, and it is not very unlikely 
that the dilatation will be found not to be thin or compressed to such an 
extent as to be entitled to the designation of "lamella", and that the ex- 
tremity will be ascertained to be whitish. The mode of articulation of 
the cephalic spine also requires investigation. Dr. Liitken has corrected 
Dr. Giinther's error of mistaking pharyngeal teeth for palatine and 
pterygoid, but has not elucidated the points indicated. 

The several recognized genera are mostly widely differentiated, 


and represent as many as five groups, distinguished by characters which 
are generally indicative of at least family value ; but the close agree- 
ment which they otherwise exhibit among themselves forbids separation 
to that extent, and yet the groups seem, at any rate, to demand distinc- 
tion as sub-families. We would scarcely be prepared to believe that 
two genera, distinguished, one by a compressed head, and the other by 
a depressed head, could be so nearly related as are apparently Himan- 
tolophiis and j^gcconichthys, but the modifications in question in these 
genera are probably expressive of the compression on the one hand, 
and the depression and bowing outwards on the other, at the hyoraan- 
dibular articulations, and not of any fundamental osteological modifica- 
tions. * 

With regard to the Himantolophines, there is occasion for difference 
of opinion, and it may be that the Himantolophns GrcenJandicus and Rein, 
hardtii do not even differ specifically. The statements by Eeinhardt as 
to the characteristics of the former are, however, unequivocal, and, as 
he appears to have been a careful and exact observer, they are probably 
correct, while those of Liitken regarding the latter are unquestionable. 
In view of the mode of variation in the family, the differences noted 
seem to the present author to be indicative of more than specific value, 
and consequently the respective species are considered as distant gene- 
ric types. There is a singular agreement between the type named 
Corynolophus and the JEgceoniclitliys of the New Zealand seas in the 
radial formula ; and while such agreement might tend to throw doubts 
on the actual differences supposed to exist between Corynolophus and 
Himantoloplius, it tends far to confirm the generic value of the differ- 
ences, if they really exist. It may even be that the two genera are not 
as closely related as are Corynolophus and u^gwonichthys, but such is 
scarcely probable. 

The habitats given must be regarded simply as the expressions of our 
present state of knowledge, as it is more than probable that the ranges 
of most of the species are quite extensive in the bathmic zone in which 
they dwell. It is also probable that the number of representatives of 
the family will be considerably increased hereafter. A most interesting 
coincidence is the discovery, in the same year, of the closely related 
HimantolophincB and ^gcconichthyince at antipodal localities. There 
are already, too, indications of several other types, apparently members 
of the family, but too imperfectly known to be introduced into the sys- 
tem. The present state of our knowledge in respect to such imperfectly 
known forms is well summarized by Dr. Liitken in the following words: — 

*'Les collections de petits poissous peches en haute mer, du Musee de 
Copenhague,renfermeuten outrequelques Lopliioides apodesd'uue taille 
plus petite encore (5 — S'""'), trouves en plein Ocean Atlantique, qui 
annoncent peut-etre I'existence d'une troisi^me espece d'Himantolophe 
ou d'un genre voisin, et different de V Himantolophus Reinliardti par le 
nombre des rayons (D : Gj A: G; C: 10), probablement aussi par la 


taille moindre des adiiltes, puisqne quelques-uns de ces embryons 
offrent deja un rudiment de huppe frontale analogue a celle que possede 
le jeune Lophioide, depourvu uou-seulement de veutrales, mais aussi de 
dorsale et d'anale, indiquant ainsi, seloa toute probability, I'existence 
d'uu type generique nouveau, que I'on ne tardera point a docouvrir a 
Tetat adulte, a mesure que I'etude justemeut commencee de la fauue abys- 
sale de I'oceau aura fait de nouveaux progres. Peut-etre aussi que le 
'■^ Ceratias uranoscopus^^ iinnouc6 comme drague par I'expeditiou sifameuse 
du "Challenger" a la profondeur surprenante de 2400 brasses, eutre les 
iles Canaries et du Cap Vert, sera reconnu comme formant un genre a 
part — a en juger par une pbotograpbie (reproduite en xylograj)Iiie dans 
"The Atlantic" de Sir Ch. Wyville-Thomson, II, p. G9), qui m'a ule com- 
muniquee avec la plus graude obligeance par feu M. Willemocs-Suhm, 
dont la mort pr<Smaturee a ete tant deploiee par ses amis et par ceux 
de la science. 

"On trouvera dans le rapport preliminaire de M. Murray (Proc. Eoy. 
Soc, xxiv, p. 590-94) des renseignemeuts sur les profondeurs des huit 
localites oil ont et6 dragues, lors du voyage du "Challenger" des Lo- 
phioides bathyphiles, en partie probablemeut nouveaux pour la science. 
Dans son rapport preliminaire sur les draguages executes, en 1878, dans 
les profondeurs du Golfe de Mexique, M. Al. Agassiz fait mention 
d'un poisson resemblant a un tetard enorme a tete ronde, gigantesque, 
cartilagineuse et sans yeux, et de quelques autres a tete allougee et 
deprimee, aux yeux ties petits et a filaments enormes pendant des 
extremites des rayons des nageoires pectorales et caudal." 



Since the publication of the great systematic works on fishes, the fam- 
ily of Maltheidce has received a couple of notable additions which fur- 
nish a good idea of the range of variation occurring in the group and at 
the same time fully corroborate the justness of the segregation of its 
members under two distinct families. The distinctions thus apparent 
are indicated in the following analysis. All the genera are monotypic 
except Maltfie, 


la. Body with disk cordiform and caudal portion stout ; frontal region elevated, and 

snout more or less produced or attenuated forwards Maltiiein^. 

16. Body with disk subcircular or expanded backwards and caudal portion slender ; 
frontal region depressed, and snout rounded and obtuse in front. 


2a. Palate edentulous ; rostral tentacle developed ; carpus exserted from common 


3a. Disk subtriangular ; mouth small; branchiae reduced to 2 pairs (I, 0; II, 

1—1; 111,1—1; IV, 0—0) Dibranchm. 


3&. Disk subcircular ; mouth large; brancbiie iu 2^ pairs (1,0; 11,1 — 1; III, 

1—1; IV, 1—0) Halieutaa. 

2b. Palate dentigerous ; rostral tentacle obsolete; carpus inclosed in common 

3. Disk subcircular ; mouth small HaUeutichthi/8, 

The genera have been made known as follows : — 



Malthe, Cuvier, E6gne Animal, 1" «5d., t. 2, 311, 1817. 

Malthea, Cuvier .J- Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. des Poissons, t. 12, p. 438, 1837. 

Type : Malthe vespertilio. 

Atlantic coasts of America from Brazil to Labrador. 



Dibranchus Peters, Monatsber. K. Akad. Wissensch. Berlin, 1875, p. 736. 
Type : Dibranchus atlanticus Peters. 
Atlantic Ocean, in deep water, near the coast of Africa. 


Halieutaea Cuv. 4' Val., Hist. Nat. des Poissons, t. 12, p. 455, 1837. 
Astrocanthus Swainson, Nat. Hist, and Class. Fishes, etc., v. 2, p. — , 1839. 

Type : Halieutaja stellata Val. <.f Wahl. 

Pacific Ocean, ofi" China and Japan. 


Halientichthys, Poey, Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila., [v. 15,] pp. 89, 90, 1863. 
Type: Halieutichthys reticulatus Poey. 
Atlantic Ocean, off the Island of Cuba. 
NOVEMBEK 9, 1878. 



By oeorge: n. lawkewck. 

These collections were made by Mr. Ober in August and September, 
1877. They were left in charge of the United States consul at Antigua, 
to be forwarded to Washington when an opportunity offered, and were 
sent soon thereafter ; but from want of a proper notification or some 
other cause, their arrival was not known, and they were supposed to 
have gone astray. 

In July of this year, they were ascertained to be in a public store in 
Brooklyn, where they had been since November, 1877. 

The only bird sent of special interest is a species of Burrowing Owl 
from Antigua, which, on investigation, I considered to be undescribed. 

The names given by Mr. Ober, with his observations, are inclosed in 

From Antigua. 
Fam. TURDID^. 

1. Margarops densirostris (Vieill.). 
" Thrush. 

"In the valle.vs among the southern hills, where are about the only 
rivulets and trees, we find this bird. It is not eominon, rather rare, and 
its song is heard only morning and evening; at this season little more than 
a call-note. Think it identical with the ' Gros Grive' — Large Thrush — of 
Dominica. Xot yet out of moulting stage ; resident." 


2. Siurus naevius (Bodd.). 
" Water Thrush. 

"Eare; along a river bed among the hills, very shy; when it would 
perceive me, it hastily ran along a few rods, and then darted into the 
thicket, reappearing at some distance up or down the stream." 

3. Siurus motacilla (Vieill.). 

4. Deudrceca petechia (Linn.). 

"Yellow Bird. Length, 5:|; alar extent, 7 ; wing, 2|. 
" Not abundant ; inhabits the acacia Helds." 

5. Setophaga ruticilla (Linu.). 
" Redstart. 

" Kare ; seen only in the upper valleys of the southern hills. In per- 
fect plumage and fat : evidently not a migrant. The people told me it 
was with them all the year." 


6. Vireosylviacalidris (Linu.). 
" Vireo. Iris hazel. 

" Found among the poisonous Manchiueel trees, near the coast." 


7. Certhiola dominicana, Taylor. 
" Yellowbreast. 

"Abundant, but not in the numbers found in Dominica." 


8. Loxigilla noctis (Linn.). 
" iSparrow. Eesideut." 

9. Phonipara bicolor (Linn.). 
"Grass Bird. 

" In large numbers, probably the most abundant spfecies, sharing this 
honor with the Loggerhead and Sparrow Hawk." 



10. Tyrannus rostratus, Scl. 

" Loggerhead. Resident. 

" Extremely abundant; its cry of piperee, piperee, beard everywhere 
from morn till nigbt. Old pastures its favorite baunt ; but where the 
'Cabbage Palm' is found (the Oreodoya olivacea) there the Piperee de- 
lights to stay, passing half the day perched upon the extreme tip of the 
terminal apex of the tree, leaving it only to chase and capture some 
insect flying by, or to sport a while with its mate." 


11. Eulampis holosericeus (Linn.). 

"Violet- breast Hummer. Rather numerous." 

12. Orthorhynchus exilis (Gm.). 
"Crested Hummer. Very common. 

" More in the fields than the gardens; especially likes the Tamarind 


13. Coccyzus minor (Gm.). 

" Four o'clock Bird. Sparsely distributed. Resident." 


14. Speotyto amaura, Lawr. 

"Owl. Length, 5 , 8J in. ; alar extent, 21^ ; wing, Gf . 

" Length, 9 , 8^ in. ; alar extent, 21 ; wing, 6^. 

"Iris bright yellow. Called here, 'coo coo', from its hoot at night. 
I considered it for a time as almost mythical, reports concerning its ex- 
istence were so conflicting. Some described it as a large Bat, others 
asserted that it was (judging from the size of its eyes) as large as a 'Gui- 
nea Bird '; all agreed that it was a night-bird, that it lived in old drains, 
holes in the cliffs and ruined walls ; and that its hoot would strike 
terror to the stoutest heart. 

"Like its congener of Dominica, it has a bad name; and though it 
may not be called here, as in Dominica, the ' Jumbie Bird ' or bird of 
evil spirits — the name implies more than that — still it has the rej)utation 
of being a bad character. The blacks declare that it will not hesitate 
to tear the eyes out of any individual unfortunate enough to meet it at 
night. 'Me rudder see de Debbil, any time', is their forcible way of 
testifying to the powers, supernatural and otherwise, possessed by this 
poor Owl. Finding it impossible to shoot one, I offered a reward of two 
shillings for the first Owl brought me, and within three hours had three 
living birds which the men dug out of a cliff in the Chalk-hills. One 
that I kept two days gave frequent utterance to a chattering cry, espe- 


cially if any one approached, but it did not hoot. It feeds upon lizards 
and mice, it is said.'' 

Male. — Upper plumage of a fine deep brown color, marked with round- 
ish spots of light fulvous; the spots are smallest on the crown, hind 
neck, and smaller wing-coverts; they are conspicuously large on the 
other wing-coverts, the dorsal region, scapulars, and tertials ; the quills 
are blackish-brown, with indented marks of pale reddish fulvous on the 
outer webs of the primaries, and large roundish paler spots on the inner 
webs ; under wing-coverts reddish fulvous sparsely mottled with black ; 
tail dark brown, of the same color as the back, crossed with four bars 
(including the terminal one), of light reddish fulvous, which do not quite 
reach the shaft on each web ; bristles at the base of the bill black, with 
the basal portion of their shafts whitish ; front white, superciliary 
streak pale fulvous ; cheeks dark brown, the feathers tipped with ful- 
vous ; upper part of throat pale whitish buff, the lower part grayish- 
white, with a buffy tinge, separated by a broad band of dark brown 
across the middle of the throat, the feathers of which are bordered with 
light fulvous ; the sides of the neck and the upper part and sides of the 
breast are dark brown, like the back, the feathers ending with fulvous, 
the spots being larger on the breast ; the feathers of the abdomen are 
pale fulvous, conspicuously barred across their centres with dark brown; 
on some of the feathers the terminal edgings are of the same color ; the 
flanks are of a clear light fulvous, with bars of a lighter brown ; under 
tail-coverts fulvous, with indistinct bars of brown ; thighs clear fulvous, 
with nearly obsolete narrow dusky bars ; the feathers of the tarsi are 
colored like the thighs and extend to the toes ; bill clear light yellow, 
with the sides of the upper mandible blackish ; toes dull yellowish- 

Length (fresh), 8J in. ; wing, 6| ; tail, 3J ; tarsus, IJ. 

The female differs but little from the male in plumage ; the bars on 
the abdomen appear to be a little more strongly defined, and at the base 
of the culmen is a small red spot. There are two females in the collec- 
tion, the other also having the red spot ; in one the tarsi are feathered 
to the toes, in the other only for two-thirds their length. 

Length of one (fresh), 8 in. ; wing, 6i ; tail, 2J ; tarsus, IJ. 

Length of the other, 8J ; wing, 6| ; tail, 3 ; tarsus, 1^. 

Mr. Ridgway suggested a comparison with his S. guadeloupenrsis, the 
type of which belongs to the Boston ^N^atural History Society, and by the 
courtesy of Dr. Brewer I have been able to make it. 

Compared with guadelonpensis, the prevailing color is dark brown, 
instead of a rather light earthy-brown, and the spots on the interscapu- 
lar region are much larger ; it is more strikingly barred below, the other 
having the breast more spotted ; the bars on the tail are four instead of 
six. In the Antigua bird each feather of the breast is crossed with but 
one bar, while those of the other are crossed with two. 


Mr. Ober (who arrived here November 13) iuforms me that he could 
learu of no species of Owl inhabiting Guadeloupe, nor does the museum 
there possess a specimen. 


15. Pandion haliaetus (Linn.)- 

" Fish Hawk. Seen September 1st." • 

16. Tinnunculus sparverius rar. autillarum (Gni.). 
"Sparrow Hawk. 'Killee, Killee.' 

" In large numbers all over the island. Eesident." 

17. Buteo pennsylvanicus (Wils.) ? 

" Hawk (seen), resident. Apparently same as the larger hawk of 

18. Falco? 

"A large black hawk spoken of as appearing with the flocks of ducks." 


19. Fregata aquila (Linn.). 
" Man o' war Bird. 

"Resident. Plentiful in harbor of St. John's." 


20. Pelecanus fuscus (Linn.). 
"Brown Pelican. 

"Breeds abundantly on small islands off the coast. Eesident." 

Fam. ARDEID^. 

21. Garzetta candidissima (Gm.). 
" ' White Gauliu.' Resident. 

" Ev^erywhere abundant; frequents the dry hills and plains (feeding 
upon grasshoppers, lizards, &c.) in preference to the pools and moist 

22. Florida casrulea (Linn.). 

"' Blue Gauliu.' Resident. 

"Abundant. Habits same as the preceding." 

23. Butorides virescens (Linn.). 
" Green Heron. 

" In small numbers. Resident." 

24. Ardea herodias (Linn.). 
" Great Blue Heron. 

" Said to arrive later in the season." 



25. Chamaepelia passerina (Linn.). 

" Ground Dove. Abiiuclant everywhere." 

26. Columba leucocephala (Linn.). 
"White-headed Pigeon. 

"Eare among the southern hills. Think this their southern breeding 
limit, save perhaps Montserrat." 

27. Zeuaida martinicana, Bp. 

" Turtle Dove. Not common among the hills." 


28. Ortyx virginianus (Linn.). 

" Quail." 

''The pastures abandoned are fast becoming populated with quail; 
the acacia scrub forming agreeable shelter for them and protecting 
cover. So far as I can ascertain they were introduced; but at what 
period no one seems to know. They are now in sufficient numbers to 
make good sport. Think they breed at about the same season as the 
northern quail, as young but half-grown were plentiful in July and 

The single specimen sent, a male, resembles most the primitive north- 
ern stock ; it differs in being smaller, the skin measuring in length 8^ 
inches, wing 4;^, and in having the crown and hind neck blackish, in 
this character resembling xar. floridcmun, but not otherwise; the trans- 
verse markings below being of the same size as those of the northern 
bird, which in the Florida race are twice the width. 

In its upper plumage it is much like the male of 0. cuhanensis Gonhl (of 
which I have mounted specimens of both sexes), but they difier in their 
under i)lumage, the Antigua bird being like 0. virginianus, but in 0. 
cubanensis the black extends from the throat over the breast, ancl the 
featbers of the abdomen are rufous, with arrow-head markings of black 
and irregular tear-shaped white spots. The wing measures four inches. 

The female of 0. cubanensis has transverse markings on the under 
surface as in the typical form, but more strongly defined and wider; but 
they are not so wide as in xar. floridamis ; the crown, hind neck, and 
sides of the head are l^Iackish where reddish-chestnut prevails in the 
northern bird; the back is grayish-ash, with no appearance of the pink- 
ish-red, which exists in the female of 0. virginianus on the back and on 
the upper part and sides of the breast. 


29. Rallus? 

"Hail. Moor-hen. Resident; plentiful apparently, but shy." 

30. Fulica ? 

"'Coot.' Not seen; migrant." 



31. Charadrius virginicus, Borkh. 
'• Golden Plover. 

"Sept. 7tb, first of the season; generally arrive by last of August, 
or first storm after Aug. 25th. First of September rarely fails to bring 
them, but this year no storm hastened them along and they are very 
late. Tbey arrive in large flocks and spread over the pastures, hills 
and plains, attbrding exciting sport. It is not an unusual thing to bag 
three or four dozen in a morning. Every one owning a gun turns out, 
and great slaughter ensues. If suffered to remain, they would acquire 
fat and stay for weeks, but they soon wing their way further south. 

"They are accompanied later in the season by Curlew, Yellow-legs, 
etc " 


32. Himautopus nigricollis (Yieill.). 
"Black-neck Stilt. 

"Kare; seen early in July." 

33. Gallinago -wrilsoni (Temm.). 
"English Snipe. 

"Occasionally; authority of sportsmen." 

34. Ereunetes petrificatus (111.). 

"Abundant, in flocks of four to six, along sandy shore. Eesident." 

35. Symphemia semipalmata (Gin.). 
"VVillet. Rare." 

36. Ci-ambetta melanoleuca (Gm.). 

"In all the salt ponds or 'fleshes'; suflaciently numerous, at times, to 
afibrd sport; said to be resident in small numbers ; I found it here early 
in July.-' 

37. Rhyacophilus solitarius (Wils.). 
" Sandpiper. 

"Not common, but seen singly in every part of the island. I shot 
three specimens on the summit of McNish Mountain— the highest hill- 
where is a spring-hole of small size. From this mountain, by the way, 
the entire island can be viewed, as well as the islands of Barbuda, Gua- 
deloupe, Montserrat, Redonda, Nevis and St. Kitts— a most delightful 

38. Numenius hudsonicus (Lath.). 
"Curlew. Not common." 


Fam. LARID^. 

39. Sterna dougalli, Mout. 

"Breeds in large numbers on ttie islands and rocks off shore; now 
finished breeding or young fully grown, though not in perfect plumage." 

40. Sterna, sp. ? 

"A larger Tern than the above, with black back; not many seen. 

41. Larus atriciiila (Linn.). 

"Gull. Eesideut." 

Fam. ANATID^. 

42. Dafila bahamensis (Linn.). 

"Duck. Kesident." 

From Barbuda. 

Fam. TURDID^. 

1. Cinclocerthia ruficauda, Gould. 
" Thrush. Grive." 


2. DendrcEca petechia (Liuu.). 
" Yellow Warbler. 

" Not plentiful. Resident ; breeds." 


3. Certhiola dominicana, Taj'lor. 
"Yellow-throat. Common; resident." 


4. Loxigilla noctis (Linn.). 

" Sparrow. Resident ; breeds. 

" Now in small flocks in the overgrown fields. Abundant." 

5. Phoniparabicolor(Linn.). 

" Grass-bird. Resident ; breeds. 

" Very familiar about yards. Abundant." . 


6. Myiarchus oberi, Lawr. 
" Flycatcher. 

" Infrequently met with in the thiclc laurel scrub ; cry sharp at long 
intervals ; shy." 


7. Tyrannus rostratns, Sel. 
" ' Loggerhead.' 

" Common ; resident ; breeds." 


8. Enlampis holosericeus (Linu.). 
" Hummingbird. 

"Common, especially about the prickly pear and the cacti near the 

6. Orthorhynchus exilis (Gm.). 

" Crested Hummer. 

" Most numerous. Saw only these two species, but Eev. Mr. Couley 
(one of the proprietors) described a larger species, visiting the island 
later, resembling exactly (he said) the Mango, of which he had a colored 


10. Ccccyzus minor (Gm.). 

" Cuckoo 5 * four o'clock bird'; not common." 


11. Tinnunculus sparverius var. antillarum (Gm.). 
" Sparrow Hawk. 

"Very common; resident; breeds." 

12. Palco communis far. anatiim, Bp.? 

"Hawk; answers to description of Duck Hawk; arrives with the 
flocks of Plover, etc., forages upon the wild-ducks." 


13. Pregata aquila (Linn.). 
" Frigate Bird. 

"Resident ; breeds, lays in June, some young yet in nest." 


14. Phaethcn flavirostris, Brandt. 
" Tropic Bird. 

" Breeds in cliffs at east end of island." 


15. Pelecanus fascus (Linn.). 

" Brown Pelican. Breeds." 

Fam. ARDEID^. 

16. Ardea herodias. 

" Great Blue Heron. * 

"Arrives with the migratory birds about Sept. 1st." 


17. Herodias egretta (Gm.)? 

"A large White Ileroii was described to me as visiting the island." 

18. Florida ccerulea (Liun.). 
" Small Blue Heron. 

" Very numerous ; resident; young white." 

19. Butorides virescens (Linu.). 

" Green Heron. Common ; resident, breeds." 

Fam. ANATID^. 

20. Dafila bahaniensis (Liun.). 

" ' White throat Duck.' Eesident ; not common." 

21. Clangula glaucion (Linn.). 

" Whistler. Migrant ; arrives in October." 


22. Columba leucocephala, Linn. 
" White-head Pigeon. 

" Eesident ; breeds in great numbers in June and July." 

23. Zenaida martinicana, Bp.? 

•' Turtle Dove. Extremely abundant; breeds." 

24. Chamaepelia passerina (Linn.). 

" Ground Dove. Exceedingly numerous ; breeds." 


25. Numida meleagris, Linn. 
"Guinea Fowl. 

"Plentiful; breeds abundantly; thoroughly wild. Introduced over 
one hundred years ago." 

Fam. RALLID^. 

26. Rallus ? 

" Eail. l^ot common ; resident." 

27. Fulica? 

" ' Coot.' Migrant." 


28. Charadrius virginicus, Borkh. 
" Golden Plover. 

"Arrive in immense flocks first storm (N. W.) after Sept. 1st. Good 
shooting through September and October if weather is stormy ; if fine, 
the bulk of them keep on." 

29. .ffigialitis semipalmata (Bp.) ? 

" Eing-ueck Plover. Not common." 

Proc. Nat. Mus. 78 16 I>ec. 10, 1878. 



30. Himantopus nigricollis (Vieill.)- 

" Black-neck Stilt. Not common. Kesident"? 

31. Gallinago wilsoni (Temm.). 
" Sniije. 

"A species not seen by me, described by Mr. Hopkins (one of the 
lessees of the island) as an English Snipe, in color, flight and voice; 
in small numbers ; resident." 

32. Ereunetes petrificatus (III.). 
" Least Sandpiper. 

''Eesident; breeds; now in flocks of 4-6." 

33. Symphemia semipalmata (Gm.). 

" Willet. Common ; said to breed." 

34. Gambetta flavipes (Gm.). 
"Yellow-legs (smaller). 

" Common ; resident, or nearly so." 

35. Rhyacophilus solitarius (Wils.)? 
" Sandpiper. 

" Eesident ; solitary about the lagoons and fresh-water ponds." 

36. Numenius hudsonicus (Lath.). 
''Curlew. Resident; breeds; common." 

Fam. LARIDiE. 

37. Sterna maxima, Bodd. ? 

" lloyal Tern. Seen only." 

38. Larus atricilla, Liun. 

"Gull. Breeds; resident." 


39. Podilymbus podiceps (Linn.)? 
"'Diver' (Grebe!). 

" Think it resident, as it is irregular in its appearance and disappear- 
New York, November 14, 1878. 



Dr. Franz Steindachuer, in the Sitzungsberichte of the Vienna 
Academy for July, 1878, makes some interesting statements regarding 
the American Yellow Perch, of which a translation is given below: — 

^^Perca flavescens of Mitchill, Cuvier, and others, can be regarded only 
as a variety of Ferca Jluviatilis, and the opinion of the ichthyologists 
prior to Cuvier was the correct one. 

The pronounced striation of the operculum, which is a characteristic 
of P. flavescens, is not always present in American specimens, and 
Holbrook has already remarked in his description of Perca flavescens 
(Ichthyology of South Carolina, p. 3), " with radiating strice more or 
less distinct." 

During my stay at Lake Winnipiseogee, ^ew Hampshire, I frequently 
saw si)ecimeus with very indistinctly striated, or with perfectly smooth 
opercles. A much stronger argument for the identity of Perca flavescens 
with Perca fluviatiUs lies in the fact that in the vicinity of Vienna 
occasional individuals with more or less strongly furrowed opercles are 
taken, and also in the Neusiedler Sea; in the Sea of Baikal audits 
tributaries I obtained several specimens with very strongly striated 
opercles. During my travels in England I was able to find only the 
typical European form oi Perca fluviatiUs with the smooth opercle. 

In my opinion, only two species of Perca can be distinguished, namely, 
Perca fluviatiUs, Linn., with two not very sharply defined varieties, viz, 
var. europea and var. flavescens or americana, and the high northern form 
Perca. SchrenTcii, Kessl. 

In the number of longitudinal and vertical rows of scales, Perca 
fluviatiUs cannot be distinguished from P. flavescens, both varieties 
having 7 to 10 (generally 7-9) scales between the base of the first dorsal 
spine and the lateral line, in a vertical row. 

In Western North America there are known no members of Perca or 
any nearly allied genus, while in South America the rivers of Southern 
and Middle Chili aud of Patagonia are inhabited by several (apparently 
only two) species of the Percalike genera Percichthys and PerciUaJ^ 
* Prepared by G. Brown Goode. 



By Lieut. J. P. JEFFERSOIV, ©a-. JOSEPH Y. PORTER, and 


The followiug information, relative to the (lying of fish in the Gulf of 
Mexico during the mouth of September last, will be found of much 
interest, as bearing upon the sudden destruction in large numbers of 
marine animals, and their accumulation in geological strata. — Editor. 

Fort Jefferson, Dry Tortugas, Fla., 

October IG, 1878. 

I have the honor to enclose herewith the skin of a tish* which was 
found on the beach here. I send it because many old fishermen say that 
they never before saw one like it. Some five or six were picked up 
from a multitude of other fish ; and to report this great mortality 
among them is my principal reason for addressing you. Some three or 
four weeks ago, the fishing-smacks over in Florida Bay lost about all 
their fish in their wells, and attributed it to fresh water, which they sup- 
posed had from some cause or other come down in great volume from 
the mainland. On the 9th instant, the sailing-vessel which connects us 
with Key West met water of a dark color about midway between 
here and there, but saw no dead fish. On her return, on the night 
of the 11th, she struck it off Rebecca Shoals, about 25 miles east 
of here, and found it extending some 10 miles out in the Gulf. That 
same night it came down upon us here, and the next morning the beach 
and surface of the water, as far as the eye could reach, were covered with 
dead fish. The appearance of the Wiiter had entirely changed ; instead 
of the usual clear blue or green, it was very dark, like cypress water, 
and when viewed at depths over 10 feet, was almost black, precisely 
like the Saint John's River. We could not perceive any change in the 
saltness of the water but not having any other means of determining 
this, had to depend upon taste. There was no appreciable change in 
temperature. From the fact that almost all the fish that first came 
ashore were small and of such varieties as frequent shoal water, I infer 
that the dark water must have been of less density than the sea ; still, 
great numbers of "grouper" have been seen, and these are generally 
found in 3 or 4 fathoms, I believe. The destruction must have been 
very great, for here, on a key containing but a few acres, and with a 
very limited extent of beach, we have buried at least twenty cart-loads: 
they have come ashore in such numbers that it has been a serious mat- 
ter how to dispose of them. 

*This oa examination by Professor Gill was pronounced to be Aulostoma coloratum. 


It is said that in 185G or '57 there was a siinihir occurrence of limited 
extent over in the bay, and frequently the smacks fishing near shore 
along the coast meet fresh water which kills their fish; but all the fish- 
ermen here unite in saying that nothing of this kind has ever, to their 
knowledge, happened out on the reef. As to the extent of this I have 
no means of knowing; will endeavor to have forwarded with this, how- 
ever, copies of the Key West papers, which will probably contain a more 
complete account than I have been able to give. One other fact in con- 
nection with this : among the dead fish were mullet, which, I believe, 
run up fresh- or brackish-water streams. Almost all the concbs around 
here were killed also. Whether or not sponges, coral, &c., have been 
affected, we have not been able to determine, the weather having been 
too rough to visit the beds. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 


Lieutenant Fifth United States Artillery. 
To Professor Baird. 

Fort Jefferson, Dry Tortugas, Florida, 

November 4, 1878. 
Professor: I have taken the liberty to forward you, by express from 
Key West, a box containing two "ribbon fish" preserved in alcohol. 
One of them was brought over to me by Mr. Moore, lighthouse-keeper 
at Loggerhead Light. The remaining specimen of "ribbon fish" in the 
jar (which is perfect) was picked up on a neighboring key this a. m. I 
am informed that these fish are a rare species, and very seldom seen. 

The destruction of fish in Florida Bay and in this vicinity has been 
great this season. I obtained some sea-water, but not having the a])pli- 
ance for analyzing it, I have also taken the liberty to enclose it in the 
same box with the jar of fish. 

Should you discover anything abnormal in the water which will ac- 
count for the recent destruction of the fish in this vicinity, I will be 
under many obligations if you will inform me. 

Assistant Surgeon, U. S. Army, Post Surgeon. 

P. S. — Since writing the above, Mr. Moore brought me some 
curious specimens of fish;* and a curious eel-like fish with but one eye, 
evidently an abnormality, has been found, which I have also enclosed 
in the box. 

* The following is a list of species of fishes forwarded by Dr. Porter. — Editor. 
J idosioma coloraium, Mull. & Troscb. 1 AlonacantJuts jyardalis, Ruy)]). 

Dactylopterus volitans, {h'lun.) IjAG. Blejiharichthys crinUiis, (Akerly) Gill. 

Ceraiacanthus aurantiacua, (Mitch.) Gill. 1 Belone sp. (head). 


The dark cypress looking water previously alluded to made its appear- 
ance here a day or so ago, but did not fortunately remain more than 24 
hours, but during that period there was again destruction of fish. 

Oct. 11th, at 7 a. m,, saw the water a very dark color and dead fish 
drifting southwest j 9 a. m., dead fish on the beach and drifting by as 
far as we could see east and west of the Key. 

Oct. 12th, 4 p. m., fish of all kinds on the beach, weighing from a few 
grains up to Jewfish, weighing about 150 lbs. 

Oct. 13, 14, 15, and 16. — Dead fish drifting on this Key and at Fort 
Jefferson, distance from this Key 3f miles. 

l!s^ames of some of the dead fish : — 


Yellow Tails, 

Mutton Fish, 







Three-tailed Porgee, 

Common Garfish, 
Sucking Fish, 
Lump Suckers, 

Armed Enoplossus, 
Pennant's Globe Fish, 
Horned Ostraciou, 
Great Pipe Fish, 
Porcupine Fish, 
Kibbon Fish, 

and fish we call Parrot, and numberless fish I have no name for. There 
is a fish called Snapper that we could not find dead, and have not seen 
since alive up to the 27th, but the water remains quite clear. 

Oct. 30 and 31. — The water colored a light brown. I do not see any 
fish dead or alive. 

Keeper of Loggerhead Light, Florida. 

CaitthorhiHS occidentalis, (Giinther). 
Tcirodon lavigatus, (Linn.) Gill. 
Chilichtlujs testiidineus, (L.) Mlill. 
Ostracium quadricorne, Linn. 
Acanthurus nigricans, Linn. 

Heliasies insolatusf, Cuv. &\A\.,r=Chromis 

(fide Gill). 
Pomacentrus leucosiicfus, Miill. & Trosch. 
Apogon sp., probably imherbis, 
Parcqucs acuminatus, (Bl. Sch.) Gill. 





Specimens of this species from Western Mexico, while agreeing with 
Central American ones in the color of the throat, breast, etc., differ very 
conspicuously in their upper plumage, which is a clear slate-color, the 
flanks almost cinereous instead of dusky black. This difference is 
entirely constant in the four specimens before me, compared with five of 
the typical form. The Northern form being unnamed, it may be char- 
acterized as follows : — 

Bhodinocichla rosea, ^3. scJiistacea (Ridgw. MS.). 

Ch. — Above clear slate-color, the wings darker, with paler, nearly 
cinereous edges to the feathers ; lores and auriculars dark slate ; entire 
sides clear slate, becoming more ashy on the flanks. Adult male : A con- 
tinuous superciliary stripe, the anterior half of which is intense rose- 
red, the posterior half rosy- white ; chin, throat, malar region, middle 
of the jugulum, breast, and abdomen, and the whole crissum, pure, 
beautiful rose-red, most intense on the jugulum, narrower and paler on 
the abdomen ; edge of the wing and anterior lesser coverts also pure 
rose-red; lining of the wing partly grayish-white. Adult female: Simi- 
lar, but the red replaced by rich, tawny rufous, the middle of the abdo- 
men whitish. Bill horn-yellowish, the maxilla mostly dusky ; iris red 
(Xantus, MS.) or brown (Grayson, MS.) ; feet dark horn-color. Length, 
8.25; wing, 3.45-3.60; tail, 3.75-3.90 ; bill, from nostril, .60-.65 ; tarsus, 
1,00; middle toe, .70-.75. Hah. — Western Mexico (Sierra Madre of 
Colima, Xantus; Eio Mazatlan, Grayson). 

The distinctive characters of the two forms may be contrasted as 
follows : — 

a. rosea. — Upper parts, sides, and flanks sooty-black, the flanks scarcely paler. Wing, 
3.25-:3.45; tail, 3.40-3.80 ; bill, from nostril, ..52-.60 ; tarsus, 1.00-1.10; middle toe, 
.70-.80. H(ib. — Central America (Panama ; Veragua). 

/3. schisiacea. — Upper parts, sides, and flanks clear slate-color, the flanks almost cinere- 
ons. Wing, 3.45-3.60; tail, 3.75-3.90 ; bill, from nostril, .60-.65; tarsus, 1.00; mid- 
dle toe, .70-.75. Hob. — Western Mexico. 

In R. schistacea, the red is very slightly paler than in B. rosea, but the 
difference can be appreciated only on close comparison ; the rufous in 
the female, however, is equally deep. The number of tail-feathers is 
occasionally 13, this being the number possessed by specimen 30,1G0. 
A note on the label of Colonel Grayson's male specimen is to the effect 
that the species is "a superb singer". 



U. S.... 

cf ad. 


U. S .... 

d ad. 

E.R .... 

cf ad. 



? ad. 



9 ad. 


Verasua (Santa r6) 



Veragua (Santa F6) 

/?. schistacea. 


3. as 







d ad. 



d ad. 


u s.... 

d ad. 



9 ad. 

Sierra Madre, Coliiua 

Mazatlan , 

Sierra Madre, Colima . 

Apr. — , 1863 
June— ,1862 
Apr. — , 1663 
June — , 1862 

3. CO 






Specimens from Merida, Yucatan, of which there are three before me, 
differ from all other Mexican examples in the collection, as well as those 
from Texas, in the very sharp definition and dark color of the stripes 
on the crown, these being a very dark brown — almost black — anteriorly, 
the broad stripe between a pure ash-gray, without a trace of olivaceous 
tinge. The bill is also very much darker in color, the maxilla being quite 
black in some examples, while the feet are also of a darker brown color. 
In the light grayish color of the flanks and the very pale buff of the cris- 
sum, these Merida examples agree much more closely with Texas speci- 
mens than those from Mexico. 

Mexican examples are like those from Texas in the character of the 
head-stripes and in the color of the bill and feet, but they are very 
different in their lower plumage, not only from the true rufivirgata, but 
also from the Yucatan race, the flanks being a dark raw-umber tint, or 
deep drab, almost like the back, and in strong contrast with the white 
of the abdomen, while the crissum is of a deep fulvous, or dark grayish- 

It thus appears that three well-marked geographical races of this 
speies may be defined, their characters being as follows : — 

A. Maxilla reddish-brown; legs and feet pale brown. Stripes of the head not sharply 

defined, uniform reddish nmber-brown, the broad vertical stripe olive- 
green throughout, or onlj' tinged with ash anteriorly. 

a. rufivirgata. — Bill slender, its depth .25, the length of the maxilla from the 
nostril to the tip being .3ri-.88. Flanks pale grayish-buflf, or light grayish- 
fulvous; crissum pale buff. Wing, 2.60-2.65; tail, 2.50-2.70; tarsus, 
.90-.95 ; middle toe, .60. Hab.— Rio Grande Valley of Texas. 

/3. crassirostris. — Bill very stout, its depth .28-.33, the length of the maxilla from 
the nostril to the tip being .35-.40. Flanks deep drab, or raw-umber 
brown; crissum deep fulvous. Wing, 2.55-2,75; tail, 2.30-2.70; tarsus, 
.85-.90 ; middle toe, .58-.65. Hah. — Mexico. 

B. Maxilla dark brown, or brownish-black ; legs and feet deep brown. Stripes of the 

head sharply defined, black anteriorly, chestnut mixed with black pos- 
teriorly, the broad vertical stripe clear ash-gray throughout. 
y. vei'ticalis, — Bill slender, as in rufivirgata, its depth being .26-.28 ; its length from 
the nostril .35-40. Flanks and crissum pale, as in rvfivirgata. Wing, 
2.50-2.68; tail, 2.60-2.80; tarsus, .85-.95; middle toe, .60. IZaft.— Merida, 


Following is a list of the specimens examined : — 

a. rufivirgata. 







11. R 

d ad. 
d" ad. 




0. 38 X 0. 25* 
0. 35 X 0. 25 




Mar. 28, 1876 


* The tirst number indicates the length of the bill from the nostril; the second, its depth through the 

(3. crassirostris. 


u. s 

TJ. S 

cf ad. 
? ad. 
cT ad. 
? ad. 

2. 55 


0. 40 X 0. 32 
0. 35 X 0. 30 
0. 38 X 0. 33 






4, 1858 

0. 6.> 


Venado IslandjW. Mex.t 


-, 1861 


tThis specimen is somewhat intermediate in coloration between rufivirgata and crassirostris, bnt 
seems decidedly nearer the former. It differs from both, however, in tUe very sharp definition of the 
stripes on the head, which, however, are clear, uniform chestnut, and in the bright baS yellow cast of 
the crissum and tibia. It is quite possible that this specimen, which is not in good condition, may rep- 
resent a fourth race, peculiar to Western Mexico. 

y, verticalis. 




? ad. 
cT ad. 
9 ad. 

Merida, Yucatan . 



May 25, 1865 



Feb. 28, 1865 



Mar. 19, 1865 



0.35X0.26 I 0.85 





Following are the chief references to this species: — 

a. rufivirgata. 

Enibernagra rufivirgata, Lawr., Ann. Lye. N. Y. April 28, 1851, 112, pi. v, fig- ^ (Kio 
Grande, Texas).— Bairp, B. N. Am. 1858, 487 (Ringgold Barracks, Texas ; Naevo 
Leon, N. E. Mexico); Mex. Bound Survey, II, Birds, 1859, 16, pi. xvii, fig. 2; 
Cat. N. Am. B. 1859, No. 373.— Butcher, Pr. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil. 18G8, 150 (La- 
redo, Texas).— CouES, Key, 1872, p. — ; Check List, 1873, No. 209.— B. B. & R. 
Hist. N. Am. B..II, 1874, 47, pi. xxviii, fig. 3.— Merrill, Bull. Nutt. Orn.Club, 
I, Nov. 1876, 89 (Ft. Brown, Texas; descr. nest and eggs) ; Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus. I, 1878, p. 128 (Ft. Brown, Tex. ; biogr.).— Sennett, Bull. U. S. Geol. 
and Geog. Survey Terr. IV, No. 1, 1878, 22 (Brownsville and Hidalgo, Texas ; 

Brown-striped Olive Finch, Lawr., I. c. 

Texas Finch, Baird, I. c. 

Green Finch, CoUES, I.e. 

/3. crassirostris. 

f " Zonotrichia pleicja, LiciiT.", Boxap., Compt. Rend. XLIII, 1856, 413.* 
" Enibernagra rufivirgata", Scl., P. Z. S. 1856, 306 (Cordova) ; 1859, 380 (Playa Vicente) ; 
Catal. 1861, 117, No. 709 (Orizaba).— Lawr., Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 4, 1876, 
22 (Huemelula, Isth. Tehuantepec).— Sumiciir., Mem. Bost. Soc. I, 1869, 551 
(Vera Cruz ; temp, and hot reg., up to 1,200 metres). 
Enibernagra rufivirgata var. crassirostris, Baird, MS. 

y, verticalis 

" Enibernagra rufivirgata ", Lawr., Ann. Lye. N. Y. IX, 1869 (Merida, Yucatan). 

* I have at present no means of verifying this reference, and therefore adopt, provi- 
sionally at least. Professor Baird's MS. name of crassirostris. 



A specimen of this species from the Bahamas differs from Jamaican 
examples in larger bill and feet and much more intensely black plum- 
age; the chestnut- red of the throat, etc., being also deeper and richer. 
These differences being probably geographical, the Bahaman form seems 
entitled to a distinctive name, and I therefore propose that of haha- 

The characters of the two races may be defined as follows: — 

a. violacea. — Plumage of the body more or less decidedly slaty posteriorly ; lining of 
the wing white. Throat, eyebrow, and crissum bright cinnamon-rufous. Wing, 
3.00-3.30; tail, 2.90-3.20; bill, from nostril, .40-.45; depth of bill, .40-.48; tar- 
sus, .70-.80 ; middle toe, .55-.60. Hah. — Jamaica. 

;3. iaiiamensis. — Plumage of the body lustrous black posteriorly; lining of the wing 
dark grayish. Throat, eyebrow, and crissum rich purplish rufous. Wing, 3.25 ; 
tail, 2.95; bill, from culmeu, .45; depth of bill, ..50; tarsus, .85; middle toe, .65. 
Hab.— Bahamas. (Type, 74,707, Nat. Mus. Bahamas ; Dr. Bryant.) 

a. violacea. 





d ad. 
d ad. 
? ad. 

Peb. — . 1865 

Aug. 8,1859 







'y^"Al'/"/^y^'.'." '.'.'.'. 


(3. hahamensis. 



d" ad. 


3. 25 1 2. 95 




ANAS ABERTI (Ridg., MS.). 

Sp. ch. — Adult female : Size of Querquedula Mscors and cyaiioptera, 
but in coloration closely lesemhlmg A. fulvigula. Prevailing color och- 
raceous-buff, but this everywhere relieved by brownish-black spots or 
streaks. Head, neck, and lower parts streaked, the streaks finest ou 
the neck and sides of the head, broadest on the jugulum and crissum, 
which is somewhat tinged with rusty, and assuming the form of obloiig 
spots on the abdomen, thighs, and anal region; throat immaculate. 
Back, scapulars, and rump with the blackish predominating ; the feath- 
ers bordered with ochraceous ; those of the back and the scapulars 
with irregular indentations and occasional bars of the same. Lesser 
wing-coverts brownish-slate, bordered with dull earthy-brown ; middle 
coverts with their exposed portion velvety-black, forming a distinct bar. 
Secondaries widely tipped with pure white (forming a conspicuous band 
about .35 of an inch wide), this preceded by a velvety-black bar of 
about equal width, the basal half or more (of the exposed portion) con- 
sisting of a metallic speculum of dark grass-green, varying to blue and 
violet in certain lights. Tertials opaque velvety -black exteriorly, the 
inner webs brownish-slate ; primary-coverts and primaries brownish- 
slate, the latter edged with lighter. Tail brownish-gray, the feathers 


edged and coarsely spotted with light buff. Bill light yellowish-brown, 
darker on the culmeu, the unguis dusky; feet light yellowish (probably 
orange in life). \Yiug, 8.50 ; tail, 3.25 ; culmen, 1.G5 ; greatest width ot' 
the bill, .GO ; depth of maxilla through the base, .50 ; tarsus, 1.30 ; mid- 
dle toe, 1.70. 

Type, Xo. 13,789, IT. S. Nat. Mus. ; Mazatlan, Mexico ; Colonel Abert. 

Eemarks. — This remarkable little duck is very different from any 
other species known to me. In its small size, and, to a certain extent, 
the narrow bill, it is like the species of Querquedula, but its coloration 
calls instantly to mind the Anas fnlvigula from Florida, and the species 
from the Sandwich Islands, recently described by Mr. Sclater. The 
specimen is marked as being a female, so it is possible that the male 
may be more brilliant in plumage. 

In addition to the characters given above, it may be mentioned that 
there is a distinct indication of a narrow, dusky, postocular streak, and 
of a wider and less distinct loral stripe, thus separating a light super- 
ciliary stripe from the light color of the cheeks. The lining of the wing 
and the axillars are pure white, the latter with a segregation of dusky 
spots near the carpometacarpal joint. 

In the collection of the National Museum, there is a female specimen 
of tbe recently described Anas wyvUliana of the Sandwich Islands. 
Mr. Sclater's description was fortunately seen just in time to prevent the 
renaming of the species. Since Mr. Sclater describes only the male, 
however, a description of the opposite sex, which seems to differ but lit- 
tle in coloration, may not be out of place in this connection : — 


Adult female: Smaller than A. hoschas or A. ohscura, but somewhat 
resembling the female of the former in plumage, being much darker, 
however. Prevailing color a mixture of rusty ochraceous and brownish 
dusky, the latter predominating on the upper surface, the former on the 
lower, the abdomen considerably paler. Eyelids pure white, forming 
a distinct but narrow orbital ring. Head and neck finely and densely 
streaked with blackish and pale ochraceous, the pileum nearly uni- 
form blackish; jugulum and breast with broad crescentic or U-shaped 
marks of dusky, each enclosing a cuneate or oblong longitudinal spot 
of the same along the shaft ; abdomen and anal region thickly spotted 
with lighter grayish-brown ; flanks with markings similar to those on 
the breast, but much larger ; crissum strongly tinged with bright rusty, 
the larger feathers uniform black towards ends. Back and scapulars 
dusky, the feathers with ochraceous borders, enclosing another V- or U- 
shaped mark of the same ; rump blackish, the feathers with only the 
external ochraceous border ; upper tail-coverts blackish, marked much 
like the scapulars, only more irregularly. Tail brownish-slate, the 
feathers edged with whitish, and with three or four narrow bars of pale 

^ * P. Z. S. Mar. 19, 1878, p. 350. 


buff (V-shaped) on each feather, more apparent on the outer rectrices. 
Lesser wiugcoverts dark grayish brown, distinctly bordered with dull 
ochraceous; middle coverts with the concealed portion brownish-gray; 
this succeeded by a paler grayish shade, the most of the exposed portion 
being opaque velvety-black, forming a distinct broad band ; secondaries 
metallic dark bluish-green, changing to blue and violet, this succeeded 
by a subterminal band of opaque velvety-black, about .25 in width, and 
this by a terminal band of pure white of the same width ; outer webs 
of the two lower tertials opaque black, the rest grayish-brown, more 
brown on outer webs; primaries brownish-slate, with slightly paler 
edges. Bill dusky (probably dark olivaceous in life) ; legs and feet light 
yellowish-brown (probably orange in life). Wing, 9.00 ; tail, 3.G5 ; cul- 
men, 1.75; greatest width of bill, .68 ; depth of maxilla, through base, 
.55 ; tarsus, 1.40 ; middle toe, 1.70. [Described from No. 20,319 U. S. 
Nat. Mus.] 

Unlike the somewhat similar species from Mazatlan {A. aherti), as well 
as the female of A. boschas and both sexes of A. fulvigula, the whole 
throat is densely streaked, lilie the neck. The entire lining of the wing, 
with the axillars, is pure white, as in allied species. 

Gray's Handlist quotes, under A. boschas, an ^^A. freycineti, Bp.", with 
the locality " Sandwich I." standing opposite. No indication is given, 
however, as to where Bonaparte's bird is described, and I have been 
unable to find any further clue. Should the locality of ^'A.freycineti " be 
the Sandwich Islands, it is very probable that this is the same species. 

The female of A. wyvilUana scarcely needs comparison with that of 
A. boschas. It is much smaller, the colors altogether darker, the specu- 
lum green instead of violet, and preceded by a wide blacl' instead of a 
wide ivhiie bar. The white ocular ring is also a peculiar feature. 

November 18, 1878. 

»ESCSeiS»TaOIV of T^VO new species of birds from COSTA 


A small collection of birds brought from Costa Eica by Mr. Jos6 C. 
Zeledon includes several exceedingly rare and interesting species, 
among which may be mentioned a young male of Carpodectes nitidus, 
a second specimen of Porzana cinereiceps, Lawr., the recently described 
'■'' Zonotrichia'''' vulcani, and PhcenoptUa melanoxantha, besides Pyrgisoma 
capitalis, Panterpe insignis, Geotrygon costaricensis, etc. In addition to 
the above are the two following, which are believed to be undescribed : — 


Sp. ch.— Wing, 2.50-2.C0; tail, 2.15-2.45; bill, from nostril, .4S-.50; 
tarsus, 1.00; middle toe, .62-.65. 


Above brownish -slate, becoming more olivaceous on the rump, upper 
tail-coverts, and tail. liemiges with very indistinct (scarcely observable) 
darker bars. Tail heavily but somewhat irregularly barred with dusky 
black, the black bars about as wide as the interspaces. A sharply defined 
and conspicuous superciliary stripe of white; a wide stripe of brownish- 
slate ("like the crown) along upper half of the auriculars. Chin, throat, 
cheeks, and lower parts iu general grayish- white, with a faint grayish 
washacross the jugulum, more distinct on the sides of the breast. Flanks, 
anal region, and crissum light fulvous. Lining of the wing grayish- 
white. [Type in Mus. K. R.] 

This well-marked species, although perhaps most like T. modestus 
(Caban.), is very distinct from that bird. The size is much greater, the 
plumage altogether grayer, and the bars on the tail broader and more 
sharply defined. Their characters may be more precisely contrasted, as 
follows : — 

T. modestus.— Wing, 2.30 ; tail, 2.25-2.35 ; bill, from nostril, .40-.45 ; tarsus, .80-.90 ; 
middle toe, .52-.58. Above, grayisli-umber, becoming gradually more grayish 
on the pileum. Tail cinnamon-umber, with narrow and rather indistinct bars 
of blackish less than half as wide as the interspaces. Lower parts buffy-white, 
without grayish shade across the jugulum ; sides, flanks, and anal region, and 
crissum deep ochraceous. Hab. — Highlands of Costa Rica. 

T. zeiedoni.—\Ymg, 2.50-2.(i0; tail, 2.1.5-2.45; bill, from nostril, .48-.50 ; tarsus, 1.00; 
middle toe, .62-65. Above, brownish-slate, more olivaceous posteriorly. Tail gray- 
ish-brown, with broad and sharply defined bars of blackish, equal in width to the 
interspaces. Lower parts grayish-white, with a distinct grayish shade across the 
jugulum ; flanks, anal region, and crissum light grayish-fulvous. Hah. — Atlantic 
lowlands of Costa Rica. 


Sp. ch.— Wing, 4.15-4.35; tail, 4.15-4.30; bill, from nostril, .50 ; tar- 
sus, 1.00-1.05; middle toe, .6S-.70. Primaries, primary-coverts, greater 
and middle wing-coverts brownish-black, the first more brownish ; both 
rows of wing-coverts tipped with bright ochraceous. Tufts on sides of 
neck creamy buff. 

Adult: Pileum, nape, and auriculars brownish-black, streaked with 
rusty-fulvous ; nape more conspicuously streaked with light fulvous or 
bilfif ; a narrow superciliary streak of buff. Back, scapulars, lesser wing- 
coverts, and tertials ferrugiueous, the feathers of the back very indis- 
tinctly bordered terminally with dusky. Kump, upper tail-coverts, and 
tail bright brick-rufous, immaculate. Chin, throat, and sides of the 
neck creamy-buff, the latter deepest, and immaculate; the throat faintly 
barred with dusky ; jugulum and breast light buff", the feathers bordered 
with dusky, producing a conspicuously striped appearance — the dusky 
prevailing laterally, the buff medially ; middle of the abdomen plain 
deep buff. Sides and flanks ferrugiueous, considerably lighter than the 
back ; crissum plain rusty -ochraceous. Bill blackish, the gonys whit- 
ish. Feet horn-color (greenish-olive in life). Iris dark brown. 


Immature: Similar, but pileuin and auriculars plain brownish-black; 
chin and throat more heavily marked (squaraated) with dusky, and sides 
brighter rufous. Superciliary streak obsolete, except above the auricu- 

Hab. — La Palma and Navarro, Costa Eica (altitude about 3,500-5,000 

The most striking characters of the two known species of this genus 
may be contrasted as follows : — 

P. ioissoneauti. — Tufts on side of neck pure white. Primaries and wing-coverts fer- 
rugiueous-umber. Jugulum faintly squamated with dusky. Hab. — New Granada 
and Ecuador. 

P. lawrencii. — Tufts on side of neck creamy-hufif. Primaries and wing-coverts brown- 
ish-black. Jugulum heavily striped with dusky. Hah. — Costa Eica. 

The proportions of both species are exceedingly variable, as may be 
seen from the accompanying table of measurements, and are therefore 
of no use as specific characters. 

The new form (P. laivrencii) was also obtained by Mr. A. Boucard at 
Navarro, Costa Eica, but that gentleman evidently overlooked the more 
important differences of plumage, though he alludes to the different color 
of the neck-tufts (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond, 3878, p. 59), adding that he does 
not " for the present consider this difference sufficient to make another 
species of it ". 

Following is a more detailed description of P. hoissoneauti, and tables 
of measurements of both species. 


Sp. CH.— Wing, 3.85-4.G5 ; tail, 3.70-4.60; bill, from nostril, .42-70; 
tarsus, .95-1.10 ; middle toe, .58-.70. Primaries and wing-coverts umber- 
brown, like the tertials; primary-coverts, dusky. Tufts on sides of 
neck pure white. 

Adult: Pileum, auriculars, nape, and anterior portion of back brown- 
ish-black, streaked with pale fulvous, these streaks much broader, 
and very conspicuous, on the nape and back. Lower part of back, 
scapulars, and wings ferruginous-umber, the middle and greater coverts 
tipped with fulvous. Eump, upper tail-coverts, and tail deep brick- 
rufous, immaculate. A narrow superciliary streak of pale buff. Chin 
and throat white ; neck-tufts pure silky white. Jugulum and breast 
buffy white, or very pale buff, faintly squamated with dusky, these 
markings heavier on sides of the breast. Eest of lower parts plain 
ochraceous-rufous, slightly paler on the middle of the abdomen. Bill 
black; lower half of mandible whitish. 

Young: Pileum and auriculars plain brownish-black; superciliary 
stripe obsolete, except above the auriculars. Bill wholly black, but 
somewhat paler on gonys. 

P. boissoneauti. 


? ad 
d ad. 

— ad. 
? ad. 
? ad. 

— ad. 

— ad. 

— ad. 

Bogota, Columbia 


4. C.-) 

4. 5.) 

4. HO 


0. 4S 
0. 52 
0. .V2 

G.IM. L.. 



1. 10 


U.8 ... 






!!!!!!do^. ".'!!!!!!!!!! !."!!"!! 


'6' 53 
0. 60 

Quito, Ecuador 








0. 65 

P. lawrencii. 


La Palma, Costa Rica 4. 15 

do 4.33 





Carpodectes nitidus. — A presumed young male of this excessively 
rare species, from Pacuare, Costa Rica, resembles the adult male, except 
that the terminal half (of the exposed portion) of the primaries is uni- 
form dusky blackish, while the secondaries have a considerable part of 
their concealed portion dusky, the amount decreasing toward the inner 
ones, the tertials being entirely white ; the primary-coverts have also 
ibeir terminal half grayish dusky, while of the aluUe one feather on 
one side and two on the other are of the same color. The rump is also 
somewhat obscured by a grayish tinge. The pileum seems to be of a 
deeper shade of fine pearl-blue in this specimen than in an adult male 
in the National Museum from Nicaragua. Mr. Zeledon's specimen 
measures as follows: — Wing, 5.40; tail, 3.00; bill, from nostril, .45 ; 
tarsus, .95 ; middle toe, .85. 

JuNCO VULCANI (Boucard). — This interesting new species was origi- 
nally discovered by Mr. Zeledon in 1873, but the specimens which were 
then forwarded by him to the Smithsonian Institution, along with other 
species then new, but since, like the present one, rediscovered, never 
reached their destination. Specimens more recently collected by Mr. 
Zeledon are now before me, and upon examination I find that the spe- 
cies should be referred to the genus Jmico, rathi r than to Zonotrichia. 
In fact, it agrees perfectly in its generic characters with the former, 
except that the back is streaked, while there is no white on the lateral 
tail leathers. Like J. cincreus of the highlands of Mexico, and J. alti- 
cola of Guatemala, it has a bright yellow iris. Its alpine habitat— 
the summit of the Volcan de Irazu— still further favors this view of its 

November 18, 1878. 


i>Esc;KnE»'£rao:^s of two «ae5©iio fd^bses, piaYfl^ns cmesteri A!v» 



Three specimens of an undescribed species of Phycis were obtained 
by the U. S. Fish Commisiou during the past season. The larger one 
measured 0.242"^ without caudal and two others respectively 0.143" and 
0.128'". The former is the basis of the following diagnosis; the others 
being evidently immature and having the characteristics of the species, 
especially the length of the lin-tilaments, less pronounced. 

Phycis Chesteri, sp. nov. 

Head contained in body (without caudal) 4J times, height of body 5 
times. Diameter of orbit in length of head 3^ times, maxillary twice. 
Barbel about one-third of diameter of orbit. Vent situated under 12th 
ray of second dorsal, and equidistant from tip of snout and end of second 
dorsal. Distance of dorsal fin from snout equal to twice the length of the 
mandible; the third ray of the firstdorsal isextremely elongate, extending 
to a ijoint (33d ray of second dorsal) two-thirds of the distance from snout 
to tip of caudal, its length more than twice that of the head, and more than 
four times as long as the rays immediately preceding and following it. 
Anal fin inserted immediately behind the vent, its distance from the 
root of the ventrals equal to that of the dorsal from the snout. As in 
the other species of the genus,* the ventral is composed of three rays, the 
first two much prolonged. The first is contained three times in the 
length of the body, the second is almost three times as long as the head, 
reaching to the 40th anal ray or 3 of the distance from snout to tip of 
caudal ; the third is shorter than the diameter of the orbit. 

The pectoral is four times as long as the operculum. Scales large 
and thin, easily wrinkling with the folding of the thick loose skin, par- 
ticularly in the median line of the sides of the body. Lateral line much 
broken on the i)osterior half of the body. 

Scales 7, 90-91, 28, 

Eadial formula :— D. 9 or 10, 55 to 57. A. 50. 0. 5, 18 to 21, 5. P. 
17-18. V. 3. 

*A critical study of the ventral fins of Phycis compels us to believe that the ventral 
fin is composed of three rays covered at the base with a thick shin in such manner as 
to obscure the third, short one, and to join the other two so that they appear like a 
single bifid ray. In young individuals of Phycis chuss, the third ray has its extremity 
protruding from the sheath, though in adults it becomes entirely enveloped, thus 
giving rise to the false definitions which have been given for this genus. An adult 
specimen ol Phycis furcatus, Flem. (No. 17,371 of the National Museum collection), has 
the third ventral ray protruding. 

Table of Measurements. 

Current number of specimen , 

Extreme length (exclusive of caudal) 

Length to end of middle caudal rays 

Body : 

Greatest height 

Greatest width 

Height at vcutrals 

Least height of tail 


Greatest length 

Length of barbel 

Greatest width 

Width of iuterorbital area 

Length of snout 

Lengtli of operculum 

Length of maxillary 

Leuath of maudible 

Distance from snout to centre of orbit 

Diameter of orbit 

Dorsal (first) : ■ 

Distance from snout 

Length of base 

Length of tirst ray 

Length of second ray 

Length of third ray 

Length of fourth ray 

Length of last ray 

Dorsal (second) : 

Length of base 

Length of first ray 

Length of longest ray (40th) 

Length of last ray 


Distance from snout 

Length of base 

Length of first ray 

Length of longest ray (3"th) 

Length of last ray 

Caudal : 

Length of middle rays 

Length of external rays 

Pectoral : 

Distance from snout 


Ventral : 

Distance from snout 

Length of first ray 

Length of filaments 

Length of second ray 






Ventral , 

Number of scales in lateral line 

Number of transverse rows above lateral lino 
Number of transverse rows below lateral line 


Trawl 174. 

42 milesE. i S., 
Capo Ann, 140 
fathoms, Aug. 

27, 1878. 

Trawl 194. 

Trawl 194. 

33 miles E. by S.. Cape Ann. E. 
Pt., 110 fathoms, Aug. 31, 1878. 







































































^" I 







































Haloporphyrus viola, sp. nov. 

Two specimens of an iiodescribed species of the genus Raloparphynis 

of Glintber were brought in, August 24, by Captain Joseph W. Collins, 

of the schooner "Marion "of Gloucester; they were taken on a halibut 

trawl-line on the outer edge of Le Have Bank, at a depth of four or five 

Proc. Nat. Mus. 78 17 Dec. 17, 1878. 


hundred fathoms. A species of this genus was described, under the 
name Gadus lejjidion, by Eisso,* from Mediterranean specimens. Giin- 
tber, who referred tbe species to the new genus Ilaloporplnjrus in 18G2,t 
had a specimen from Madeira. Giinther publisbed preliminary notices 
of two species, if. rostratiis and H. australis, in " The Annals and Maga- 
zine of NaturalHistory ", July, 1878, pp. 18 and 19, which were collected 
by the Challenger. The affinities of the four known species are indi- 
cated below. 

Tahle of Affinities. 

Saloporphynis lepidion. 

Haloporphyrus viola. 




Contained 4 times in total length (with 

out caudal). 
With diameter J length of head 


Not extending to the vertical from pos- 
terior margin oi orbit. 

Longer than diameter of orbit 

Inserted under Idth ray of second dorsal 


Inserted directly behind the vent, with 
slight depression iu its middle, and 
termiuat ng iu advance of termina- 
tion of dorsal. 



Itadial formula. 

Habitat . 

More than half as long as head. 

Inner lay as long as head, and reaching 
to the vent. 

D.4,54; A. 49; V. 6 

In lateral line, 210 

Above lateral line, 15 


Contained over 4 times in total length 

(without caudal). 
With diameter i length of header slightly 

Extending to rertical from posterior 

margin of orbit. 

Scarcely equal to half diametfr of oibit. 
Inserted under 19th raY of second dorsal 

Inserted behind the vent at a distance 
equal t(i length of 2d anal ray, wiih a 
cousiderablj depression in its middle, 
and teruiinating in a line with termina- 
tion of dorsal. 

More than four-flftbs as long as bead. 
Inner ray shorter than head (J) and reach- 
ing half way to the vent. 

D. 4, .■i3 ; A. 40 ; V. 6. 

In lateral line, 115. 
Above lateral line, 11. 

Le Have, 400-300 fathoms. 

Haloporphyrus rostratiis. 

Haloporphyrus australis. 


One-fourth of total without caudal ; depth 
of body two-fifths. 


Imperfectly divided, approaching, in 
thatrespect, the genus JLforrt. Giinther 
makes this the typo of a distinct sab- 
genus, Anlimora. 

B.TII; D. 4, 51-5(3; A. 38-39 ; V. 6.. .. 

Deep sea, midway between Cape of Good 
Hope and Kerguolen's Laud ; east of 
the mouth of Kio Plata, COU and 1,375 

Radial formula 


D. 9, 50-52; A. 53; V. 8. 

Puerto Bucno, Magellan Straits, 55-70 

JDescription. — Extreme length of type-specimen (No. 21,837, TJ. S. N. 
M.) without caudal 0.435'» (17^ inches), with caudal 0.48ij'" : length of 
collateral type (So. 21,838) without caudal, 0.545'"; with caudal, 0.G03'". 
Tbe shape of the body resembles that of the species of tbe genus Fhycls, 
though somewhat shorter, higher, and more compressed, its greatest 
height contained about five times in its length (without caudal), its 
height at the ventrals slightly exceeding one-eighth of its total length, 

* Icbthyologie de Nice, 1810, p. 118, pi. xi, fig. 40. 

t Catalogue of tbe AcautLopterygii, Pharycgognathi, and Anacanthiui in the Col- 
lections of the British Museum, 18G2, p. 358. 


its height at the middle of the caudal peduncle one twenty-ninth of the 

Scales arranged in about 115 vertical rows and about 3S horizontal 
ones, about 11 being between the origin of the dorsal and the lateral 
line and about 27 below the lateral line. Lateral line slightly curved 
ui)ward in the anterior fourth of its length. 

Length of head contained more than four and one-quarter times in 
that of the body ; its width half its length and less than double that of 
interorbital area. 

The barbel is short, its length being scarcely equal to half the diame- 
ter of the orbit and about one-tenth the length of the head. The width 
of interorbital area is about equal to the longitudinal diameter of the 
orbit, in the larger specimen slightly greater. The diameter of the orbit 
is equal to or slightly greater than one-fourth the length of the head. 
The length of the snout is equal to that of the operculum and less than 
width of interorbital area. 

The maxillary extends to vertical from posterior margin of the orbit, 
its length about equal to the greatest width of the head. Mandible 
equals one-eighth of total length without caudal. 

Snout equal to operculum in length, obtusely pointed, much de- 
pressed, its lateral outline subcouical, a conspicuous keel extending 
backward along the lower line of the orbit to its posterior margin. 
The head and mouth closely resemble those of some species of Macru- 
rus, except that the keel is covered with small, smooth scales and isuot 
overhanging. Lips scaleless. 

Teeth in the jaws imperfectly serial, villiform, recurved; a small ob- 
long patch of similar teeth on the head of the vomer; none on the 

First dorsal fin inserted at a distance from the snout somewhat greater 
than twice the height of the body at the ventrals ; its first ray is much 
prolonged, its length greater than that of the head, and nearly as long 
or longer (in the larger specimen) than the distance from the snout to 
the beginning of the dorsal. The second ray is contained less than four 
times, the third six times or less in thetirst, the fourth about ten times. 
The length of the base of second dorsal is somewhat more than twice 
the distance of its insertion from the snout ; its greatest height, which 
is in the posterior fourth of its length (near the -10th ray), is contained 
about six or seven times in the length of its base. 

The vent is situated at a point equidistant from snout and tip of cau- 
dal, under the 19th ray of second dorsal fin. The anal fin is inserted at 
a distance behind it equal to length of second anal ray. Its length of 
base is slightly more than half that of second dorsal. It has a consider- 
able depression in its middle outline. The last rays of dorsal and anal 
are of equal length, and are directly opposite each other. 

The caudal seems to be somewhat rounded. The length of the middle 
rays contained more than nine times in total length without caudal, and 
more than ten times in length including caudal. 


Pectorals narrow, inserted under the base of first dorsal. In tbo 
smaller specimen they reach to the perpendicular from the niuth raj of 
the second dorsal, in length equalling the greatest height of the body. 

Ventrais inserted at a distance from tip of snout equal to half the 
length of anal base ; the second ray nearly twice as long as the first, and 
in the smaller specimen, in which it is unmutilated, nearly as long as the 

Radial formula :— D. 4, 53 ; A. 40 ; C. 5, 20 or 21, 5 ; P. 1, 19 ; V. C. 

Color. — Deep violet or blue. 

Table of Measurements. 

Current number of specimen 

Extreme lencth (without caudal) 

Length to end of middle caudal rays 

Boiiy : 

Greatest height 

G I eatest width 

Height at veutrals 

Least height of tail 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Head : 

Greatest length 

Length of barbel 

Greatest width 

"Width of intero'-bital area 

Length of snout 

Length of operculum .^... 

Length of maxillary 

L'ugth of mandible 

Distance from snout to centre of orbit 

DianH-ter of orbi't (longitudinal) 

Dorsal (tirsi) : 

Distance from snout 

Length of base 

Length of first ray 

Length of second ray 

Length of third ray 

Length of fourth ray 

Dorsal (second) : 

Length of base 

Distance from snout 

Length of first ray 

Length of longest ray (41st) 

Length of last ray 

Anal : 

Distance from snout 

Length of base 

Length of first ray 

Lengtli of longest ray (26th) 

Length of last ray 

Caudal : 

Length of middle rays 

Pectoral : 

Distance from snout 


Ventral : 

Distance from snout 

Length of first ray 

Length of second ray 







Number of scales in lateral line 

Number of transverse rows above lateral line. 
Number of transverse rows below lateral line. 

■21,837. 21,838. 

Edge of Le Have Bank. 



. 83 












ca. 45 
















24 J 












4, 53 

5, 20 or 21, 5 



ca. 115 

ca. 11 

ca. 27 









ca. 58 














4, + 


November 21, 1878. 




The United States Fish Commission has lately received from Capt. 
Joseph W. Collins, of the schooner Marion, of Gloucester, Mass., and 
from Mr. R. L. Newcomb, of Salem, who accompanied him on this voyage 
as a collector, an apparently undescribed species of Argentina. A single 
specimen was taken September 4, 1878, from the stomach of a hake 
{Phycis tenuis f) hooked on a halibut trawl-line, set in 200 fathoms of 
water, on Sable Island Bank, off the coast of Nova S^iotia. This fish 
(No. 21,024) is about 17 inches long and in a dilapidated condition, hav- 
ing been partially digested by its first captor. The tips of the fins, 
especially, are much frayed out. The measurements, however, are 
believed to be very nearly exact. 

Argentina syrtensium, sp. nov. 

Description. — Body compressed, resembling in form thatof Silus Ascanii 
Reinhardt {= Argentina silus (Asc.) Nillson) ; its height contained about 
oj times in its length without caudal, and slightly greater than twice 
the diameter of the orbit; its greatest width one-tenth of total length ; 
its height at ventrals contained about 5f times in the same and equal to 
thrice least height of body at the caudal peduncle. 

Length of head slightly less than twice its greatest height, and slightly 
more than one-fourth of the length of the body ; its greatest width is 
twice that of the interorbital area. The length of the snout equals that 
of the operculum, is slightly greater than that of the maxillary, and is 
contained not quite 3.J times in the length of the head. 

The first dorsal fin is inserted midway between snout-tip and adipose 
dorsal fin ; its basal length equal to the height of its first ray, and slightly 
more than half that of the longest ray ; it is also equal to the orbital 
diameter and the length of the mandible ; the last dorsal ray is slightly 
longer than the height of the caudal peduncle. 

The adipose dorsal fin is inserted in the perpendicular from the seventh 
anal ray; its basal length, which is two-thirds of its height, being about 
equal to one-tenth of the length of the head. 

The anal fin is inserted in the perpendicular from the 44th or 45th 
scale of the lateral line, its length of base slightly greater than length of 
the mandible, its first ray one-third as long as its third ray, its last ray 
equalling in height the adipose dorsal. 

The caudal is deeply forked, its external ray 2^ times as long as its 
median rays. 

The pectoral is inserted close to the branchial opening ; its length is 
equal to three-fifths of the distance of its insertion from the snout-tip. 


extending posteriorly to about the twelfth scale of the lateral line and 
more than halfway to the origin of the ventrals. 

The ventral is inserted midway between the snout-tip and the insertion 
of the caudal fin, and in the perpendicular from the posterior dorsal 
ray ; its length equals half the distance from the origin of the pec- 
toral to that of the ventral. 

Eadial fonnula.—B. Yl; D. 12; A. 13; 0. 13, 18, 12; P. 18; V. II, 12. 

Scales. — 3.^, 60, 4. The scales are cycloid, with the posterior edge 
emargiuate, the exposed surface covered with minute asperities ; as in 
some, and perhaps all other members of this group, single rows of scales 
saddle the dorsal and the abdominal ridges of the body. The scales 
are very large: one from the abdominal row, directly behind the ventrals, 
measuring 6J x 4J; one from the lateral line, 5 J x 3-^, the unit of meas- 
urement being the hundredth of body-length. One of the scales of the 
lateral line, detached, is broad enough to cover the exposed surfaces of 
live others in the same line. 

Color. — The color is considerably obliterated, but appears to have 
been similar to that of the common smelt {Osmerus mordax), with per- 
haps more of a metallic lustre. 

The species, according to Mr. Newcomb, has a cucumber-like smell, 
resembling that of the smelt. 

Table of Measurements. 

Current number of speciuieu 

Extreme length without caudal 

Lpugth to end of middle caudal rays 
Body : 

Greatest height 

G I euti-st widt h 

Height at vcntrali , 

Least height of tail 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Head : 

Greatest length 

Greatest height 

Greatest width , 

"Width of interorbital area , 

Length of suout 

Length of operculum , 

Leijgth of inaxillary 

Length of mandible 

l):anittrr of orbi*i 

Dorsal (first) : 

Distauce from snout 

Length of base 

Lc'ngih of longest ray 

Length of first ray 

Length of second ray 

Length of last ray 

Dorsal (soft) : 

Lengtli of base 

Distance from snout 

Anal : 

Distance from snout 

Length of 

Length of first ray 

Length of longest ray 

Length of last ray 


S ible Island Bank. 
Stomach of Hake. 




5. 75 









2. 66 


Table of Measurements — Continued. 



Caudal : 

Length of middle rays .. 
Length of external rays . 


Distance from snout 


Ventral : 

Distance from snout 








Number of scales in lateral line 

Number of transverse rows above lateral line. 
Number of transverse rows below lateral line. 

ca. 15i 

ca. 12 




II, 12 

ca. CO 

ca. 3J 

ca. 4 

\Y ASHiHGTOTS, 2^ovember 23, lb78. 




Mr. P. Stewart has canglit between 80 and 100 of them in his pound* 
in about three weeks. He caught 52 oue morning. In Luce's pound* 
they have caught between GO and 70. They catch them with a northerly 
wind; none with the wind oft" shore. They will not live long in tbe pound, 
but will run themselves to death, and their brilliant blue color all fades 
out as soon as they are dead. 

Wood's Holl, Mass., October 1, 1878. 




Sir : I send you by post a small fish taken by one of our fishermen at 
Saruia on Lake Huron. It was sent to me by oue of our officers, with a 
request that I should let him know what sort of fish it was. It seems 
tbey think it to be a young shad. Fish very similar in appearance to 
this one have been known in Lake Ontario and other of our waters for 
many years ; I recollect them forty years ago. They were not taken 
numerously in those days, a few being captured at times in seines, and 
sometimes in gill-nets, which were set out in very deep waters in the 
lake for the purpose of taking salmon trout : those taken in the gill-nets 
would be sometimes a pound in weight; the great run of them, however, 

"These pouutla are in Menemsha Bight, Martha's Vineyard. 


never exceeded three to six inches in length. Strange to say, how- 
ever, that during the past four years these little fish have become so 
numerous throughout the length of Lake Ontario that millions can be 
taken in one haul of a seine almost anywhere along the shore of Lake 
Ontario during the month of June. The whole shore for a long distance 
out, during this time, becomes so dense with these little fish that people 
dip them out with their hats, — rather a novel method, but it is a fact, 
and given for illustration of their immense numbers : vast quantities of 
them die along the shore. In a few days, sometimes a fortnight, they 
all disappear, and we see nothing of them again till the following year, 
excepting an odd one that may be taken at times. They invariably run 
from two to six inches, seldom larger. They are not prized for food, 
being seldom eaten, and are not marketable. They have been called 
here the " Moon Eye ", as they resemble the fish spoken of by me as 
having been taken in the deep waters, which have always been known 
by that name. Again, in 1873, 1874, 1875, 187G, and this year, these 
little fish have been alike abounding in myriads all along the north shore 
of Ontario. Since that time, the trout and other predaceous fishes have 
become very scarce in the lake, and these " Moon Eyes " have conse- 
quently wonderfully increased in numbers, to sucli an extent as to spread 
themselves in the immense number spoken of all along the shore of the 

The specimen sent may not be one of these "Moon Eyes", but the 
resemblance is very great.* 

Professor Baird, 

Commissioner of Fisheries^ &C,, Washington, B. C. 

Newcastle, Novemier 23, 1677. 




The National Museum has obtained from Mr. H. D. Eenninger, of 
Washington, a living specimen of the Canada porcupine {Eretliizon dor- 
satiis (Linn.) F. Cuv. — var dorsatus), captured by him November 13, 1878, 
near Cranberry Summit, Preston County, West Virginia. This locality 
is in or near lat. 39J N., and this is believed to be the most southern oc- 
currence of the species. The inhabitants of Cranberry have never before 
known of the occurrence of j)orcupines in that region. 

DeKay statedt that the species ranged south to the northern parts of 
Virginia and Kentucky. Mr. Allen believes that his statement was 
founded on a remark of Catesby. Audubon and Bachman Avrite : | "It 

*The fish received from Mr. Wilmot is the Western Gizzard Shad, Dorosoma acedia- 
■mini hetemrum, (Raf.) Jordan. 
t Nat. Hist. N. Y. 1842, 1, p. 79. 
} Quadrupeds of N. America, 1, 1846, p. 286. 


does not exist in the sonthern parts of New York or Pennsylvania. 
DeKaj^ states that it is found in the northern parts of Virginia and Ken- 
tucky. We, however, sought for it without success in the mountains of 
Virginia, and could never hear of its existence in Kentuck3\" 

Professor Baird states* that the species is found as far south as 
l!forthern Pennsylvania in some localities^ in which State it is not rare 
even now. 

Mr. J. A. Allen, the most recent writer on the i)orcnpines, remarks,! 
that Professor Shaler had failed to hear of the species in Kentucky and 
Virginia. He was informed by Dr. J. M. Wheaton that a few ])orcu- 
l^ines still survive in Clark, Champaign, and Eoss Counties, Ohio, and 
that it was common ten years since in Putnam County ; and by Mr. E. 
W. Nelson that the si^ecies was formerly rather common, though never 
abundant, in all of the wooded region north of the Ohio liiver, but that 
it is not now found (west of Ohio) south of the forests of Northern Wis- 
consin and Northern Michigan. 

December 12, 1878. 



In ray Catalogue of the Birds of St. Vincent, I stated that Mr. Ober 
expected to leave that island for Grenada on the 29th of February. He 
must have left about that time, as some of his notes from Grenada are 
dated early in March. His collection from there was received at the 
Smithsonian Institution on the 22d of Maj', and sent to me a few days 
after. It consists of but 60 specimens.' 

In the following communication from Mr. Ober, he gives the geograph- 
ical position of the island, with other matters of interest. 

Under most of the species found there, are his notes of their 
habits, etc. 

His communications are marked with inverted commas. 

"Grenada, the southernmost of the volcanic islands, lies just north 
of the 12th degree of latitude north of the equator, that parallel just 
touching its southern j)oint. 

" It is about 18^ miles in length, from N. N. E. to S. S. W., and 7^ 
miles in breadth. 

" From Kingston, the principal town in St. Vincent, to St. Georges, 
that of Grenada, the distance is 75 miles ; from the southern end of St. 
Vincent to the northern jjoint of Grenada the distance is GO miles j the 
intervening space being occupied by the Grenadines. 

* Mammals of North America, 1859, p. 568. 

t Monographs of North American Kodentia, by Elliott Coues and Joel Asaph Allen, 
1877, p. 393. 


"It is very rugged, the interior of tlie island "being one mountain 
cliain with its offsets, and there is a less area of fertile land than in St. 
Vincent. The valleys that make up from the coast, and the levels lying 
between the hills and some portions of the coast, however, are very fer- 
tile. It is not a promising island for ornithological research, though at 
fii'st glance it would seem to be able to afford rich reward. 

" The moiuitains in the interior are volcanic; there are several extinct 
craters, in the largest of which is an attractive lake, 2,000 feet above the 
sea; it is 2^ miles in circumference and has an average depth of 14 
feet. St. Georges, the only i»ort of any size, lies on the southwestern 
coast, and is highly picturesque in location, but not so attractive in the 
eyes of an ornithologist as it might be ; the surrounding hiUs are rocky, 
and those not rocky are cultivated, so that they are inhabited by very 
few birds. 

"Across the bay from the town, on the borders of the 'lagoon,' which 
is fringed with mangroves, may be found a few water birds, and in the 
sloping pastures at the foot of the high hills a small variety of the smaller 

" The southern point. Point Saline, is an excellent place for the migra- 
tory birds : plover, duck, etc., which visit this island in quantities, and 
some points on the eastern coast are equally good. 

"I spent two weeks m and near St. Georges and St. Davids, and two 
weeks in the mountains and on the eastern coast. 

"As this island is so near the South American continent, being but 
100 miles from Trinidad and 70 miles from Tobago, I expected to find 
some forms of animal life different from th(5se in the northern islands 
among the resident species. But with the exception of now and then a 
straggler being blown to these shores, there is no species (if we may ex- 
cept two) that would indicate proximity to a great tropical countrj'. 

" Some species common in the northern islands, from Guadeloupe to 
St. Vincent, have disappeared, and in one or two cases their places taken 
by others ; notably is this the case in the instance of Eidam])is jugularis 
beiQg replaced by Glaucls Mrsutiis. 

" There is no parrot as in St. Vincent, and the two species of thrush, 
locally known as the ' grives ' — Margarops dcnsirostris and M. montanus — 
do not exist here. Other minor differences occur, which will be apparent 
ui>on examining the catalogue. 

" The most interesting fact regarding the higher order of animal life, 
is the existence here of an armadillo, once common in all the Lesser An- 
tilles, but now extinct in all the northern islands. 

"A species of monkey also lives in the deep forests of the mountains; 
a skin of one has been sent to the Museum. 

" The most interesting portion is undoubtedly that of the mountains 
immediately adjacent to the mountain lake; but, if it were possible for 
a naturalist to spend an entire year ia the island, doubtless the more 
southern portion would reward him better in species : for the season of 


migration would j^robably bring mnny stragglers from the continent, that 
do not make a longer staj' than a few days. 

" It is only a matter of regret with me that I could not give the requi- 
site time to this island during the ' winter months '. I am satisfied, 
however, that the few resident species are now fully known. 


" My thanks are due to Wm. Sharpe, Esq., Wm. Simmons, Esq., Dr. 
Wells, Canon Bond of St. Andrews and John Grant Wells, Esq., for 
coui'tesies shown me." 

Fam. TURDID^. 

1. Turdus nigrirostris Lawr. 
"Thrush ('Grive'). 

" Length, S , 9 in. ; alar extent, 15:^ ; wing, 5. 

" Length, 9 , 9 in. ; alar extent, 14J ; wing, 4f . 

" In the deep woods one may be startled by a low note of alarm from 
this bird, like the smgle cluck of the Mocking-bird of the Southern 
States. Searching carefully, you may discover the author of it sitting 
upon a low tree, with head protruded, eagerly examining the surround- 
ings for the cause of the noise your coming makes. Discovering you, it 
hastily makes off, Avith a parting cluck. Its song is often heard iu the 
high woods, strange notes, ' fee-ow, fee-oo,' etc., often reijeated. Anothei 
cry it has when alighting and unexpectedly discovering your presence, 
similar to the cry of the Eobin as heard at evening time in spring — a 
harsh cry mingled with softer notes. I have only found it in the high 
forests. It must be weU along in the nesting period, judging from the 
condition of those dissected." 

I was much pleased to find four specimens of this species in the col- 
lection, as but one was obtained in St. Vincent, and that had the plum- 
age somewhat soiled. These are in good condition and more mature : 
they have the color of the throat as originally described, L c, the feathers 
of a dull white, with shaft-stripes of brown ; there are no rufous termi- 
nations to the wing-coverts, as in the St. Vincent specimen ; and the 
irregular rufous-brown markings on the upper part of the breast, as 
seen in that, are only just perceptible in two of the specimens : they have 
the breast and flanks of a darker shade of brown : the bills of these are 
not so dark throughout as in the type — shading into brown on their ter- 
minal halves : this difference of color is doubtless attributable to age. 

2. Turdus carribeeus, Lawr. Ann. N. Y. Acatl. of Sci. toL 1, p. 160. 
" Thrush. 

"Length, 9^ in. ; alar extent, 15J; wiug, 5. 

"Iris wine-red; naked sldn around the eye, f uich wide, yellow; 
beak olive-green, tipped with yellow. I am positive that I heard this 
bird in St. Vincent, but only once, and did not obtain, or even fairly see 
it. Its cry is peculiar, and once heard could not be mistaken. Itresem- 


bles the cry of the Wliippoorwill in the moruiug, just as it utters the 
'poor- will', and just preceding the final cluck. It was not a stretch of 
the iraagination, either, to fancy a cry like ' hoto de dew^ (as uttered by 
the country gentleman when saluting an acquaintance), with the stress 
upon deic. It has also, when alarmed or when threading a strange 
thicket, the soft call-note of the Thrushes, similar to that of the grive or 
Mountain Thrush. It inhabits the thick growth of old pastures, and 
seems to prefer the dark recesses beneath the overhanging trees and 
bushes of the hillsides on the borders of the oi)ens." 

3. Mimus gilvus, Vieill. 

" Mocking-bu^d. 

"Length, <?, 9^ in, ; alar extent, 14; wing, 4^. 

"Eatlier plentifully distributed on the hills sloping seaward; found 
also well up the sides of the mountains, but not in the high woods, nor 
far away fiom cleared land." 


4. Thryothorus grenadensis, Lawr. Ann. N. Y. Acad, of Sci. v. 1, p. 161. 
"Wren; 'God-bird.' 

"Length, <?, 5 in.; alar extent, 7; wing, 2^. 

" A sprightly bird, found in houses in the country, in the forests and 
in the towns. 

" Its song is a pleasing warble, and this, with its bright ways, make 
it a welcome visitor. The blacks will eat nearly every bird but this and 
the corheau; but this, they say, 'make you dead,' for it is God's bird. 

"Found an old nest in the house at Grand Etang, but the young had 
gone ('it make child, but he go'), I was told. They were hatched in 
February. A nest under the veranda now has four young, recently 
hatched. Going down to examhie them one day, I found one of them 
had about four inches of a 'God's horse' ('Walking-stick') (Phas- 
mida) protrading from its mouth. The nest is of dried grass, lined with 
feathers. Had it not been that these little beggars excited feelings of 
compassion in my breast, I would have added the old ones to my col- 
lection, weU knowing that they would be valuable acquisitions." 


5. Setophaga ruticilla (Linn.). 

" Only one seen. This was shot, but lost in the thick matting of the 
loose leaves that covered the ground. It was near the border of the 
mountain lake." 


6. Vireosylvia calidris var. dominicana, Lawr. 
" Vireosylvia. 

"Length, <?, 6 in.; alar extent, 10; wing, 3f. 


"Length, 9,6 m.; alar extent, 9 J ; wing, 3^. 

"Through the woods came a strangely familiar note, 'peow, peow'. 
The bii'd I could not discover at first, but thought I detected a note akin, 
and was confinned that it was an old acquaintance of Dominica and St. 
Vincent, when I had it in my hand. jSTot very abundant." 


7. Progne dominicensis (Gm.)? 

" One species seen, but never within shot ; to all appearance, it was 
identical with that obtained in St. Vincent." 


8. Certhiola atrata, Lawr. 

" Certli ioJa. Scarce. Resident. 

"Length, (?, 4^ in.; alar extent, 7f ; wing, 2|. 

"This bird is not found in great numbers, as in some of the northern 
islands ; indeed, I have seen it but twice — on the mangrove fiats of Point 
Saline, where its habits were in great contrast to those of its northern 
congeners, being shy and retired, while in other islands bold and obtru- 


9. Euphonia flavifrons (Spami.), 
"Louis d'Or. Eare. Eesident. 
"Length, 5 in.; alar extent, 8;^; wing, 2^. 

" I have not seen this bird here alive. These specimens were shot by 
A. B. Wells, Esq., of St. Davids. It is not easily discovered, more from 
its rarity than from its shyness. Frequents the skirts of woods and 
nutmeg groves." 

10. Calliste versicolor, Lawr. 

" Sour-sop Bml. Abundant. Eesident. 

"Length, (?,6Jin.; alar extent, 9J; wing, 3. 

"Length, $, 6 in. ; alar extent, 9^; wing, 3^. 

" Though in St. Vmcent I saw the bird only in small numbers and 
solely in the mountains, here it is everywhere. The same chattering cry, 
noisy in feeding, calling one to another, gregarious, is greedy in its 
search for food, a flock of from 8-12 may be seen swarming over a 
small tree or bush. It is very partial to the seed of the Sour-sop, which 
gives it its local api)ellation. It is now nesting." 


11. Loxigilla noctis (Liun.). 

"Length, <?, 5^ in.; alar extent, 8J; wing, 2f. 
"Length, 9, 5^ in.; alar extent, 8f ; wing, 2f. 

" One of the most common birds, second only to the small ' grass bird' 
{Phonijpat'a Mcolor).''^ 


12. Phonipara bicolor (Linn.). 
^^Plionipam hicolor. ' Si Si Zerbe.' 

"Everywhere abundant, so common in fact tliat, thinking I could 
obtain it at any time, I devoted my attention to other rarer bu\ls, and 
finally left without a specimen." 


13. Quiscalus luminosus, Lawr. Ann. N. Y. Acad, of Sci. v, 1, ji. 1G2. 
" Blackbu'd. Eesident. 

"Length, c?, lOJin.; alar extent, 15J; wing, 5. 

" Length, 9 , 9^ in. ; alar extent, 14 ; wing, 4f . 

" This bird first occurs in the Grenadines. It has seldom been seen 
in St. Ymcent, although abnndant on the small islands of Balliceaux 
and Bequia. The latter is not ten miles distant. It is there called the 
' Bequia Sweet', from its notes : ' Beqma sweet, sweet.' 

" It is social, gregarious, seeming to delight in company, spending a 
great part of the day in sportive play. The first I saw were in Balli- 
ceaux, one of the northernmost of the Grenadines. I was struck with the 
similarity of a habit of theirs to one of the Boat-tailed Grakle of Florida 
and the South, as I had observed it on the banks of the St. John's River. 
A party of them had come down to drink at a small pool in one of the 
pastures. After drinking, each male woidd lift its beak i)erpendicnlarly, 
spread out its wings and one leg, and give utterance to a joyous cry, as 
though gi\'ing thanks for the enjoyment afforded by the drink. Then 
the whole crew would join in a general outbiu'st, both females and males. 
Then they would adjoiu-n to a near fence rail, and keep up a social con- 
versation, stretching their legs and wings and showing their glossy 
feathers to the sun. The air would then resound wdth the cries, said by 
the islanders to be, ' Bequia sweet, sweet, sweet.' That was in Febru- 
ary. Though I then exi)ected to get them to send home with the St. 
Vincent collection, I was tlisappointed, as our boat was smashed on a 
neighboring rock next day, and we were picked up and carried to St. 
Vincent without an opportunity for getting the birds. 

" In Grenada I found them in abundance again, tiying in flocks and 
inhabiting exclusively the lowlands, the swamps and borders of the 
lagoons. It is easily attracted by unusual sounds, as I once proved 
while hunting Yellow-crowned Night Herons in a sw^amp on the eastern 
coast, by calling around me not less than forty, who filled the bushes 
and trees around and above me, staying a long while. 

"Think it is exclusively confined to Grenada and the Grenadines." 


14. Elainea martinica (Linn.). 

"Flycatcher. Eesident. Eather numerous. 
"Length, ^, 7f in.; alar extent, 11; wing, 3f. 
"Length, 9, Gf in.; alar extent, 10^; wing, 3 J. 


15. Myiarchus oberi, Lawr. 

" Flycatclier. Not abundant. 

"Length, c?, 9 in.j alar extent, 13; wing, 4 J. 

"Length, 2 , 8|; ahir extent, 12^-5 wing, 4. 

16. Tyrannus rostratus, Scl. 

" T. rostratus. Eesident. Abundantly distributed. 

"Length, <?, 10 in.; alar extent, 15|; wing, 5. 

"Length, 9 , 9 in.; alar extent, 14f ; wing, 4f. 

" Occurring at all altitudes, but preferring the lowlands, open fields, 
and hills. Delights in a shrub with bare protruding prongs, or an open- 
foliaged tree like the trumpet tree and bread fruit. Its cry is a shrill 
' piperee, piperee ' ; hence its name. Esx^ecially partial to the tall cabbage 
palm (palmistes), making its home in the fronds, and darting thence upon 
any passing insect. 

"More abundant in Antigua than elsewhere. Its large flat bill, the 
concealed flushes of yellow beneath the wings, and the beautiful silken 
feathers of saffron and crimson concealed in the crown, make it an 
interesting specimen in the hand, though it is a very ordinary looking 
bird as seen in activity." 

17. Tyrannus melancholicus, Vicill. 

" Tyrannus . The first seen. 

"Length, <?, 9 in. ; alar extent, 14J; wing, 43. 

"The first bird of this species shot seemed fatigued from a long flight, 
and I thought it must have come from another island, Tobago or Trini- 
dad. It has never been seen by those who observe the birds of the 
island. I still think it a straggler from Tobago." 

Two specimens are in the collection. This and the following species 
{Glmicis Jdrsiitns) are the only South American forms that were procured, 
showing how strictly this an'd the islands north of it are defined as a 
distinct zoological province. In the islands to the south, viz, Tobago 
and Trinidad, the birds assimilate to those of the South ^Vmerican conti- 


18. Glaucis hirsutus (Gm.). 
"Brown Hummer. (New to me.) 
"Length, ^, 5 J in.; alar extent, Gf ; wing, 2J. 
"Length, 9, 5^ in.; alar extent, C^; wing, 2^. 

" This species entirely replaces the Garnet-throat {Eulanqm jugularis), 
of which latter I have not seen a single specimen. This one is confined 
to the same haunts, viz, the cool depths of the high woods, and is never 
seen in the valleys or below the last ring of high cliffs and forest-trees. 
So closely does the plumage of this hummer assimilate with the color 
of the fallen leaves, dry as well as green, that I lost my first specimen 
and found the others only by long search." 


19. Eulampis holosericeus (Linn.)- 

" Green-throat. ' Colibri.' Scarce. 

" Leiig'th, 9, 5 in.; alar extent, 6 J ; ""'ing, 2^. 

" Feeding- from the crimson flowers of a hnge cactus, I saw this hum- 
ming-hird this morning, in a hedge row bordering the road to St. Davids. 
It does not occur in the abundance that I find of the small crested hum- 
mer, and I have not seen it in the mountains." 

20. Orthorynchus cristatus (Liun.). 

" 0. exilis ? March 16th. 

'' Length, S, 3f in.; alar extent, 5; wing, 2. 

" The crest seems brighter and deeper than in those of Dominica and 
St. Vincent. It is distributed profusely throughout high woods, hills, 
upper valleys, and sea-coast ; everywhere I see its glancing crest, hear 
the whirring of its wings. Just a year ago I found a nest in Dominica ; 
here in the mountains they have not yet built their nests, though it is 
possible they may have commenced in the lowlands. They are in the 
thickets between the Grand Etang and the deep woods, visiting the 
different flowers so frequently that it seems to me they must be ex- 
hausted of sweets and insects." 


21. Chaeturasp.? 

" I was lurfortunate with this bird, never getting one within range. 
It is of the same shape, size, and color of the species obtained in Domi- 
nica. Only one si)ecies seen." 


22. Ceryle alcyon (Liun.). 

" Length, <?, 12^ in.; alar extent, 20J ; wing, 6 J. 

" Though nearly a year has passed since I first saw the Kingfisher of 
these islands (in Dominica), this is the first island in which I have been 
able to shoot one. It is very shy, and somehow I have always just 
missed it, in Dominica as well as St. Vincent, in neither of which islands 
is it plentiful ; and it was only by the most artful bushwhacking that I 
at last got this one. Not abundant; resident." 


23. Coccyzus minor (Gm.). 

"'Cuckoo manioc' Abundant; resident. 

"Length, ^,12 J in.; alar extent, IG ; wing, 5i. 

" The harsh cry, resembling somewhat that of the Yellow-billed Cuc- 
koo, may be heard almost any day, proceeding from the low growth of 
some overgrown imsture or hiUside. 


^' Of unsuspicious demeanor, this bird will allow a near approach ; if 
it flies, it is but for a short distance, to a low tree or thick shrub, whcro, 
if unmolested, it hops about with ai)parently aimless intent, though 
keeping a good lookout for its food, butterflies, moths, etc. 

" Very common on the hillside beyond the Carenage." 

24. Crotophaga ani, Linn. 

" ' Corbeau.' Abundant ; resident. 

" Length, ^ , 15 in, ; alar extent, 17 ; wing, 0. 

" Length, 9 , 14 in. ; alar extent, IG^ ; wing, 5i. 

"Called the < Tick-bird' in St. Vincent; here the 'Corbeau', French 
for Eaven. Said to have been blown over from Trinidad in a gale somo 
years ago. It has increased wonderfully ; not held in favorable repute ; 
eats ticks, bugs, etc., but also eats corn and guinea-grass grain. The 
same stupid unsuspicious bii-d everywhere; breeds abundantly; grega- 
rious. Where one goes and persistently calls, the rest of the flock, from 
to 12, will surely follow. In a tree or bush they cluster close together ; 
have a squeaking cry. 

" They build a large loose nest, and lay in it eggs of a greenish color. 
A curious habit of theirs is to build a second nest upon one already 
fdled with eggs. The only nest I have examined had not a full comple- 
ment of eggs, and I cannot tell just what number they lay." 


25. Strix flammea var. nigrescens, L.awr. 
" Owl ; ' Jumbie Buxl.' Eare. 

"Length, ^, 12 in.; alar extent, 30J; wing, 10. 

" In different parts of the island are the towers of ancient wind-mills, 
which, in various stages of ruin and dilapidation, are going to decay. 
Being made of stone, and generally covered with ivy and running ^'ines, 
without roof and full of holes, they offer excellent places of abode for 
the owls, and there is rarely a ruin without its occupant to frighten 
the negroes to the verge of insanity with its nocturnal hootings. From 
a superstitious dread of the ' Jumbie bird,' and from the fact that these 
old mills are well hung with the nests of ' Jack Spaniard ' — a wasp, it is 
difBcult to get a negro to climb into a tower to dislodge the owl. 

" I am indebted for this one to Mr. Goddard, the manager of the Estate 
of Clarke's Court." 


26. Paudion halisetus (Linn.). 

"An infrequent winter visitor on the east or Atlantic coast." 

27. Buteo pennsylvanicus (Wils.). 

" Length, 9 , 15i in. ; alar extent, 35 ; wing, 11. 

"At this time (March 25) it is engaged in incubation. Not abundant; 

Proc. Nat. Mus. 78 18 Feb. 13,18 79. 


28. Tinnunculus sparverius var. antillarum (Gm.). 

" Very rare, and, so far as I can ascertain, confined to the eastern 


29. Fregata aquila (Linn.). 

" Breeds on tlie rocks north and northeast of Grenada, sparingly, but 
in increased numbers on some of the smaller Grenadines." 


30. Phaethon aethereus, Liun. 

"Cannot tell if it breeds in Grenada, but am of the opinion that it 
does. The specimens obtained in the northern Grenadines were included 
in the St. Vincent catalogue." 


31. Pelecanus fuscus (Linn.). 

" Breeds on the rocks north of Grenada as well as throughout the 

32. Sula fiber (Linn.). 

"Inhabits the rocks off the northern coast. Most plentiful in the 

Fam. ARDEID^. 

33. Ardea herodias, I^inn. 

" Extremely wild. I have seen it on different occasions, and in the 
different islands in different months, and pronounce it a straggUng resi- . 
dent (if this term be allowable), that is, one or two may remain after the 
spring migrations and may breed, though I have heard of no authentic 
instance of its breeding." 

34. Garzetta candidissima (Gm.). 
" ' Gaulin blanc' 

" Length, 23 in. ; alar extent, 37 ; wing, 11. 

" The abundance of this species is in striking contrast to its scarcity 
in St. Vincent. This may bo attributed to the increased extent of low 
wet land, swamps, and lagoons. 

"Only Antigua exceeds this island in the number of this species. As 
in Dominica and the other French-speaking islands, it is called the 
' Gaulin blanc', and the heron in the blue plumage ' Gaulin noir ' or '■ bleu \ 
This is second in point of numbers of the herons, the ' Gaulin bleu' third, 
and the yellow-crowned fourth. The B. virescens is the most numerous 
of the whole. It breeds in the mangroves bordering the lagoon later in 
the season." 

135. Florida caerulea (Linn.). 

"It is not so common as the 'Gaulin blanc' and exceedingly shy." 


36. Butorides virescens (Liun.)- 

" Length, J , 18 in.; alar extent, 2o; wing, 7. 

"As my boat skirted the iiinge of mangroves bordering the lagoon 
across the bay from St. Georges, it ousted numbers of this small species. 
They would fly a little ways, then dive into the deep foliage of the mau- 
groAcs, where a very close inspection might detect it crawling among 
the spider-like roots, or threading its way through the mesh-work of 
aerial suckers seeking the mud. When started by the boat or gun, it 
gave utterance to its guttural cry, and as we moved along, the crackling 
and shutting of oyster shells accompanied us throughout." 

37. Nyctiardea violacea (Liun.). 

"A very shy and cautious bird, inhabiting the swamps near the sea- 
coast. I have at dilferent times waited for hours for a shot -at it in the 
deep mangroves, which it loves to frequent." 


38. Platalea ajaja (Linn.). 

" A very rare migrant, said to have been seen here." 


39. Columba corensis, Gm. 

"Length, S, 16 in.; alar extent, 26.} ; wing, 9. 

" I arrived at the Grand Etang, the lake in the mountains, about noon ; 
within an hour, the only man livuig there started with me around the 
lake. After walking half an hour or so, we reached comi)aratively open 
woods, the trees thick and very high. We heard a pigeon coo, and 
after some time found him perched on the topmost branch of a tall 
'figuer' tree, so high up that I at first mistook him for a 'grive'. At 
the i-eport of my gun, he started wildly, flew a few yards upward, and 
then fell hurtling through the air, strikhig the ground with a thud. Hio 
crop was full of hard seeds, large as small bullets. They seem to be in 
these woods in good numbers." 

"They are now (March 12th) mating. In November, December, and 
January, they visit the islands off the coast in great numbers, and aie 
said even to extend their flight to Tobago, in which latter island they 
are not resident." 

40. Zenaida martinicana, Bp. 
"'Tourterelle.' Not plentiful. 

"Length, (?, 11} in.; alar extent, 18; wing, G^. 

"Length, 9, 11 in.; alar extent, 17; wing, G. 

"In the mangroves bordering the bay of 'Clarke's Court' estate, near 
the southern end of the island, I found this dove. It was near noon of a 
very hot day, as the manager and another friend accompanied me into 


the deep shade of the 'inang' (as it was called), where the iniid was half 
knee-deep, and stagnant pools crossed the surface. At that time the 
doves came in from the surrounding hills for the shade, and we did 
very well with them and the Ground Doves, as a dish of them at dinner 
amply testified. It is ahundant outside of these mangrove swamps; it 
prefers the vicinage of the sea-coast." 

41. Chameepeliapasserina (Liun.). 

" '■ Ground Dove.' Abundant ; resident. 

" Length, 3 , G^ in. ; alar extent, 10 ; wing, 3J. 

"Length, 9, Gi in.; alar extent, 9; wing, 3|. 

"Among all the dry hills about St. George's this little dove can be seen 
and heard. It frequents the pastures, the cane-fields, and, in the heat 
of the day, the mangroves for shade. Equally abundant on the east 

42. Geotrygon montana (Liun.). 

"I saw several of this species in the forest around the Grand Etang, 
and shot a fine female, which was unfortunately lost. Bj^ some strange 
mischance, I did not finally succeed in seeming any specimens. 

" They are exactly the same in size and coloring as those of Dominica 
and St. Vincent. I discovered two nests, each containing two eggs. 
They choose strange places for their nests, generally placing them upon 
some great parasite, attached to a small tree, 4-G feet from the ground. 
Upon a slight covering of leaves they lay two coffee-colored eggs ; the 
season for incubation is March and April." 


43. Gallinula galeata (Lie lit.). 
"Gallinide. Not common; resident. 
"Length, 9,14iin.; alar extent, 21; wing, 7." 

44. Porzana? 

45. Fulica ? 

" This was described as occurring in the volcanic lake near the north 
coast; also the preceding species." 


46. Charadrius virginicus, Borkh. 
"At time of migration." 


47. Tringoides macularius (Linn.). 
" Sandpiper. 

" Length, i , 7^ in. ; alar extent, 12^ ; wing, 4^. 


" Shot on tlie east coast ; frequents the coast and rivers in small num- 
bers and seems to be a resident." 

48. Numenius hudsonicus (Latli.)? 
''At time of migration." 

Fam. LARID^. 

49. Anous stolidus (Linn.). 

''The Koddy Tern." 

50. Sterna maxima, Bodd. 

" >S^. cayenensis.^'' 

51. sterna dougalli, Mont. 

52. Sterna fuliginosa, Gm. 

53. Larus atricilla, Linn. 

"This and the preceding four species of tern breed in the smaller of 
the Grenadines, principally upon the southern coast." 


54. Podiceps ? 

"Not seen by me, but described with sufficient accuracy to identify 
it as a PodicepsP 

"It was greatly my desire to visit the curious volcanic lake, near the 
northeastern coast, which is said to be well supplied with water-fowl. 
Strange as it may seem, in an island black with negroes, I could get no 
one to transport my necessary equipments, nor could I get a horse to 
carry me until too late for the purpose." 

" The Grenadines ! 

" Consist of small islets and rocks forming a chain between St. Vin- 
cent on the north and Grenada on the south. Unlike the other islands, 
they are not volcanic, have little elevation, no running streams, and are 
rather barren. 

" Bequia, Mustique, Cannouan, and Carriacou are the largest, and 
some portions of these' islands are cultivated. The inhabitants subsist 
principally upon fish. Some cotton is raised; also sugar. 

" From their conformation and from their barrenness it will be readily 
seen that the birds characteristic of the larger islands cannot be found 
here. The Ground Dove {Chammpelia passerina) and the Turtle Dove 
{Zeiiaida martinicana) are very abundant, as the low scrub, with which a 
great part of the islands are covered, aftbrd them protection and food, 
while the shallow water-holes give them the little necessary drmk. 


"The Blackbird {QuiscaUis lumi)iosiis) is very abundant. The Cuckoo 
manioc {Coccyzus minor) is also found here, as well as the Certhiola sp.?, 
the small Si)aiTOW [Fhonipara hicolor), the Mocking-bird {Mimus ffilvus), 
the Green Heron {Butondes virescens), and the Chicken Hawk [Buteo penn- 
sylrameus). In one of the islands, Union, the Cockrico {Ortalida ruji- 
cauda) has been successfully introduced, and some attemi^ts have been 
made with the American Quail {Ortyx Virginian us). Some of the islands 
are in private hands, and have been stocked ^^ith deer and goats, which, 
haviug become thoroughly wild, afford excellent hunting. 

" The sea birds frequent the small islands, and the outlying rocks of 
the larger, in mjTiads, where they breed. 

"The Little Crested Humming-bird of Grenada and St. Vincent is also 
found in the Grenadines." 

Ni:w Yoniv, December 10, 1878. 




Vanderbilt Univeesity, 
Nashville, Tenn., February 19, 1877. 
Prof. Spencer F. Baird : 

About the middle of July, 18G8, while on a visit to Mobile, Ala., I ac- 
companied a party of friends on a fishing excursion to Fish IJiver, a 
small stream on the eastern side of Mobile Bay, some 25 miles below 
the city. This river near its mouth widens out, formmg Berwicks Bay, 
a sheet of water about three miles wide by four in length. This Ber- 
wicks Bay is a favorite fishing- ground, being the resort, especially after 
a storm in the Gulf, of immense schools of mullet. A great variety of 
other fish, such as the croaker, trout, redfish, &c., abound in this bay. 

Captain Wemyss, who owned it large saw-mill on the bank of the 
river, and whose hospitality we were enjoying, kindly i)roposed to show 
us the different kinds of fish which frequent these Avaters, and to this 
end furnished a large seine and the necessary force to draw it. 

While examining the fish my attention was called to several cat, each 
about 10 inches in length, which seemed to have a wonderful develop- 
ment of the throat. On examination, the enlargement was found to bo 
caused by small catfish and eggs which were carried in the mouth. From 
the mouth of one I took out eleven small fish, each about .an inch in 
length, and from another eight or nine eggs the size of a small marble, 
the eyes of the embryonic cat showing distinctly through the thin mem- 
brane enveloping the egg. , 

On inquiry made of several old fishermen in the neighborhood, and of 
a large number elsewhere, I have tailed to find one who knew anything 


■whatever of tliis liabit of the catfisli. If the observation is new, and it 
deserves to be placed on record, you are at liberty to vise this in any 
way you may deem proper. 
Very respectfully, 

ii^. T. LUPTOK 


AT 8T. ]TflflCHAEl.'S, AILASKA. 


A single specimen of the species above named was collected June 29, 
1874, at St. Michael's, Alaska, by I\Ir. Lucien M. Turner, who sent it to 
the United States ]Srational Musemn. The species is now apparently for 
the first time recorded from the coast of Northwestern North America. 
The total length of the specimen is 145 millimetres (o|^ inches). It has 
been compared with an individual of the same species from Greenland 
(probably from the Danish Colonies, as it was presented to the Museum 
by the Danish Academy), and another from Halifax, Nova Scotia, where 
it was taken September 4, 1877, by the United States Fish Commission, 
at the mouth of the harbor, in 20 fathoms of water. In order to show 
at a glance how the St. Michael's specimen differs fi'om the other two, 
the proportions of the different parts of the bodj' of all the specimens to 
the total length without caudal are exhibited in tabular form. The 
average proportions of the three individuals are given in another table, 
and they may serve as a basis of a description of the species. From this 
average the si^ecimen from St. Michael's differs in the following par- 

1. The maxillary is longer. , 

2. The mandible is longer. 

3. The pectoral is longer. 

4. The ventral is inserted somewhat nearer the snout. 

In the number of anal rays, the Alaska specimen is intermediate be- 
tween the other two. The differences indicated fall Avithin the limits of 
individual variation, and in the absence of suflBcient material it is not 
practicable to separate tlic St. Michael's example from the other two, 
even as a variety. 

SticJucus pnnctatus is recorded from tlie coast of Greenland (Danish 
Colonies?), Newfoundland, Halifax, Nova Scotia, and St. Michael's, 


Tabic of Measurements. 

Carrent number of specimen. 

St. Michael'i 




Extreme length (without caudal) 

Length to end of middle caudal rays . 

Greatest height 

Height at veutrals 

Least height of tail 


Greatest length 

Greatest width 

Width of interorbital area 

Length of snout 

Length of upi)er jaw 

Length of mandible 

Distance from suout to centre of orbit; 

Diameter of orbit 


Distance from snout 

Length of base 


Distance from snout 

Length of base 

Caodal : 

Length of middle rays 


Distance from snout 


Ventral : 

Distance from snout 


Branchiostegals - 









t5>J in.) 

















lOOths of 













lOOths of 






Table of Proportions. 

Number of specimen 


Length of head in total length without caudal (times) 

Interorbital area in total length without caudal (times) 

Snout in total Icunth witliout caudal (times) 

Upper jaw iu tot;il lin^tli without caudal (times) 

Mandible iu total length without caudal (times) ' 

Distance of dorsal from snout in total length without caudal 


Base of dorsal in total length without caudal (times) 

Distance of anal fioni snout in total length without caudal (times) 

Base of anal in total length without caudal (times) 

Distance of pectoral from snout in total length without caudal 


Length of pectoral in total length without caudal (timcs> 

Distance of ventral from snout in total length without caudal 


Length of ventral in total length without caudal (times) 

Bi-anchiostegnls -. 

Dorsal rays 

Anal rays 

Caudal rays 

Pectoral rays 

Ventral rays 





15. 38 




12. 50 



4. 55 



12. 50 

. .10 


4. 65 

5. 55 








4. 55 







1.5. 38 



Length of head in total length without caudal (times) 4.62 

luterorbital area in total length without caudal (times) 43 

Snout in total length without caudal (times) 17 

Upper jaw in total length without caudal (times) 14. 05 

Mandible in total length Avithout caudal (times) - 11 

Distance of dorsal from snout in total length without caudal (times) 4. 73 

Base of dorsal in total length without caudal (times) 1. 26 

Distance of anal from snout in total length without caudal (times) 2. 17 

Base of anal in total length withoiit caudal (times) 1.84 

Distance of pectoral from snout in total length without caudal (times) 4. 51 , 

Length of pectoral in total length without caudal (times) 5. 95 

Distance of ventral from snout in total length without caudal (times) 4. 79 

Length of ventral in total length without caudal (times) 13. 74 

Branchiostegals VI 

Dorsal rays 48-50 

Anal rays 33-37 

Caudal rays 21-22 

Pectoral rays 15 

Ventral rays 3 

U. S. Natioxal Museum, Washington, December 4, 1878. 



By ^W, IS. DAJLL. 

The followiug report has been drawn up chiefly from material collected 
in Alaska from 1865 to 1874 inclusive, but includes references to the 
few Arctic or northern species which are not common to Alaskan waters. 

The northwest coast of America, which I have already stated I have 
reason to think is the original center of distribution for the group of Doeo- 
glossa, at least of the littoral forms, is unquestionably the richest field 
where these animals may be found. This is true not only in regard to 
the number of species, but also in regard to the number of peculiar and 
remarkable forms of genera and subgenera ; in one sense, the develoi^e- 
ment and specialization of the soft parts, even at the expense of the 
shelly envelope, is a test of relative rank in restricted groups. Hence 
it may not be erroneous to regard the gigantic Gryptocliiton as represent- 
ing the highest developement of the grouj), though belonging in the 
section of Irregular Chitons; especially as paleontological evidence 
shows part of the section of Regular Chitons to represent the Chitons of 
paleozoic times and embryonic structure. As was pointed out in my 
previous iJajier on the phylogeny of the Docoglossa, the embryonic 
types, represented by Lepeta and Cryptobrancliia among the Limpets, are 
represented on the N. W. coast by a larger number of species and by 
larger individuals than in any other region ; so the embryonic t;y7)es of 
Ghitonidcc in the same district are here to be found more largely repre- 


sented in species and by larger individual species than anywhere else in 
the world. That this is also true of other groups of Mollusca, such as 
the Fissurellidcc, TrocMdce, SaUoUdw, Buccinidce, and others, I hope here- 
after to be able to show conclusively. 

Since I have elsewhere* treated in considerable detail the Limpets of 
the northwest coast of America, I shall here present only a list of the 
species with such additional material as six years' study and collections 
have brought to hand, and reserve for the Chitons a more detailed ac- 
count. This is the more desirable, since this group has been very gen- 
•erally neglected, and even the most modern descriptions often fail to 
give those details by which a species can be assigned a place among its 
proper associates. 

Had the late Dr. Carpenter survived, the report on this groiip would 
have been delegated to his more able hands ; the material i)assed for a 
time into his possession, but his premature demise came to pass before 
anything except the identification of the already known species and 
some correspondence on the general subject had been accomj^lished. 
For sufficient reasons, it is not to be hoped that his materials for a mono- 
graph of the group, as a whole, will be published for some time, and I 
have therefore been authorized to use some extracts from his MSS. 
which have a direct bearing on the i^articular species here referred to. 
I have in all cases followed him in framing descriptions of species, and 
have quoted his original descriptions (giving due credit) where it was 
practicable. Eesearch into several undecided questions has resulted in 
decisions in several cases different from those he had anticipated ; but 
in which conclusions, from my intercourse with him, I have no doubt he 
would have eventually coincided, had he lived to follow out the investi- 
gations he began. 

The caution, in assigning values to the higher divisions of this singu- 
lar group, which was exercised by Dr. Carpenter, has been fully justified, 
and it does not seem that our knowledge of them is yet sufficiently com- 
plete to authorize definite conclusions. Examination of the radula, 
heretofore almost wholly neglected, emphasizes the necessity of con- 
tinued caution. The numerous characters presented by the insertion- 
plates, the characters of the girdle, branchiiie, sexual organs, develope- 
ment, radula, and the presence or absence of pores on the upper sur- 
face, are apparently interchangeable to a greater extent than would be 
supposed. In this sense they present a remarkably homogeneous group, 
lu spite of numerous important and peculiar features, their position, as 
a subdivision of the Gasteropotlous Mollusca, appears to me to be defi- 
nitely settled beyond any reasonable question. By very numerous 
charaaters, their continued association in the neighborhood of the Lim- 
pets as their nearest (if still somewhat distant) relatives appears to me 
to be assured, and requires only some knowledge of the embryology of 

*"0u the Limpets," &c., Am. Journ. of Coueliology, vi, pp. 228-282, pi. 14-17, April, 


Limpets to be placed on a definite footing. That any classification 
founded on single characters, or a small proportion of characters, may 
result unfavorably to this view, I am not prepared to deny ; but what- 
ever advantages such a method may present, it is not one which appears 
worthy of the name of philosophical treatment, or likely to endure as 
our knowledge becomes more definite and extended. 

It is not yet certain how far tlie indications of the dentition may be 
relied on in this group, as will presently be shown. Whether, as in the 
implacental mammalia, the teeth will prove an insecure basis for gener- 
alization beyond genera, or whether a classification b;ised upon them 
will present a more favorable aspect when a larger number of species 
have been examined, it is yet impossible to say. What is known pre- 
sents some anomalies to which the key is at present wanting. So far 
as investigation has proceeded, greater weight seems due to the charac- 
ter of the shelly plates than to any other single feature, and the tenta- 
tive classification of Dr. Carpenter is in this way justified. Any division 
of the group into families seems i)remature without more light. The 
genera and subgenera are, in most cases, reasonably sm'e on their founda- 
tions; but on an examination of the dentition, such as is contemplated by 
])r. Troschel, and is urgently needed, much will depend. But until this 
has been made very full and thorough, it is to be hoped that generic 
distinctions based on the teeth alone may be suspended, or at least left 
without names. 

A sketch of the outlines of Dr. Carpenter's classification will not be 
out of i)lace here, but is best preceded by an explanation of certain 
terms used in description. 

In all Chitons with exposed valves, the seven posterior valves are 
divided more or less jilainly by lines radiating from the apex to the 
opposite anterior edge. The sculpture of the posterior triangular areas 
{arece laterales) thus cut off" is almost uniformly like that of the whole 
anterior valve and the part behind the apex {mucro) of the posterior 
valve. The central or anterior triangles {arece centrales) are sculptured 
alike, but generally in a different pattern from the sides. The arew la- 
terales are usually raised a little above the rest. It is very rare that the 
bounding diagonal lines cannot be traced, and they usually correspond 
to the slit in the side-lamincc of insertion, which project into the zone or 
girdle, and are free from the peculiar porous superficial layer character- 
istic of the exposed test in the whole group of Chitons. This sui^er- 
ficial layer usually projects over the anterior and posterior laminae of 
insertion or teeth {denies) in the first and last valves, forming what Dr. 
Carpenter terms the ' eaves' {suhgrundw). These may exhibit the spongy 
character of the layer of which they are formed, or may be varnished 
over at their edges with a thin layer of true shelly matter, as in the 
Ischnoid group. In the t;sTical Chitons they are short, lea\iug the 
teeth projecting; in the Mopaloids they are hardly developed, and in 
some groups they quite overshadow the teeth. 


In many genera there is a small portion of peculiar scnlptiire marked 
off along the ridge of the median line of the back. This is the area 
jugali, and corresponds to the simis or space between the inner termina- 
tions of the two anterior sutural lamimc which pass forward from each 
of the posterior seven valves under the valve in front. The sutural 
laminae are also destitute of the porous layer. The sinus is either open, 

A. B. 

Fig. a. — Chiton olivaceus Sowerby. A, anterior, B, middle, and C, posterior valve, 
seen from outside; D, E, F, the same valves, from within; g, sinus jiigali, between 
the two anterior sutural lamin* ; 1i, h, denies, or teeth between the notches or slits in 
the laminaj of ins:^rtion; j, &, slits in lamina of insertion; I, outer end of line separa- 
ting the area lateralis of the middle valve from the area centralis ; m, end of the line 
separating the central area of the tail-plate from the posterior portion ; the angulation 
of this line in the median line of the animal forms the mucro. 

Fig. B. — Enoplochifon niger Barnes. — A, anterior valve from above, showing the lam- 
inae of insertion and notches; B, the middle valve, from above ; g, sinmjiigaH, in front 
of the jugum, or area jugali, and between the two sutui-al lamimc; i, I, notches between 
the sutural and iusertional laminie, and formiug the ends of the line forming the an- 
terior border of the lateral and posterior border of the central areas; C, tail-plate; 
g, sinus jugali ; m, end of line separating the areas; D, anterior valve, from within, 
showing teeth (7i, h) and notches of lamina of insertion; E, middle valve, from 
within ; g, jugal sinus, between the sutm-al laminai ; t, notch, between sutural lamiuu 
and side-lamina of insertion. 

or part of the jugular area projects forward between the sutural lamintie, 
forming a false apex; or a keystone-like piece, either solid, or fimbriated 
like the teeth of a comb, may exist between the lamin?e and partly fill 
the sinus. The sinus posticus is the wave, notcli, or indentation which 
in some genera is found in the posterior edge of the posterior valve. In 


ROino of the Irregular Chitons, posterior sutural lamincc are found, but 
these are very exceptional. 

In the vast majority of genera, the side-laminse of insertion have only 
one slit on each side of the valve; occasionally a valve may be abnormal 
in a regular species, and the number of slits in the anterior and posterior 
valves may vary within moderate limits. 

The girdle {zona), which is distinct from the true mantle, is variously 
ornamented with scales, bristles, spines, down, or hau's, either singly or 
combined, which exhibit most beautiful forms tolerably constant in 
generic groups, and worthy of a special and exhaustive research.* These 
may be solid or hollow, shelly or keratose, single or combined in bunches, 
and in some forms are hollow and aunulated, precisely like the setse of 
Brachiopods. In certain genera they issue from pores, usually at the 
wutures, and these pores have a certain value as a systematic character, 
but much less than has been assigned to them by some authors. 

The Chitons in the adult condition are destitute of eyes or tentacles, 
and exhibit evidences of degradation anteriorly. The anus is always 
median and posterior; on each side of it are the sexual openings or 
fcnestrcc. These may open by several slits or pores directly into the 
perivisceral cavity, or form the aperture of a sexual duct. The gills, as 
pointed out by me in 1871, are composed of a row of branchiie, starting 
froln near the tail, extending a third {])ostic(v), half {))icdiw), or all the 
way (amhientes) toward the head, each leaflet of which corresponds to a 
whole branchial plume, such as is found in Acmcva. Each single gill is 
conical, with the lamellaj projecting inward, somewhat resembling in 
outline the shell of Carinaria. The mantle, inside the coriaceous mar- 
gin of the girdle, often forms a lamina or fringe. A lappet called the 
' veil' generally surrounds the front of the rostrum, which has some- 
times a double veil. The muzzle is semicircular, usually plain, and ex- 
hibits a tendency to form a lobe at the two posterior corners. The 
radula is always present. Like the Limpets, Chitons possess a lami- 
nated crop before the true stomach. The nervous system, beautifully 
worked out by Brandt t in a jiaper singularly overlooked by most writ- 
ers, is also comparable with that of Patella vulgata (simultaneously 
examined and flgiired), though by no means identical. The cephalic 
ganglia appear to be suppressed, forming another evidence of the degen- 
eration or want of developement of the cephalic region in this gToup. 
A valuable paper by Dr. II. von Ihering of Erlangen, I have not yet 
had access to, but understand that it contains a description of the ner- 
vous system of Chitons. | 

*Cf. Reiucke, Beitr. zur Bilduiigsges. der Stacbelu, ii. s. w.; Zeitschr. fiir Wiss. 
Zool. 1858. 

tSt. Petersb. Imp. Acad. Soi. M61anges Biolog. vii, p. 14G, f. 2, 1838, Acanthochiton 

t Siuce this paper was written, I have been kindly furnislied by Dr. v. Ihering with 
copies of his extremely impox'taut work on the ''Anatomy of the Nervons System and 
the Phylogeny of the Mollnsca," and two valuable papers concerning the Chitonldce 


Since (inferences exist between the results obtained, in working- out 
the nervous system of Chiton, by different naturalists, it is thought best 

(from Gcgeub. Morijh. Zeitsclir. iv, April, 1877), and tlieir alli(>s. lu the 
tiouecl work, the author comes to somewhat different conchisious from Brandt in regard 
to the details of the nervous system, both in Chiton (cinercus) and FatcUa vulgata, 
though the differences are not so fundamental as a Urst glance at the somewhat dia- 
grammatic figures might suggest. In the "Anatomy " the author considers as a sep;.- 
rate phylum {Amjjhineura) the Chitons, together with Xeomenia {Solenojjus Sars) and 
Chcetcderma, placing them uuder Vermes, Avhile the Docoglossa and most of the Proso- 
branchiate MoUusks form the third phylum {Arthrocochlides Ihr.) of the Mollusca. 
In the later paper on Neomenia, «&c., Iherlng seems disposed to concede a more intimate 
relation between the Fissurellidce and Limpets on the one hand and the Chitonida' ou 
the other. His figures would indicate a more near relation between Fissurella and 
Chiton than between the latter and Patella, so far as the nervous system goes. IL 
must bo borne in mind, while considering his difl'erences with Brandt in regard to 
Chiton, that the species examined by Ihering, Traclujdermon cincreiis Lowe, is one of 
the lower forms of Chitonida;, closely related to the lowest existing genus, Lcptocliiton ; 
while that dissocted by Brandt belongs to the higher of the two great groups^ of Fohj- 
placiphora. It would be natural, therefore, that the nervous system of the former 
should more nearly resemble the wormlike forms from which, the Chitons may have 
come out. and that the latter should be closer to the Limpets, which, though less 
specialized, I can hardly doubt sprang from the same original stock. It is also within 
the bounds of probability that in the details of the nervous system, as in all other 
details, the characteristic variability (within certain limits) of the group of Chiionidw 
may assert itself. . 

I caimot refrain from expressing, here, my conviction that there are at least two 
points of view from which the classification of these invertebrates may be regarded in 
a scientific sense. The army of embryologists, to whom, in these later days, we owe 
so much new light, with the enthusiastic self-confidence born of successful innova- 
tions, as a general rule deny the existence of more than one scientific point of view. 
More than one of them has dogmatically asserted that science iu natural history now 
consists iu the study of embryology alone, and phylogenetic classifications deduced 
therefrom. It has been said that careful and minute anatomical investigations and 
histological researches based upon adult animals no longer deserve the name of sci- 
ence. It has even been averred that the only object of classification now is the rep- 
resentation in words of phylogenetic diagrams, or the derivative relations of animals 
according to the particular author's hypotheses. It is therefore somewhat refreshing 
to find tliat a school of naturalists is gradually forming, for whom anatomy as com- 
pared with pun* embryology has still some attractions. 

No one denies that a classification may be grounded exclusively upon the emliry- 
onic developement, and may possess a high scientific charactei-, nor that among the 
higher animals such a basis must form a i^rincipal part of the foundation of any scien- 
tific classification which, may be applied to them. 

But wliat seems to be lost sight of by some of those who have escaped from the 
liouds of the Cuvierian system, is the fact that some of the derivatives from two par- 
allel stocks may resemble one another more closely than specialized forms derived 
from the same stock ; that in the early stages of the developement of organisms before 
well-defined lines of .specialization for the adults had been fixed by natural selection 
and other factors, variations were necessarily rather the rule than the exception 
among the embryonic forms, even when of common origin ; that the missing stages, 
" abridged developement," etc., reported by most later embryologists, are, in all prob- 
ability, the traces of the original vacillations and accelerations of primal evolution, 
and that n truly idiilosophical classification must take these things into account. 

It must not be forgotten that we have to deal with results as well as methods, with 


to reproduce here the accessible material, aud wait for more iuformatiou 
before considering the subject as fully decided. 

The figure here given, after Brandt's researches on AcanthocJiiton fas- 
cicularis, may be supposed to present the general features of the nervous 
system in the higher members of the group. 

The accompanying figure (C^) of part of the nervous system of Chiton 

Tt aLcVLvj dexrwoxv 
cxn-fcxeu s 

Fig. C. — PBC, pedo-braucliial commissure ; NB, nervi brancliiales ; XP, nervi pedales ; 
nl, nervi labialea, small filaments numerous and hardly traceable; ns, nervi pharyng. 
superiores; (jpv, ganglia pedo-visceralia sen pedo-brancbialia; iapc, inter-anterio- 
pliaryng. commissure ; ijypc, inter-]3edo-pharyngial commissure ; Ajyp, anterior interior 
pliaryngial ganglia; aijyc, anterior inferior iiharjTigial commissure; j^Wj posterior 
ditto; (/r, ganglia vascularia, resting on hv, a blood-vessel (the small commissure sep- 
arating these ganglia is called by Brandt the intcrvascular commissure); sj), anterior 
superior pliaryngial ganglia ; Psjy, posterior superior pharyngial ganglia ; x, superior 
posterior post-pharyngial ganglion ; z, anterior superior i^haryugial commissure ; Isp, 
inter superior pharyngial commissure ; oo, anterior inferior pharyngial nerves ; p]), 
posterior ditto. 

termini as well as routes, with adults rather than embryos. We do not live in a world 
of embryos alone, in any but the most metaphysical sense. We cannot learn the rela- 
tions of animals, as they are, to each other from the embryological phylum alone, any 
more than we could understand the nations of modern Europe and their political 
boundaries from a map of the Aryan migrations. 

To apply this reasoning to the matter in hand in detail would reqiiire much more 
space and time than are at present available. Yet it may be said that we have high 
authority for considering that the mollnsks and worms are derived fi'om a common 
origin, and that, in fact, the former derive their characteristic features from the ten- 
dency to specialization and developement within the compass of a single segment, or a 
very small number of segments, while the worms ai'c characterized rather by redupli- 
cation of more simple segmental parts in great numb^r, but small variety among them- 
selves. Various groups of mollusks may owe their greater or less i>articipation in fea- 



{Trachydermon) cinereus is from Iliering. It will be seen tliat there are 
eomparatively few importaut differences between the two; the pedal 
commissures {npc); the separation of the ganglia 42^2^ fi'om close con- 
nection with the anterior (/«^f) and posterior {pipe) loops; the larger 
and more conspicuous buccal ganglia {8p) and the less complete coales- 
cence of the strands forming the pedo-branchial commissure (PBC) are 
the most conspicuous features. Further research is required to deter- 
mine how much of these differences is due to the diagrammatic character 
of the figures, and how much to the systematic difference between Tra- 
chydermon and Acanthochiton. 

The nervous system of Acantliochiton fascieularis chiefly consist's of 
two large angular gangha bound together by a large flat commissure. 
These two principal gangha, which lie on the sides of the buccal mass, 
may be taken as a consolidation of the ganglia pedalia and the (janglia 
hranchialia sen visceraUa ; thence springs out a nervus pedalis, which 
supplies the foot and muscles with minute rami on each side of the 
nerve; also a nervus hranchialis, which i)asses along a furrow on the 
inner edge of the mantle, giving out secondary rami to the branchiii'. 
The cerebral ganglia, are wanting, unless we consider with Middendorf 
that they form i)art of the pedo-branchial commissure. Brandt objects 
to this view on the ground that the commissure throughout its whole 
breadth is similarly formed and gives out similar nerves; namely, ncrvi 
lahiales from in front, and a multitude of minute nerves to the pharynx 
behind. As Chitons have in the adult condition neither eyes nor tenta- 
cles, so the absence of these ganglia (from which in othpr forms nerves 
are given out to those two organs only) seems very natural. This com- 
missure may also be called tlie pedo-branchialis, and it may correspond 
with the commissura cerebralis, from which similar nerves have been 
demonstrated to spring. This commissure also presents resemblances 
to the nerves and gangha of the stomato-gastric system, common to 
many gasteropods, m its intense yellow color. A commissure binds each 
pedo-branchial ganglion with a little inferior pharyngial ganglion, and 
the same also connects these inferior i)haryngial ganglia with one 
another by an inferior interpharyngial commissure (as in Patella vidgata, 

lures, generally more characteristic of Annulosa, from the difterent times ut ■which 
they started from the common stock on an independent career of specialization. 

All this in no wise authorizes the combination in one group of worm-like mollusks 
and molluscoid worms. The Avriter has persistently oi)j)osed such ill-considered con- 
glomerations as wholly unphilosophical.. Even were there embry(dogical identity, 
which no one has claimed, such a course seems to him to indicate an ignorance of the 
meaning of terms in systematic nomenclature, or the confounding of the two starting 
points for classification, to which allusion has been made. He will even venture to 
predict that when the anatomy and developement of two hundred, instead of two, 
species of Chitons and Limpets, are worked out, a single phylum will express tlunv 
relations to the worms, to each other, and to the other true gasteropods ; and to assert 
that, in his opinion, nothing is so likely to conduce to this simiilification than th(^ 
continuation and amiditication of the really admirable work upon which Dr. v. Ihering 
and others have of late been engaged. 


ill which also it is bow-shaped, with the concavity forward), and through 
still another commissure with the two upper pharyngial ganglia. 

From each inferior i)haryngicil ganglion, a long, thin conmiissure ex- 
tends, binding it with a large subovate ganghon, which maj' be called 
the posterior inferior pharyngial ganglion; and the others must then 
take the name of the anterior inferior pharyngial ganglia. The two 
former are connected by a little arched commissure, and lie behind the 
aorta. From the anterior inferior pharyngial ganglia three pairs of 
nerves proceed before and one behind the buccal muscle. The anterior 
superior pharyngial ganglia are connected by five commissures with 
each other and other ganglia. From the superior anterior pharyngial 
•ranglia proceed two small nerves for the u^jper buccal muscles. The 
posterior superior pharyngial ganglion sends out a small nerve to the 
upper lateral buccal muscle, and from the superior posterior post- 
l)haryngial two small nerves are traceable to the radula. 

Circulation. — Oiu" knowledge of this is due to Middendorf, to whose 
ponderous and not very satisfactory monograph of Cryptochiton BtelLcH 
the student is referred. More light is needed on this subject. 

Sexual Organs. — The Chitonidcu are of two sexes, wherever they have 
been examined by the writer, and the number of forms which has passed 
under review is so large that there can be no doubt this is the rule 
throughout the group.* The histological characters of the male and 
I'emale gland resemble those of the Limpets, at least in general appear- 
ance. The most superficial obser\'er can separate the sexes when the 
characters have once been called to his notice. It is true that Midden- 
dorf found, or believed he found, spermatozoa in the ovisac of Chiton 
{Synijuetrogcphyrus) Pallasii, but this may be accounted for in another 
way; and I may say, definitely, that I have examined both males and 
females of that species. The glands of both sexes open on each side of 
the anus, in some species quite close to the latter, in others much further 
forward and in advance of the most i)osterior branchiae. The opening 
may be a simple i>ore or small aperture forming the termination of a 
sexual duct, or it may consist of what I have termed a fenestra, or 
elongated slit, crossed by several bands of tissue, so that there may 
seem to be from two to seven oblique slits, each extending partly behind 
the front end of the slit behind it. In these cases, I have not be&n able 
to determine the existence of a continuous oviduct, and am inclined to 
believe that the ova may pass from the oviduct into. the perivisceral 
cavity, and from thence, through the feuestrae, reach the exterior. 

The ovisac and spermsac slth more or less convoluted and asymme- 
trical. They are probably the result of fusion of two original glands in 
the median line, if, indeed, they are not partly separated in some spe- 
cies, as seemed in one or two instances to be the case. The ducts, when- 
carefully examined, are seen to spring from the anterior abdominal side 
of the sac, not from the posterior end. 

* Dr. V. Iheriiig arrives at the same conolusiou. 

Proc. Xat. Mus. 78 19 Feb. 13, 1879. 


Clark observed tlie egp:s being ejected in a sort of stream from the 
openings into the water and settling in loose clusters on adjacent objects. 
Yerrill and Carpenter have conlirmed these observations, and add that 
the hinder part of the foot is so raised as to form a sort of funnel, out of 
which the eggs emerge. But these eggs, in some cases at least, are 
already imi)regnated, and somevfhat far advanced in developement before 
they leave the oviduct. I have myself observed, in several individuals^ 
Avhich had been some years in spirit, eggs developed as far as the first 
utage figured (47fl), which had never left the ovisac. In this connection 
it may be observed that, if the sperma be ejected into the water, there 
is nothing to prevent the spermatozoids from entering the wide aper- 
tures of the fenestrne (in some species at least), and thus impregnating 
the eggs in the ovary. In this way may be explained the presence of 
spermatozoa in the female Chiton PaUasii noted by Middendorf. In 
some species with very small ovarian openings, this internal impregna 
tion would be attended with more difficulty. In some species, a large 
so-called ''slime gland" is present, lying under the middle line of the 
ovisac. Gray states that in some Chitoms the egg is enfolded in a thick, 
vesicular, folded envelope, but I did not notice anything of the kind in 
those I examined. I observed no microi)yle, but having only specimens 
hardened hj long immersion in spirits these observations cannot be 
deemed conclusive. In all the species specially examined to determine 
the character of the ova, the eggs were spherical, with a rather tough 
skin, quite smooth, with no trace of lime in it, and apparently in no 
way attached to the walls of the ovary when ripe.* 

BeveJopement. — "Nothing later than the brief but admirable researches 
of Loven, now thirty years old, has come to hand. His figures are here 
reproduced, with a summary of what has been observed, to stimulate 
further enquiry in tliose favorably situated. 

The Chitons difier from most Mollusks in that the shell does not appear 
on the embryo until some time after they are hatched. In this connec- 
tion, the observations of Krohn on MarsenUdw may be referred to. 

The embryo of Chiton dnercus is oval, with no trace of shelly valves 
Ot deiu'essions for them, and is divided into two nearly equal parts by a 
transverse depression, the margins of which are ciliated. On the middle 
of the up])er part is a tuft of filaments which move slightly. At each 
end of the depression are two dark points, representing the eyes. 

The yonng when hatched (Fig. 47 h, c) become more elongated, tlie 
iront part is finely ciliated, aiul the tuft occasionally vibrates. The 
hinder part extends more rapidly and becomes conic. The back is 
marked by seven furrows ; between these the first rudiments of the shelly 

* Dr. V. Iheriiig describes the egg of C. squamosus as covered ^vitll peculiar thorns, 
five-eided solid cohimns, expanding at tlie distal end into a cnp whose edge is cut into 
five iioiuts. C. Cajctamta and fnscicularls had eggs (tovered with a grooved and irregu- 
larly furrowed niembrane, as described by Gray, but without thorns. The vesicular 
membrane thus may be considered as a chorion. In tho immature stages, the eggs are 
enclosed in follicles of the tissues of tho ovisac. 


valves make their appearance in the form of fine .2:rannlations, Soon 
after tliis, the animal can cra\yl as well as swim, and the mantle becomes 
sei^arated from the foot by an indentation. The eyes are placed on the 
ventral side, and hardly visible from above. The upper anterior part of 
the animal is marked with acute tubercles. The month is not yet visible. 
The valves first aj)pear in the form of seven narrow bands with irregular 
margins; the tuft disajipears. The head and mouth then develoi)e 
(Fig. 47 e). The eyes are on distinct lateral protuberances. No gills 
have ai>peared. The mantle and front valve advance over the head 
(Fig. -47 /) and eyes; the tuberculated area in front of the valves is 
gradually diminished, and the tail-i)late apjiears behind the seventh. 
Tlie valves are at first irregular, but increase from below, and deep 
notches, persistent in the adult, are formed on the front edges, one on 
each side. It will be seen that the valves are formed each in one i)iece, 
and not by the coalescence of parts corresponding to the various areas 
of the adult valve. There are eight valves in all Chitons, though mon- 
sters with seven valves have been occasionally reported ; they lack the 
horny jaw possessed by Limpets. 

Bemd Organs. — Middendorf indicated the existence of a renal organ 
in the delicate glandular structure which in some species covers the up- 
per posterior surface of the foot below the viscera. This does not seem 
to be uniformly present; at least, I did not detect it in some cases, and I 
failed to find any excretory opening. It is probable that this exists, but 
tlie contraction of the tissues of my specimens by alcohol may liave 
obliterated it.* Schitf in C. piceus did not detect any renal organ, anil 
unless in an abortive condition it seems j)robable that it is not always 

Dentition. — The dentition of the Chitons has received hardly any at- 
tention. The only figures which have been given, so far as known to 
me, are those of ('. kvriti and C ei)tcreuH by Lovent in his original i)apei', 
■the latter of which has been copied by Gray;| a figure, intended to rep- 
resent the radula of C. Stellcri, by Middendorf; § of 0. piceus by Schiff;i| 
of "0. marmoratus''^ by Eberhard;<|| and a figure of Chitonellus sp. by 
Gray. I Of all these only the figure of Loven possesses any value, the 
others being more or less erroneous, or conveying an erroneous imi)reH- 
sion. Even the number of teeth is not correctly represented by any 
one but Loven. On the basis of the teeth, the Chitons were combined 
with the Dentalia and Limpets in the order Docofflossa by Troschel, a 
proceeding justified by that single character; for the characteristics of 

* Dr. V. Ihering has succeeded in fiudhig an oriUce immediately below the anus, in 
some species. 

tOfv. K. V. Akad. Forh. June 9, 1847, t. 6. 

t Guide to Brit. Mus. 1857, pp. 182, 187. 

^ Bcitr. Mai. Ross, i, pi. iii, f. 11, 1847. ^ 

II Zeitschr. Wiss. Zool. ix, pi. ii, Beitr. zur Anat. v. Chiton picciis. 

^Programm Herz. Eealschule zu Coi)urg, 1865, f. 77. (Since the above was written, 
Prof. Sars has figured the dentition of several species. ) 


the teetli in composition and general form (though not in nuiaber) are 
somewhat similar to one another and differ from all other groups much 
more than they differ among themselves. But other characters of 
greater importance seem to turn the scale unequivocally in favor of a 
somewhat wide separation of these groups, and the term Docoglossa was 
adopted by the writer some years since for the order containing the 
Limpets alone. 

The teeth agree in number antl in general character in all the genera 
and subgenera of Chitons which I have been able to examine; compris- 
ing about half of the groups recognized by the late Dr. Carpenter. No 
large groui) of genera or subgenera remains of which some form has not 
been studied. Hence we may reasonably infer, until the contrary is 
proved, that all the genera agree in the most essential characters of the 
dentition. Some doubt exists in my own mind as to the proper distri- 
bution of the eight side-teeth into true laterals and uncinals, since the 
fifth from the centre is constantly spatulate, yet separated from the 
cuspid teeth by two boss-like or non-cuspidate teeth resemblhig uncini. 
The formula therefore may be read either as 

1 11 


3_l_l_|_2 + 2x2 + 2+l + 3' 3 + 5x5 + 3'" c+2x2 + (3' 
The most natural division is into six uncinal and two true laterals. 
For convenience in description, I shall term the spatulate third uncinus 
the major uncinus^ the second lateral the major, and the first the minor 
lateral. The "inner" side of a tooth is that toward the middle line of 
the radula. In all Chitons examined, there is a simply cuspid rhachidian 
tooth, and on each side a translucent minor lateral of varying form ; a 
major lateral larger than any of the other teeth with a conspicuous black 
cusp, which may have from one to four denticles ; two boss-like or thick- 
ened uncinal plates of irregular shape; a twisted spatulate uncinal and 
three scale-like or slightly thickened external uncini. AVith the excep- 
tion of the spatulate uncinus (which is abortive in a very few species), 
none of the uncini are much raised above the i^lane of the odontophore, 
and none i^resent any characters of importance. The characters of the 
other teeth, though preserving a tolerable uniformity within the partic- 
ular subgenera, so far as observed are rather variable within a certain 
narrow range, and on the whole it would be premature to say that they 
offer more than specific distinctions. 

The absence of any well-marked types by which the order might bo 
divided into families, or even subfamilies, is very remarkable, and in 
this respect the variations of the dentition agree with the other charac- 
ters of shell-plates, girdle, and internal structure. This has already been 
remarked as regards the girdle and shell by Dr. Carpenter, Avho recog- 
nized that even his chief divisions of the order into Eegular and Irreg- 
ular Chitons failed to posssess distinct family value. 

The only other dental fonnula which recalls in any degree that of Chi- 
tonidiu is that of IViopa. lacer as figured by Gray in his Guide. 


The teeth of the Chitons are excessively difficult objects to make ont, 
though some of the species are quite large. The teeth project strongly 
from the odontophore, so that only a small ijortion of any one tooth can 
be had in focus at one time. Moreover, they overlie one another to such 
an extent that part of them, especially the two inner uncini, are hidden 
from view. The radula has to be pulled to pieces, to get at tlie form of 
the individual teeth. They will, like the teeth of Limi^ets, disintegrate 
under i)rolonged boiling in liquor potassce^ so that it is difldcult to clean 
the radula from adherent mucus or remains of food. The teeth on the 
anterior edge of the radula are always worn or broken by usej those at 
its x^osterior termination are of course immature and pulpy ; the scaly 
uncini ditfer slightly in form with age. The rhachidian tooth is usually 
more or less embraced by the wings of the minor laterals, so that it aiJ- 
pears as if set on a plate or in an open box, and must be disentangled 
before its form can be made out. 

In these descriptions, the front of a tooth is taken to be the side oi)po- 
site to that by which it is attached to the radula. The figures of denti- 
tion do not x)retend to represent the transverse rows as they appear on 
the unbroken radula. On the contrary, the teeth are represented dia- 
graumiatically as they would appear if separated from one another, yet, 
as nearly as i)racticable, in their relative positions. Only in this way 
could any idea be given of their forms and number. A series of exquisite 
drawings, made by one of the best zookigical draughtsmen living, for JDr. 
Carpenter, nearly led me into serious error, and have been totally re- 
jected, because they represented only what could be seen without dis- 
membering the radula. The diagrams given, if somewhat rude, are, it 
is believed, tolerably reliable, and the result of a surprising amount of 
work, considermg then- small number. 

The rhachidian tooth, as has been stated, always has a simi)le cusp, 
which may possess a somewhat sinuous edge or a tendency to a median 
sinus. The i^oiuts by w^hich it is attached to the odontophore are darker 
than the rest, and, seen through the translucent shaft, modify its appear- 
ance. A. side view of the tooth generally presents an S shape, and it 
usually projects from the surface of the radula in a consiucuous manner. 
Tlie shaft and base have not been observed to present any ornamentation. 

The minor laterals ju'esent many modifications of form which may be 
referred to one type fundamentally. They consist of two parts, a shaft, 
and wings bearing the same relation to the shaft that the sides of a leaf 
do to its midrib. One or both of the wings may be almost abortive, 
leaving only the shaft twisted into a cusp at its apex, or the edges of 
the wings may be bent over into a cusp at the top of the tooth, and a 
small i^rocess like a bud or button is thus sometimes formed on the outer 
upper angle of the tooth. The most common form is that where the teeth 
are somewhat leaf-shaped, with both wings i^artly developed. The outer 
wing aborts before the inner one. These wings meet the midrib at an 
angle with each other, and this au^i^le is sometimes less than a right angle. 


Usually, the two inner wings nearly meet one another behind the ihachi- 
dian tooth, while the two outer ones extend toward each other before the 
rhachidian tooth. In the unbroken radula, the rhachidian teeth each 
seem as if enclosed or fenced in by this arrangement of the two adjacent 

The major laterals show fewer modifications. They are always the 
largest and most prominent teeth on the radula. They consist of a 
recumbent shaft, which is partly hollow or excavated behind, crowned 
by a cusp whose opaque consistently contrasts strongly with the brown 
translucent shaft and other teeth. This cusp is usually black, or yellow- 
ish with a black margin. In some species, a pecuUar areolated spot is 
visible on the margin, and this may exist in some species in which I have 
not figured it, as it is difficult to observe except with a very strong re- 
flected Ught. It does not appear to mark a pore or indentation, but from 
its constant occurrence in some species must have a certain significance. 

The cusp may be rounded, or ovate, or elongated and simple, or it may 
be divided into two, three, or four denticles of uniform or varying size- 
The value of these characters cannot yet be definitely stated ; they can 
hardly yet be said to present more than specific value, so far as the num- 
ber of cusps is concerned, yet the general featuies agree, for the most 
I)art, in the same or nearly related groups. 

In Lcptochitonj the cusp is greatly elongated, with a small secondary 
denticle on the inner side, which is abruptly turned up, and, on an ordinary 
view, resembles a spur or thorn set on the principal cusp. In general, 
the northern species show a tcmdency to elongated cusps, simple or 
divided ; the tropical species, including the typical Chitons, a tendency 
to a rounded, simple cusp. The majority of aU species, however, have 
a tridentate cusp. 

The shaft and cusp are separated by a distinct line of demarcation 
where the color changes from black or opaque to translucent. The shaft 
talkers from the cusp to the lower extremity, which is usually a little 
expanded. Extending downward from the base of the cusp, the groove 
or tube in the back part of the shaft is clearly visible. There are thin 
expansions of the shaft on each side, and sometimes a median keel on 
the front of the shaft, which in several species is produced into a slender, 
translucent process, of lanceolate or varied form, extended somewhat 
inAvard (toward the rhachidian tooth) and upward toward the cusp of the 
tooth upon whose shaft it is borne. These processes are most strongly 
marked in the teeth of the typical Chitons. 

The two inner uuciiii, between the major lateral and the spatidate or 
major uncinus, are very UTegiilar in form, even on the same nidahi. 
They lie prone on the radula and possess no true cusps, though thickened 
and elevated into knobs of various form. The major uncinus rises from 
a very small base, which is twisted and bent under it (as if the tooth 
was kneeling), and has a twisted, slender shaft, which is expanded at 
its extremity into a spatulate or feather-formed cusp. The whole tooth 


is so twisted and bent that the distal ends of the major uncini, as a rule, 
are protruded between the cusps of the major hiterals. In a very few 
species, chiefly of Cryptoidea, the shaft and cusp are abortive, leaving 
only the small base or knob from which they spring in other species. 
No very salient characters are afforded by the major uncini. 

The outer uncini have essentially the same characters in nearly all 
the species. They are flat and scale-like, their edges free and overlap- 
ping slightly. The outer ones forming the edge of the radula are usually 
more transverse than the others. In C. articulatus, they are remarkably 
transverselj" extended. 

It will be seen from this description that, except in their construction 
and chemical character, the teeth of Chitons are quite dissimilar to those 
of Limpets, or, indeed, any other described group. 

While not aftbrding grounds for generic distinction by itself alone, 
the dentition of Chitons, as far as yet investigated, confirms, in many 
respects, the classification adopted on other grounds by Dr. Carpenter. 
For instance, his separation of the northern Toniccllw from the tropical 
Tonicicv of Gray, with which they have usually been united, is fully 
justified by differences in the dentition. It is i^ossible that when the 
dentition of the majority of species is determined, some reformation in 
the limits of subordinate groups may be made i)racticable by its indica- 
tions, but this is not yet the case. 

The following list of the chief groups recognized by Dr. Carpenter, 
with the character of the dentition when known, will give a clue to the 
extent of the work done, and that which is still a desideratum. 



Leptochiton Gray. (Type L. asellus Lowe.) 

L. cancellatHS Sby. Minor lateral reduced by abortion of the wings nearly to a 
simple shaft. Cusp of major lateral elongate bidentato; inner denticle much tho 
smallest, spur-like; shaft simple; other teeth quite simple. Fig. 1, 1 a, showing 
major lateral from above. X. rugatus agrees. 

Hanleyia Gray. (Type H. dchilis Gray.) 

M. mcndicaria M. & Ad. Minor lateral normal, bi-alate ; major lateral tridon- 
tate; major uncinus short, other uncini with thickened edges. Fig. 2. 
DesJiayesiella, Microjplax, and Hemiarthrtim not examined. 


Traphydermon Cpr. (Tyjie T. cinereus Lowe.) 

T. ruber Lowe. Minor lateral normal, leaf-shaped, with the upper edge of tho 
outer wing bent over into a sort of cusp ; cusp of major lateral with one large and 
one small denticle on the inner side, shaft normal; major uncinus short, v.Mth a 
widely expanded apex with fine radiating grooves on the edge. Fig. 3; 3 a showb 
the major uncinus from below. 

T. alhiis L. Minor lateral with small wings bent backward ; shaft cusped at tho 
toj); major lateral bidentate, as in the case of T. ruber, but with the small denticle 
on the outer side; major nncinus long, spatulate. Fig. 4. 

Trachifradsia, Callochiton, and Stereochiton not examined. 


Tonicella Carpenter. (Type T. marmorea Fabr.) 

'' T. Uneaia Wood. Minor lateral witli a loug shaft, bi-alate, normal ; major lateral 
with two small denticles on the inner side of the cusp and one large outer denticle, 
shaft normal; major uncinus spatulate, normal. Fig. 5. 

T. marmorea Fabr. As in the last, but with only one small inner denticle on tho 
cusp of the major lateral. Fig. 6. 

T. submarmorea Midd. Minor lateral shaped like a jdoughshare ; other teeth much 
as in the last. Fig. 7. 

Schizoplax Dall. 

S. Brandtii Midd. (Type.) Minor lateral a broad shaft with a simple cusp, base 
with a groove or sinus, no wings; major lateral tridcntate. Fig. 8. 
Leptoplax not examined. 

Chaetopleura Shuttleworth. (Type C. Peruviana Lam.) 

C. (jemmaC\>v. Ehachidiau tooth broad and short; minor lateral normal, outer 
wing inconspicuous; major lateral tridentate, shaft keeled, keel with a small elon- 
gate cuspidate process. Fig. 9. 

? C. Hartmegii Cpr. Minor lateral reduced to a broad cusped shaft with a remnant 
of an inner wing and a thickened base; major lateral tridentate, with no keel or pro- 
cess, shaft normal. Fig. 10. 

Maugerella Cpr. 

M. conspicua Cpr. (Type. ) Minor lateral bi-alafce, top of inner wing and shaft bent 
into a twisted cusp Avith a small process extending outward from the apex of the 
shaft; major lateral tridentate, shaft with a keel and cuspidate process. Fig. 11. 

Spongiochiton not examined. 

Hcterozona not examined. 
Stenoradsia Cpr. 

S. magdalenensis JlmAs,. (Type.) Shaft of minor lateral with a cusp and process, 
inner wing normal, outer wing inconspicuous; major lateral tridentate, with a keel 
and cuspidate process on the front of the shaft. Fig. 12. 

Stenoplax Cpr. 

S. limaciformis Shj. (Type.) Rhachidian tooth very small ; minor lateral normal, 
shaft with a minute hook at the apex; major lateral with a simple cusp, shaft bear- 
ing a keel and cuspidate process; major uncinus very small. Fig. 13. 

IschnopIa:s Cpr. 

/. 2)C(:tiitatu>i Sl>y. (Ty^ie.) Minor lateral with broad, stout, cusped shaft, inner 
wing expanded, outer wing reduced to a rudiment, with a liuguiform process; major 
lateral with a simple rounded cusp, shaft with a triangular keel but no i^rojecting 
jjrocess. Fig. 23. 

Ischnochiton Cpr. ex Gray. (Type /. Jomjicymlm Quoy.) 

/. cooperi Cpr. Minor lateral with the outer wing reduced to a button near the 
cusp of the shaft, inner wing small; major lateral with simple cusp, shaft Avith a 
keel, bearing a cuspidate process; major uncinus broad, spatulate, thicker near the 
edges. Fig. 1.5. 

/. inlerstinctus Gld. Minor lateral composed of a shaft with large, twisted, hooked 
cusp, and possessing only slight rudiments of wings; major lateral tridentate, keeled 
on tho shaft, with a si)atulate process on the keel; uncini rugose, major uncinus 
sharply bent, strengthened by narrow ridges on the spatulate cusp. Fig. 16. 

J. regularis Cpr. Teeth closely resembling those of I. Cooperi, but nunor lateral 
with a small outer wing. Fijj. 14. 


Ischnoradsia Cpr. nou Shuttleworth. 

/. trifida Cpr. Minor lateral witla no outer wing, but a small process near the 
apex of tlie shaft, which may represent it; inner wing normal; major lateral shaft 
normal, cusp bidentate, with a spot behind the notch (Fig. 17«); uuciui rugose, 
normal. Fig. 17. 

Lepidopleurus Cpr. nou Risso. 

L. MertcnsU JNIidd. Minor lateral with no outer wing; shaft cusped at apex, inner 
wing normal; major lateral with a simple cusp, shaft normal, deeply channelled 
behind. Fig. 18. Fig. IS a shows the appearance of the minor laterals and their 
wings extending behind the rhachidian tooth as they do when in their natural posi- 

Lepidoradsia Cpr. {Lopliyrus pars Adams.) 

X. australis Sby. Minor lateral with a singular mushroom-like cusp with rudi- 
ment of inner and no outer wing; major lateral bidentate, shaft keeled ^yith spatu- 
late process; major uncinus short, broad, other uncini rather small. Fig. 19. 

Callistochiton Cpr. 

C. palmulatus Cpr. Minor lateral with a narrow inner wing parallel with and no 
wider than the shaft, cusped at the top, outer wing absent or represented by a 
minute cuspidate process; major lateral with a simple cusp, shaft with an anterior 
keel bearing a sublauceolate process. Fig. 20. 

Callisloplax, Ceratophorus, and Newconihia not examined. 

Pallochiton Dall (= HempliUlia Cpr. MSS. nom. praeoc.). 

P. lanuginosus Cpr. Minor lateral normal, bi-alate; major lateral tridentate, shaft 
normal. Fig. "21. 


Chiton Cpr. Lin. not Adams. Type C. tuberculatus I>iu. (Lojihi/rus H. & A. Ad. not Poll). 

C. articulatm Sby. Minor lateral with no outer wing, shaft small, narrow, prone, 
from which extends the greatly elongated cusped inner wing external to the rha- 
chidian tooth ; major lateral with a simple rounded yellowish cusp with a black 
margin marked by a peculiar spot ; shaft normal, with an inner lateral expansion pro- 
duced into a linguiform process; major uncinus broad, long, spatulate; outer unci- 
nus transversely elongated. Fig. 22. Fig. 22a, side view of rhachidian tooth. 

C. Sfokesli Brod. Minor lateral with expanded inner wing, shaft cuspidate, cusp 
twisted and outer wing reduced to a portion of this cusp or absent; major lateral 
with an elongated simple cusp, shaft thick, strong, keeled in front, keel bearing a 
blade-sha|)e<l process attached to the keel at two points, with a small foramen between 
them; major uncinus short, broad, somewhat plume-shaped. Fig. 24. Fig. 24a, 
major uncinus, from lielow. 

C. Ciimingii Frembly. Minor lateral normal, with wings recurved above and on 
each side; major lateral with simple elongate cusp, shaft with a strong keel bent 
outward below and produced above into a strong spoon-shaped process ; two inner 
uncini nodulose ; major uncinus with a slender and rather straight shaft. Fig. 25. 

C. assirnUis Rve. Minor lateral; shaft with small or nearly abortive wings, base 
long and recurved ; major lateral with a simple rounded cusp, a keel on the shaft 
bearing a spattilate ]5rocess; major uncinus feather-shaped, the vane on the inner 
side. Fig. 2G. 

Tonicia Gray. 

T. elcgans Frembly. (Type.) Minor lateral leaf-shaped, normal, apex curved for- 
ward ; major lateral with an orange, black-edged, rounded, simule cusp with a spot 
on the margin, shaft normal ; major uncinus very much twisted and deciu'ved, 
spatulate. Fig. 27. 

Eadsia, Fanmjla, Eiidoxocliiton, and Crusptdochlion not examined. 



* Solerochiton, Francisia, Dinoplax, Daivsonia, Beania, and Arthuria not examined. 

Acanthopleura Cpr. ex Guilding. , 

A. spinigera Sby. (Type.) Minor lateral large, shaft long, cusped, wings long, 
narrow, linguiform; major lateral with a simi^le rounded cusp, shaft keeled, keel 
with a cuspidate jirocess; inner nncini nodulose; major unciuus short, broad, thick. 
Fig. 28. 

Lucia Gld. 

L. con/ossa Gld. (Type.) Minor lateral twisted, peculiar, outer wing broad, re- 
ciu'ved at tij), inner wing small, strengthened by a branch from the shaft (Fig. 29a) ; 
rhachidian- minute ; major lateral with a quadridcntate cusji, shaft with its inner 
expansion terminating in a cuspidate process above ; inner two unciui ridged ; major 
uncinus feather-shaped, vane on the inner edge (29 h). Fig. 29. 

Corephium Gray (not Brown). 

C. echinatum Sby. (Tyjie.) Minor lateral with the shaft expanded above, with a 
cusp confluent with the ujiper edge of the small inner wing, outer wing small ; 
major lateral with a rounded tridentate black-margined cusp bearing a spot on the 
middle denticle, shaft keeled in front, keel i)roduced into a thin linguiform jirocess; 
major uncinus asymmetrical, somewhat spoon-shaj)ed. Fig. 30. 

Nuttallina Cpr. 

K. scabra Eve. (Type.) Minor lateral normal, bi-alate; major lateral normal, 
with plain shaft and tridentate cusft; major uncinus long, slender, with small ex- 
pansion at the tip. Fig. 31. 

Phacellopleura Cpr. ex Guilding. 

P. porphyritica Eve. sp. unica. Minor lateral with an inner but no outer wing, 
otherwise normal; major lateral normal, with plain shaft and tridentate cusp; inner 
uncini nodulose ; major uncinus normal, 8]jatulate. Fig. 32. 



I have not been able to obtain the radula of any of the few species comprised in 
the genera Loriea, Aulacochiton, iSchizochiton, Enoplocldton, and Onithochitan. 

Placiphora Cpr. ex Gray. 

F. CarmichaeUs Gray (:= C. setif/er King and Fremhli/i Brod.). Type. Ehachidian 
tooth with its edges folded inward. Minor lateral with a large narrow inner wing, 
small outer wing, and a median keel on the slender shaft; major lateral with a large 
tridentate cusp, shaft slender, normal ; major unciuus with a small expansion at 
the tip. Fig. 33. 

Euplacipliora, Frembhjia {== Streptochiton Cpr.), and Guildingia not examined. 


Mop all a Cpr. ex Gray. t^ 

M. ciliata Sby. (Type, = mnscosa Gld. -f- Hindsii Gray.) Minor lateral normal, 

bi-alate ; major lateral normal, tridentate with a plain shaft ; inner two uncini 

ridged; major uncinus rather short, normal. Fig. 35, 35 a. 

M. Wossnessensldi Midd. {Kennerlyi Cpr.). Similar to the last with a longer major 

uncinus. Fig. 34, 

Placiphorella Cpr. 

F.velata Cpr. (Type.) Ehachidian very largo; minor lateral unusually small, 
both normal ; major lateral tridentate, normal. Fig. 3(5, 3G a. 


Katherina Gray. 

K. titnicata Wood. (Typo. ) Minor lateral tliin and coalescent witli tlio inner wi^ 
above, outer wing small ; major lateral normal, tridentato ; uncini ridged or knobby, 
except major uncinus, which is elongate and narrow. Fig. 37. 

Acanthochiton Herrm. ex Leach. (Type A. fascicularis Auct.) 

A. avicula Cpr. Minor lateral with the shaft branched at base, leaf-shaped ; major 
lateral with trideutate cusp ; shaft with triangular keel, of which the tip is bent 
outward ; major nncinus short, normal. Fig. 38. 

A. splculosns Rve. Minor lateral normal, bi-alate; major lateral and other teeth 
nuich as in the last. Fig. 39. 

Macaiidrellus Cpr. (Type M. coHiaius, Ad. «fc Ang.) 

M. costatusf Ad. & Angas. Like AcantliocUtoii avicula, but the shaft of the major 
lateral normal without a keel. Fig. 40. Specimen from Port Jackson, Australia. 
Stectojjlax and Notoplax not examined. 

Cryptoconchus Blainv. 

C. monlicularis Quoy. (Type. ) Minor lateral normal, leaf-shaped, base geniculate ; 
major lateral with trideutate cusp and plain normal shaft ; a rugosity on the second 
uncinus projecting inward over the first; major uncinus slender, short. Fig. 41. 

Amicula Gray. (== Symmetrogephyrus Midd., Stimpsoniella Cpr. ) 

A. vestita Sby. = Emersonii Couth. Gld. (Tyjie. ) Minor lateral bi-alate, ; 
major lateral trideutate, with plain shaft, whose lateral expansions are bent back- 
ward to the radula, forming a vaulted hollo^y arch beneath the upper part of the 
shaft ; major uucinus aborted. Fig. 43. 

A. Pallasii Midd. (TjT)e of Symmetrogephyrus.) As in the last, except that the 
sides of the major lateral are bent forward, and the major uncinus is present and 
normal. Fig. 42. 

ChlamydocMton not examined. 

Cryptochiton Midd. Gray. 

C. Stelleri Midd. (Type.) Minor lateral normal, leaf-shaped ; major lateral with 
trideutate cusp and a small keel on the shaft; inner two uucini ridged, major un- 
cinus aborted. Fig. 44. 

Chitonellus Blainville. 

C. fasciatus Quoy. (Tyjie.) Minor lateral bi-alate, with a strongly curved shaft; 
major lateral normal, trideutate with a plain shaft; uncini more gr less ridged, major 
uncinus nearly straight, long, slender, spatulate. Fig. 45, 45 a. 

It will be seen that Gray's tigure (here reproduced) is very erroneous, and seems 
to have been taken from the immature end of the radula. 

Fig. D.— Teeth of Chitonellus, after Gray. 
CJioneplax, Chitoniscus, and CryptopJax not examined. 

Nomenclature. — The nomenclatm^e of Chitons has suffered gTeatly from 
neglect of various writers to specify or adopt types of the genera they 
proposed or used. The neglect of internal characters in assorting spe- 
cies into genera has also been fruitful of difiaculty; the Messrs. H. and 


A. Adams being among the greatest sinners in these respects. ' The re- 
vision of the nomenclature by Dr. Carpenter with the co-operation of 
the writer was incomplete at the time of his death, and is not yet per- 
fected. It would be out of place here, even if ready for publication ; but 
a few words on the genus Chiton as restricted by Carpenter may not be 

1758. — Liuue described the genvxs Chiton in the tenth edition of the Systema Naturae, 
according four species to it, of which only one, C. tuberculatus, is ideutitiable. 

1766. — S. N. ed. xii. Nine species were described by Linu6, of which the first is 
unrecognizable and the second is C. tuberculatus. 

1776.— ]Mitller (Prodr. Zool. Dan.) describes several species, but selects no type. 

1784. r-Speugler monographs the group; his first species is C. tuberculatus L. 

1798. — Tiibl. ]5l6m. p. 391, Cnvier gives an unrecognizable C. punctatus as his sole 

1799. — Lamarck (Prodr. An. s. Vert. p. 90) gives as his sole example C. tuberculatus 

1801. — Lamarck (Systfeme An. s. Vert. p. 66) gives as an examjile C. glgas Chem- 
nitz, not a Linnean species. 

1815-18. — Wood (Gen. Conch, and Index Test.) gives as his first species in both 
cases C. inberculalus L. These works antedate Lamarck's Hist. An. s. Vert. 

1854. — Messrs. Adains selected, as the typ& of Chiton, C. aculcaius Anct., anxmfortu- 
nate proceeding, since the C. aculcatiis of Liund is unrecognizable. This arrangement 
was i^roperlj^ rejected by Dr. Gray and Dr. Carpenter. 

From the rides for zoological nomenclature it follows that a type can- 
not be selected by any one for a genus proposed by any author which 
type was not known to and included by that author in his original list 
of species, if he himself omitted to specify a t;yi)e. 

C. tuberculatus^ though described from an imperfect seven-valved spe- 
cimen, is recognized by Hanlej^ as Chiton squamosus of Born. It is 
figured by Reeve as C. squamosus L. var. ,9 (Couch. Ic. pi. iv, f. 23), and 
in the index is called '■'■striatus Barnes." It has not been generally 
united with the C. squamosus of L. (S. N. ed. xii), but is not improbably 
a variety of it, and belongs to the same restricted group. It comes from 
the West Indies. Under the circumstances, there can be no doubt that 
it should be considered as t]n^ type of the genus, not only because it is 
the only recognizable species of those orginally described, but because 
it was selected by Lamarck as his sole example of the genus in 1700, and 
served as the first species in many of the earlier works in which the 
Chitons were enumerated or described. The genus Chiton w^as called 
Lophijrus by Adams, from the name applied to the animal by Poli, who 
Avas a non-binomial Avriter. It was more correctly treated by Gray and 
by Dr. Carpenter in his later writings, though at one time he had, with- 
out investigation, followed the lead of Messrs. Adams. 

The first authors to whom science is indebted for discriminating the 
different groups or genera of Chitons are chieflj- Guilding, Lowe, Shuttle- 
worth, and Gray. As all the characters were not perceived at the out- 
Set, even these writers were not perfectly consistent in their grouping, 
as has since become evident. But this was inevitable, and it only 


remains to rectify the (lisorder by the lij^lit of present Icuowledgc, a task 
which may not long be dehiyed. If some modern authors, who have 
instituted wholesale changes in nomenclature, had followed a consistent 
and uniform jdan, and not neglected or hurriedly decided on doubtful 
l)oints, the work of rectification might have been much more simi)le, 
though perhaps not less urgently needed. 

A few words may be added in regard to the names given by Midden- 
dorf. In spite of the opportunities aftbrdcd by his study of the Russian 
Chitons, this distinguished savant seemed to fail to catch the permanent 
as distinguished from merely individual characters, and his classifica- 
tion and nomenclature are not borne out by subsequent researches. 
His chief characters were derived from the dimensions of the soft or 
coriaceous girdle, dimensions which (lifter not only in the same species, 
but in the same individual, respectively, if preserved in spirit (when it 
may be broad) or dry (when it shrinks to a narrower comj)ass). Frour 
this cause it is not suri>rising to find the same species figuring in both 
of his chief divisions of Chitons with exjiosed valves. In the attempt 
to utilize this impracticable classification, and unwilling to admit that 
the Chifonidw contain more than one genus, he adopted a singular 
nomenclature, in which the genus was divided into a great number of 
sections, subsections, sub-subsections, etc., so that his work can hardly be 
classed as binomial in the Linuean sense. Fortunately, without exce])- 
tion, the groups indicated had previously been properly named by Gray, 
and only by courtesy can the genus Crypiochlton, on which his industri- 
ous research was largely expended, be assigned to him as authority, 
since it was denominated by the same name by I)r. Gray but a short 
time previously, the researches of each behig unkuow- n to the other. 

To Blainville, in 181G, is due the credit of first recognizing the anom- 
alous characters of the Chitonidcc, and their separation as an independent 
group from other gasteropods. While the value of a class in view of 
later researches uiay be held to be too high, yet few will be disposed to 
deny them the ordinal value assigned by Gray in 1825. The name is 
j)referabLy spelled Foli/placiphora, though numerous other forms ha^'e 
been used. 

The order Polt/placiphora can with certainty be asserted to contain but 
one family, so far as our present knowledge is concerned. No groups of 
subfamily value have yet been recognized, and it is a question whether 
any exist. It would be out of jjlace here to attempt any resume of the 
various systems of classification proposed by authors who have written 
on Chitons, as that jiroposed by Dr. Carpenter has solely been followed, 
and the j)rocess w^ould occui)y too much space. 

Dr. Carpenter's arrangement is founded upon the plan of structure in 
the valves, the extent of the branchije, and the ornamentation or char- 
acter of the girdle and its covering. He di\'ides the Fohjplaciphora into 
two great divisions : 

I. Regulai: CinTOxs. 

Head aud tail plates of similar character. 


II. Irregular Chitons. 

Tail-plate with a sinus behind. 

The Regular Chitons comprise — 

' A. Lrptoklca. 

Destitute of teeth or slit insertion-plates. 

B. Ischnoidea. 

Insertion-plates slit, sharp, thin ; protected by eaves. 

This contains hy for the largest number of species, and might be con- 
sidered t^^iical ; but the organization is not as comjtlete in all points as 
in the next group. 

C. Lopliyroidca. 

Insertion-plates broad, pectinated ; jugular sinus broad, dentate. 

D. Acanthoidca. 

Insertion-plates sharp, grooved externally, eaves furrowed beneath, mucro 
posteriorly extended. • 

This forms a passage toward II. 
The Irregular Chitons comprise — 

E. Schizoidea. 

Mantle and tail-plate both slit, behind. 

F. Placiplioroidca. 

Posterior insertion-plates only represented by a pair of swollen ribs. Mantle 

G. Mopalohlca. 

Tail-plate with one slit on each side and waved behind. 
H. Cryptoidea. 

Valves covered, or nearly so, with posterior as well as anterior sutural laminae. 
I. Chitonello'idea. 

Tail-irlato twisted into a funnel, body anteriorly extended. 

Of these groups, Dr. Carpenter says : " I have purposely abstained 
fi'om giving the usual terminations in idw and irifc because I am not sure 
that the groups here proposed are entitled to rank even as subfamilies." 

It seems to the writer that these groups are by no means of equal value, 
and that the Eegidar Chitons might well be reduced to two : Leptoids, 
and the remainder combined into one group; while the second section 
might be assorted into Schizoids (including F and G), Cryptoids, and 

The opinions of Dr. Carpenter, the result of years of study, and an 
examination of all the principal collections of these animals in the world, 
are, however, not to be hghtly set aside. 

The Chitons of Alaska forming the principal subject of this report, 
together with notes on allied or extra-limital forms, are now in order. 
For the use of the figures illustrating this article, and many other favors 
and facilities for study, I am indebted to the Smithsonian Institution, in 
charge of Prof. S. F. Baird. 




Genus MOPALIA Gray. 

Mopalla Gray, P. Z. S. 1847, pp. 65, 69, 169.— H. & A. Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, i, p. 478, 

1854. ( M. Hindsii Sby. ) 
MolpaUa Gray, Guide, p. 184, 1857 (err. typ.). — Gould, Otia, p. 118. 

Lorica regnlaris ; laminse longiores, snffulttE ; v. aut. plurifissat4, v. 
esRt. unifissat.T, ad caudam sinuatse ; sinus angustus ; mucro medianns, 
depressus; suturos indentatae ; zona latior, setosii, interdum. simplex, 
interdum postice fissata, interdum antice projecta; branchise mediae. 

Subg. MopaJia s. str. 

Zonte setai irregulariter obsitaj. {M. Hindsii Sby.) 
Sect, a, uoiinales ; Sect. (3, aberrantes. 

Subg. PlaeipliorcUa Cpr. 

Zonae seta? ad suturam fasciculatae. (P. velata Cpr.) 
Sect, a, zona, antice dilatata. (P. vclata Cpr.) 
Sect, ft, zona et lorica normales. (P. sinuaia Cpr.) 

The genus Mopalia is the most regular in growth of all the Irregular 
Chitons. It is characterized by a hairy or lauugate girdle extending on 
or between the valves to some extent in all the species, thin insertion- 
plates with one slit on each side of the hind valve, which is waved in- 
ward from behind in the median luxe. There is generally a pronounced 
wave or slit in the tail end of the girdle, but this is an inconstant char- 
acter even in the same species. The anterior valve has six or more 
slits in most cases. The tj"pical subgenus is di\ided into normal and 
aberrant forms, the latter having the anterior i)ortion of the girdle much 
produced, as in M. Blainvillei Brod. ; both sections having the hairs irre- 
gularly distributed. In Flaaqjhorella the hau-s or part of them issue in 
fasciculi from i)ores at the sutures. These also are divided into two sec- 
tions, the first having the anteriorly expanded girdle as in the last sec- 
tion of Mopalia, while the second resumes the normal type of shell and 
girdle. Many species have been described, but it becomes necessary, 
as will be seen, to reduce the number. 

Mopalia ciliata. 

Chiton ciliatu.'i Sowerby, Conch. 111. p. 79, 1838. — Reeve, Conch. Icon. Mon. Chi- 
ton, pi. xix, f. 124, 1847. 

Mopalia ciliata H. &. A. Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, i, p. 478, 1854. 

Chiton setosus Sowerby, Beechcy's Voy. Zool. j). 150, pi. 41, f. 17, 1839 (not of Sow. 

Chiton CoUiei Reeve, Conch. Icon. Mon. Chiton, pi. xxi, f. 136, 1848. 

Leptochiton CoUiei H. & A. Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, i, p. 473, 1854. 

Chiton muscosm Gould, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, ii, p. 145, July, 1846; MolL 
Expl. Exp. p. 313, f. 436, 1852.— H. & A. Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, i, p. 475, 
1854.— Gould, Otia, p. 6, 1862. 


Mopalia ciliata. 

Chwtoplcnra miiscosa Gonld, Otia, p. 242, 18G2. 

Mopalia muscosa Carpenter, Suppl. Rep. IJr. As. 1883, p. 648. 

Chiton WossnessensMi Midd. Mai. Ross, i, p. 101, 1847 ; in part only; figure and 

part of diagnosis excl. 
Chiton armahis (Nutt. ) Jay, Cat. 1839, No. 2678. No dcscr. 
Chiton ornatus Nuttall, MS. Brit. Mus. Col. etc. and 
Chiton consimili^ Nuttall, MS. loc. cit. never described. 

Suhsp. Mopalia lignosa. 

Chiton lif/nosits Gould, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, ii, ii. 142, July, 1846 ; Otia, p. 

3, 1882 ; Exp. Sli. p. 330, f. 424, 1852. 
Chwto2)let(ra lignosa Gould, Otia, p. 248, 1862. 
Mopalia lignosa Carpenter, Suppl. Rep. Br. As. 1863, p. 648. 
Chiton Merckii Midd. Bull. Imp. Acad. Sci. St. Petersb. t. vi, p. 20, 1846 ; Mai. 

Ross, i, p. 115, pi. xi, f. 5-6, 1847. 
Chiton EschsclioUzii Midd. Bull. 1. c. p. 118 ; Mai. Ross. 1. c. p. 114, pi. xi, f. 4 (t. 

Chiton {Hamachiton, Stenosemus) Merckii Midd. 1. c. p. 34. 
Chiton Montereyensis Cpr. P. Z. S. 1855, p. 231. 

Chiton vcspertinus Gould, Moll. U. S. Expl. Exp. p. 323, f. 426, 426 a, 1852. 
Chwtoplcnra vesperiina Gould, Otia, pp. 230, 242, 1862. 
Mopalia vcspertina H. «fc A. Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, i, p. 479, 1854. 
Mopalia Simpsoni Gray, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 69. — H. & A. Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, i, p. 

479, 1854; Brit. Mus, Coll. In all cases name only; never described. 

(From type.) 
Chiton calif ornicns (Nutt. MS.) Reeve, Couch. Ic. Mon. Cbiton, pi. xvi, f. 89, 1847. 

far. M. Hindsii. 

Chiton Uindsii (Sowerby MS.) Reeve, Concli. Icon. Mon. Cliitou, pi. xii, f. 67, a, 

h, 1847. 
Mopalia Hindsii Gray, P. Z. S. 1847, pp. 69, 169.— H. & A. Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll. 

i, p. 478, pi. liv, f. 7, 1854.— Cpr. Suppl. Rep. Br. As. 1863, p. 213. 

M. t. intus, V. postica ad caudam sinuata; v. centr. unitiss., v. aiit. 

octoiissata; dent, longis, suffnltis, sa?pe extus riigosis; snbgiimdis miiii- 

inis spongiosis; sinu minimo, acuto, lam. sutur. ab apice antico solum 

sei)aratis; zoiia setifera sen lanuginosa; valvis parum postice, antice 

valde apicata; zona postice hand sen varius fissata. 

Lon. 25-GO, Lat. 15-40 mm. Div. 140°. 

Hah. — Shnmagin Islands (rare) to California ; Dall! between tide-marks 

and at lowest water. Many specimens (hundreds) examined. 

Typical form: sculpture variable, but strong; girdle thickly set with 
tubular hairs, varying from long, strong bristles to fine, soft piloe. The 
l)est distinguishing features are brown or blackish olive color outside; 
inside, bluish green and lilac; jugular and caudal sinuses narrow, the 
latter often not visible externally. 

Subsp. /?y/«os« ; sculpture faint; inside greenish; sinus variable; hairs 
of the girdle variable, but always softer and shorter than in well-marked 
.ciliata, often hardly perceptible in dry specimens; external colors gray- 
ish or greenish, with streaks and liammules of brown and white. 

Yar.IIiiKlsli: exterior uniform, smoothish; sculpture evanescent; color 
outside, light olive to nearly black; inside, whitish, carmine in the me- 

(liaii line; tail uotclied in the young, but not in the adult; tail-sinus visi- 
ble outside; girdle with few and short hairs. 

This species can be distinguished from all varieties of Wossnessensldi 
by its blackish and proportionately much narrower girdle, and by a soi't 
of ])rolongation of the external layer of the shell forward under the apex 
of the next anterior valve in the median line, forming a sort of anterior 
false apex, which is hidden until the valves are separated. In Woss- 
ncssensldi this part is squared off, the girdle is yellowish (when alive), 
and the valves are much less transverse. 

It will be surprising if those who have only observed these animals by 
a, few diy specimens in collections are willing to accept the synonymy 
above given. I confess that not long since I would have been unwilling 
to believe that the rough, bristly, typical mnscosa and the dark, smooth 
llindsii could be jiroperly combined under one name with each other or 
Avith the iinely reticulated and painted lignosa. But the study of a largo 
nudtitude of specimens has convinced me no arbitrary line can be drawn 
anywhere in a fully representative series, beginning with coarsest ciliata 
and ending with a practically smooth Hindsii. The characters of girdle, 
.sculpture, and form are not only variable in themselves, but are found 
variably combined, except that it is rarer to find coarsest sculx>ture with 
a downy than with a bristl}' girdle. However, even this occurs. On 
the other hand, out of such a series a dozen forms might be selected 
A\'hich, if only the characters were constant, every one would acknowledge 
as good species. 

In his description of Wossnessenslcii, Middendorf, according to Dr. Car- 
j)enter, had both sj^ecies under his observation, and did not observe it. 
His figures, however, belong solely to the following species. Sowerby's 
srtosus, in the Zoology of the Blossom's Voyage, is not his species so 
named in 1832, and the former was renamed CoUiei, by Eeeve, in the 
Conch. Iconica. The seidptnre figured by Sowerby was not character- 
istic; Eeeve's figure is better. From an examination of the type, Dr. 
Carpenter became convinced that the undescribed M. Simpsoni Gray was 
identical with lignosa. There is very little doubt that Middendorf*s 
Chiton Uschscholtzii Avas merely a young ciliata. Dr. Gould's original 
types have been consulted during the preparation of this description. 

Mopalia 'Wossnessenskii. 

Chiton Tfossnesscnslii Midd. Bull. Imp. Acad. Sci. St. Potersl). t. vi, p. 119, 

1847 (pars); Mai. Rohs. i, p. 101 (diagn. maj. pars), pi. xi, f. 1-2, 1847. 
Chiton {Hamachiton, riati/semiis) Wossnessenskii Midd. Mai. Ross. 1. c. j). 34, 

Chiton codatus Reeve, Couch. Icon. Mou. Cbitou, i^l. xvii, f. 101, 1847 (loc. err. ).— 

H. & A. Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll. 1, p. 475, 1854. 
Mopalia Kennerlei/i Carpenter, Sujipl. Rex>. Br. Assoc. 18GI5, p. ()4H; I»roc. Phil. 

Acad. Nat. Sci. April, 1865, p. 59. 
Mopalia Grayi Carpenter, Suppl. Rep. 1. c. p. 603, name only. 
M. Kennerleyi var. Swanii Cpr. Su^ipl. Rep. 1. c. p. 648, 1833. 

M. t. valvis hand antice apicatis; v. post, extus valde sinuata; intus 

v. post, late ad caudam sinuata, et v. centr. 1-, v. ant. S- (rarius 9-, 10-) 

Proc. Nat. Mus. 78 20 Fet). 14, 1879. 


fiss.; sinii latiore; zona postice fissata, setis tenuioribus, planatis, pal- 
lidis, minus confertim obsita. Lon. 50, Lat. 25 mm. 
Var. /Sicanii : t. omnino rufa, sculptura tenuiore. 

jjah. — Unalaslika, Aleutian Islands (rare and small) to Sitka, and 
southeast^yard to Monterey, California; from low water to twenty fath- 
oms, adhering to solid objects, stones, and shells! Two hundred and 
fifty-four specimens examined. 

This species may be recognized by its broad, yellowish, downy girdle, 
when fresh, often encroaching far into the sutures ; by the absence of 
false apices, such as are found in ciliata ; by its color, in which vermillion 
and verdigris green are beautifully mingled (except in the var. Swaniiy 
which is pure red) ; and by the softness of the flattened and less crowded 
hairs. The girdle-fissure is not constant, though usual. It is nearly 
white inside ; the sinus is broader and the valves, as a whole, longer in 
an axial direction, making tliem less transverse than in ciliata. It is one 
of the most beautiful of all Chitons, when closely examined. 

An examination of the soft parts afforded the following notes on this 
species : 

The "fringe," or true mantle-edge, is entire, extending around the whole 
body within the edge of the girdle, and slightly notched at the posterior 
sinus of the girdle. Veil short in front and broad at the sides, ending 
behind in two broad, squarish lappets, the edge crenulate throughout. 
Anus median, distinct. Ovary single, tortuous, overlying the viscera, 
with no distinct oviduct, so far as could be observed. In texture, the 
ovary resembles that of Acmcea. If there be an oviduct, it passes from 
the under side of the sac, one-third of the way forward from the poste- 
rior end of the ovary. Behind the ovary are two '■'■ slime glands" (Midd.), 
one on each side, opening outward by a plain opening in a fold of the 
integument, one on each side between the branchine and the anus. They 
are not present in all Chitons. Schiff did not find them in C. inceus. 
Gills about thirty-eiglit in number on each side, extending forward about 
two-thirds the length of the foot. 

♦ Extra-limital Species. 

Subgenus Placiphorella Cpr. 
Placiphorella sinuata. 

Mopalia sinuata Cpr. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pliilad. 186.5, p. .59. 

P. t. lam. sutur. planatis, ab apice antico-externo separatis, sinu an- 
gustissimo; dent, valde suffultis. 

jEfa&.— Puget Sound and San Francisco Bay, Cal. 
Placiphorella imporcata. 

Moimlia imporcata Carpenter, 1. c. p. 59, 18G5. , 

P. t. lam. sutur. et apice antico ut in P. sinuata, sinu paullo minus 
angusta; dent, parum suffultis; v. ant. octofissata. 

Mab. — Puget Sound; Santa Barbara Ids., Cal. 


These species are known to me only by the types; they may extend 
their range into the Alexander Archipelago. 

In PlacipJiorella velaia Cpr., type of the subgenns, the gill-rows are as 
long as the foot, branchiie about twenty-five in number, widely separated 
behind. Mantle-edge behind narrow and plain ; in front produced and 
fringed with long fleshy, processes. No oviduct coidd be traced, though 
the ovary was crowded with eggs, some of which were 0.25 mm. in length. 
In them the embryo could be plainly distinguished. There were no fur- 
rows for the shelly plates, but the eyes were quite prominent and the 
cephalic lobe comprised nearly half the animal. There were no bands 
of cilia, but the edge of the cephalic lobe was strongly ciliated. 

Genus AMICULA Gray. 

Gray, Syn. Brit. Mus. 1840, also ed. 1842 (no description) ; P. Z. S. 1847, pp. 65, 69, 
169.— H. & A. Adams, Gen. Eec. MoU. i, p. 480, pi. 55, f. 2, 1854.— Gray, 
Guide, p. 187, 1857. 

Type Chiton vestltns Sowerby. 

Corpus regulare; lorica exposita parva, mucronata, sen subcordata; 
laminae insertionis mopaloideae, lam. sut. post, magnaej zona plus mi- 
nus ve pilosa, interdum porifera. 

Subgenus Amicula s. str. (Gray). 

Branchiie niedise. A. vestita Sowerby. 

Subgenus Chlamydochiion (Dall). 

Branchiie ambientes. C. amiculata Pallas. 

Both groups are provided with pores bearing fasciculi of bristles of a 
soft or horny character, and which, while often irregularly disposed or 
even almost entirely absent (in particular individuals), have a tendency 
to arrange themselves in two rows on each side of the median line, one 
row behind the exposed point of the valve and another near its sub- 
merged lateral j)osterior angle, on each side. The mantle is also pro- 
vided with a coating of fine, chaffy, deciduous scales. 

Subgenus Amicula (Gray) Dall. 

Amicula Gray, 1. c. 1847. (C vestitus Sow.) 

Symmetrogeplujrus Middendorf, Mai. Eos8. 1, p. 98, 1847. (C Pallasii Midd.) — Chenn, 

Man. i, 383, 1859. 
Stimpsoniella Carpenter, Bull. Essex Inst, v, p. 1.^5, 1873. (C Pallasii Midd. and Em- 

efsonii Couth.) 
Middendorfia Carpenter, MS. 1871. 

Amicula vestita. 

Chiton vestitus Sowerby, Zool. Journ. iv, p. 368, 1829; Conch. 111. f. 123, 128a 
(from type-specimen), 1839; Zool. Beechey's Voy. j). 150, pi. xli, f. 14, 

f C. amiculatns Wood, Ind. Test. pi. 1, f. 12, 1828 (probably).— Eoeve, Conch. 
Icon. Men. Chiton, pi. xi, f. 59, 1847. 


Amicula vestita. 

Amicnla vcsiita Gray, P. Z. S. 1847, pp. G5, 69, 169.— II. & A. Adams, Gen. Eoc. 

Moll, i, p. 480, pi. 55, f. 2, 1854.— Gray, Giiide, p. 187, 1857. 
Amicula vcsiita Cpr. Bull. Essex lust. 1873, p. 1.55. 

(f Far. Emersonii.) 

Chiton Emersonii Couthouy, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist, ii, p. 83, pi. ill, f. 10, 1838. 

Chiton Umersonianiis Gould, luv. Mass. p. 151, f. 19, 1841. — lieeve, Couch. Icon. 
Mon. Chiton, pi. xi, f. 59, 1847. 

Jmicula Emersonii Gray, P. Z. S. 1347, p. 69.— H. & A. Adams, Gen. Rcc. Moll. 
i, p. 481, 18.54. — Gray, Guide, p. 185, 18.57. — Stimpson, Smithsonian Checklist 
of East Coast Shclis, 1830.— Binuey's Gould, p. 254, f. .527 (bad), 1870. 

Amicula vestita Stimpson, Shells of N. Engl. p. 29, 1851. 

titimjisoniella Emersonii Cpr. Bull. Essex lust. 1873, p. 155, 

A. t. val varum parte exposita (liuic generi) majore, lata, subrcni*- 
forme, antice acuta sed baud prolongata, lateribus rectangulatis, j)ostico 
bilobatis, sinu latiore ; ar. jug-, centr. et lat. baud definitis ; tota superficie 
granulosa, supra jugum lajviori; circa marginem undique (nisi ad mu- 
<;ronem in sinu postico) bicostata ; intus, v. post, typice mopaloideo, utr. 
lat. unitissata, sinu caudali lato, breviore; \. centr, 1-, ant. G-Hss.; 
laminis acutis, fissuris parvis, sulcis ex fissuris baud loricam tenus con- 
tinuis; lam. sut. ant. baud separatis, sinu lato, brevi; post, minoribus 
sed ii sinu postico alto latiore omnino separatis; {Cpr.) Zona tenui, 
laiviore; setulis furfuraceis et fasciculis setarum plus minusve irregu- 
laris supra xonam exposita. Lon. 50, Lat. 35 mm. 

HaJ). — Arctic Ocean, extending soutbward in tbe Pacific region to 
Hagmeister and St. Paul Islands, Bering Sea; on tbe Atlantic soutb on 
tbe ISTew England coast to Cape Cod ; in 5-30 fatboms, mud and stones. 
Two young specimens, not certainly of tbis species, in 60 fatboms, Cap- 
tain's Bay, Unalasbka. Tbirteen specimens examined. 

Tbe '^ ovarian" openings, bilaterally symmetrical, are situated just be- 
bind and, as it were, under tbe sbadow of tbe posterior brancbia on eacli 
side. Tbey are not simple orifices, but fenestra, compsoed of two open- 
ings s^mewbat oblique and linear; tbe anterior a bttle nearer tbe girdle 
and a little larger tban tbe posterior one. 

I bave no doubt wbatever tbat tbe original restitus of Sowerby (from 
Beecbey's origbial locality I bave examples) is identical witli tbe Emcr- 
aonii of Couthouy. 

Mucb bas been said about tbe i)resence or absence of 'pores' and 
bair-tufts. I find from examination of a series tbat tbe young Emersonii 
is usually smootb, tbe large ones always setiferous. Tbese seta; are, as 
described by Br. Gould, in two rows on eacb side, or ratber six in all if 
we count tbe pretty constant tufts bebind tlie exposed apices of tbe 
shell. These rows are (1) two behind the shell points as above; (2) two, 
one on each side at the posterior angle of the submerged expansion of 
the valve; (3) a series, more or less irregular, along the margin of the 
girdle. Beside tbis, in old ones, there are iiTcgular tufts all over the 
girdle, and some of the regidar tufts may be missing. • 


Dr. Carpenter, seeing young- specimens, could not recognize the pore- 
tufts of Gould. Shortly before liig death, however, he sent me speci- 
mens which showed them i)laiuly; it is evidently a character in this 
gi'ouii of very little imi)ortance. 

As regards its identity with vestita; when dry, the Xew England form 
I)recisely resembles the figures from Sov»-erby's type-specimen in his 
( 'onchological Illustrations, taken from a dried specimen. lie consid- 
ered Emcfsoiiil a s;smonym, and I fully agree T\'ith him, but have lcej)t 
the two .separated in the foregoing synonymy for the comenience of 
those who may doubt this. 

This si)ecies is very close to A. PallasU, but is distinguisliable by the 
larger and laterally much more exi3anded exi)osed portions of the valves, 
by its flatter form, and proportiouallj^ sparser and longer seta^. When 
dry, the Vviiole form of the A'alves is visible in vestita from above, IdiC 
the bones of a Peruvian mummy; in Pcdiasii, however, the integument 
is so much more coriaceous and thick, that in dry specimens hardly any- 
tliing of these outlines is visible. Midden dorf's figure, copied by 
Cln^nu, well represents A. FaUasil when fresh. In cabinets it is rare, 
and is not common in the field where collectors have searched for it. 

Aniicula Pallasii. 

Chiton Pallasii Midd. Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Petersb. vi, p. 117, 1847. 
Chiton (subg. Phmtouhiton, sect. Dichachiton, subs. Syiiimetrogephyrus) raUasii 
Jlidd. Mai. Eoss. i, p. 93, 1847; Sib. Eeise, p. 163, t. xiii, f. 1-9; t. xiv, f. 
1-C, 1851. 
Amicula PaUam H. & A. Ad. Geu. i, p. 481, 1854.— Chenu, i, p. 383, 1859. 
jStimpsonicHa Pallasii Cpv. Bull. Essex lust. 1873, p. 155. 

A. t. valvarum mucrone cordilbrjui solum externe conspicua; intus 
v. post, mopaloidea, utr. lat. unitissata, siuu caudali minore, lamina j)o- 
stica extus rugosa hito, brevi; v. centr. 1-, v. ant. G-8-fissatis; lam. 
acutis ex fissuris umbonem tenus sulcatis; lam. sutur. ant. modicis hand 
separatis, sinu lato brevi; x^ost. latis, regulariter arcuatis, a siuu postico 
lato alto separatis, (Cpr.) Limbus (zona) luxurians in pallium exteudi- 
tur, totum animalis dorsum rotundatum obtegens, valvas obvolvens et 
occultans, soils octo aperturis minutis, rotundatis, in linea mediana, qui- 
bus aditus ad umbonem valvarum pat et; color squalido hitescens; epi- 
dermis dorsalis undique versum fasciculis pilorum crinita. Lon. G7, Lat. 
48, Alt. 21 mm. Div. 120°. 

Hah. — Okhotsk Sea, ]Midd. ; Pribilofl", Aleutian, and Shumagin Islands, 
Dall ! .'> to 10 fathoms, very rare. Seven specimens examintnl. 

The rounded back, tough and hairy girdle with minute holes for the 
tips of the valves, the valves themselves less transverse as a whole and 
much less exposed than in vestita, are the characters by wliich this spe- 
cies may be readily distinguished from the latter. My specimeus have 
only six fissures in the anterior valve against eight in a specimen of 
vestita of the same size. 


It is even rarer than the last species, and hardly known in collections. 

The gills are median; mantle-edge broad and even; the veil is pecti- 
nated and the anterior edge of the muzzle has a sort of rim or margin, 

Subgenus Chlamtdochiton Dall. 

Amicula Cpr. pars; nou Gray, Adams, etc. 
Chlamydochiton Dall, Proc. Nat. Mus. p. 1, Jan. 1878. 

Cblamydochiton amiculatus. 

Chlamydochiton amiculatus Dall, 1. c. 

Chiton amiculatus Pallas, Nova Acta Petrop. ii, p. 241, pi. vii, f. 2G-30, 1788. — 

GmeliD, Syst. Nat. p. 320G, 1790.— Wood, Geu. Couch, p. 13, 1815.— Dill- 

wyu. Cat. Rec. Shells, i, i>. 6, 1817. — Blainville, Diet. Sci. Nat. xxxvi, p. 

546, 1825.— Mid<l. Mai. Eoss. i, p. 96, 1847.— H. & A. Adams, Gen. Eoc. 

Moll, i, p. 480, 1854. 
Not C. amiculatus Sowerby, Conch. 111. f. 80, 1839, nor of Gray, P. Z. S. 1847, 

pp. 65, 69, 169, = C. Siellcri Midd. 
Not C. amiculatus Wood, Ind. Test. f. 12, 1828, = C. vestitus (probably).—? Eeeve, 

Conch. Icon. Chiton, f. 59, 1847. 

C t. extus Cr. Stelleri, jun. simili, sed apicibus valvarum rotundati.s 
extantibus ; intus, laminis v. post, mopaloideis, utr. hit. (et v. centr.) 
unilissatis ; sinu caudali lato, altiore ; lam. sut. anticis modicis junctis, 
sinu lato ; postic's majoribus, regulariter arcuatis, extus hand sinuatis, 
postice sinu hito, alto, subapicem phiuato, haud laminato ; fissuris usque 
ad apices sulcatis ; zona coriacea, Iteviore poris seriebus 2 circa suturas 
et marginem, majoribus; seriebus inter valvas et iriegulariter supr.i 
zonam sj)arsis, minoribus; setis porarum panels, longioribus, haud 
spiculosis. Lon. 75, Lat. 40 ram, (Q)r.) 

Hah. — " Japan," London dealer; Kuril Islands, Pallas and Steller; 
Farallones Islands, California, Newcomb ! Two specimens examined. 

This species x)robably has about the same distribution as C. Stelleri, 
tliough much rarer, and may by collectors have been taken for an im- 
perfect or immature specimen of that moUusk ; when dry, to a casual 
glance they api)ear very similar, the minute apices of the valves being 
hardly visible. The coating of the girdle is, however, of a wholly 
diHereut character. Dr. Carpenter would have reserved the name 
Amicida Gray for this species, but that name cannot legitimately be 
separated from its typical species {vesUta), which belongs in the other 
subgenus. The ambient gills are the only sound character. The pores, 
which gave Dr. Carpenter a great deal of unnecessary trouble, are in 
this group not even of specific importance. I have only seen specimens 
in Dr. Carpenter's hands, and insert his description of the characters. 
It is doubtless one of the very rarest of the Chitons. Its nearest allies 
are A. Pallasii and vestifa. 

The figures given by Pallas are sufficient to identify the species very 
weU, but in his remarks he quotes notes by Steller, which refer to the 


great Cryptocliiton Stelleri of modern authors. Some specimens of Stcl- 
leri in the Berhn JMuseum are marked amieulatus on very ancient hxbels, 
so there can be little doubt that the two species were confounded by the 
earlier authors. 

Genus CRYPTOCHITON Midd. and Gray. 

Midd. Mai. Ross, i, pp. 1-96, pi. 1-9, 1847. Type C. stelleri Midd.— Gray, P. Z. S. 
18-17, pp. 65, 69, 169 ; Guide, p. 185, 1857, 

Valvae omnino in zona immersse; laminsB insertionis rude mopa- 
loideee; lam. sutur. tam postice quam antice junctte, postice trisinuat^j 
zona minutissime fasciculatim pilosa j branchiae ambientes. 

This genus was simultaneously described under the same name by 
(xray and Middendorf, apparently without knowledge of each other's 
labors, and both having the same species in view, though Gray errone- 
ously supposed his type to be the C. amieulatus of Pallas, and called it. 
by that name ; his diagnosis and synonymy, however, showing that ho 
really referred to C. Stelleri. 

It appears probable, from some of Pallas' specimens examined by me 
in the Berlin Museum, that he included this species with the amiculatiis 
in his distribution, and, in fact, unless carefully examined, almost any 
one might do the same. 

Cryptochiton Stelleri. 

Cliiton Stelleri Midd. Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Pdtersb. vi, p. 116, 1846. 

Chiton (Cryptochiton) Stelleri Midd. Mai. Eoss. 1, p. 93, t. i-ix, 1847; Mem. 

de I'Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersb. 6me s6r. vi, p. 101, 157, 1849. — Sckreuck, 

Amur-Land Moll. p. 271, 1887. 
Chiton amieulatus Sowerby (uot Pallas), Couch. 111. f. 80, 80 bis, 1839. — Gray, 

P. Z. S. 1847, pp. 65, 69, 169. 
Chiton sitlcensis Reeve, Conch. Icon. Chiton, pi. x, f. 55, 55 b, 1847. (Not C. 

sitlcensis Midd.) 
Chiton ehlamys Reeve, 1. c. pi. xi, f. 60, 1847 (from type, Cpr.). 
Cryptochiton Stelleri Gray, Guide, p. 185, 1857. — H. & A. Adams, Gen. Rec. 

Moll, i, p. 479, iii, pi. iv, f. 1, 1 a, 1854. — Carpenter, Sujjpl. Rep. Brit. As. 

1863, p. 648. 
{Patella; longw Eondeletli auf Kurilisch K6ru, Steller, Beschreib. Kamtsch. 

p. 177, 1774.) 

C. t. intus ; v. post, mopaloidea, mucrone obtuso ad posticam trien- 
tem ; sinu caudali alto, lato ; fissuris utr. lat. una, subposticis, con- 
spicuis; lam. sut. anticis latioribus, junctis, sinu jugali alto, modico, 
subplanato ; v. ant. mucrone ad quartam partem i)osticam, norm alitor 
utr. lat. 1- et ant. 3- (id est omnino 5-, sed interdum 4-0-, sen 7) fissata ; 
lam. sut. posticis longis, lateraliter conspicue sinuatis, medio junctis, 
sinu postico altissimo, i^yramidali, frustrato ; v. ceutr. mucr. ad (luintam 
partem posticam ; hand sen interdum 1-fiss. ; lam. lat. et sutur. ant. 
hand separatis, sinu jugali angustiore, altissimo, iiTegulariter arcuato, 


hand planato ; lam. post, super-suturalibus minoribiis, longis, ii siuibus 
marginalilms conspicue separatis ; mn\ postico altissimo, irregulariter 
gothico, lam. jimctis ; valvis omnibus mucronatis, mucroDe seu umbili- 
coideo seu pnuctato seu pustuloso ; zona omnino fasciculis minutis 
spicularum minimarum irregulariter conferte instructa. (Cpr.) Lou. 
200, Lat. 75 mm. Div. 130°. 

Hah. — Jajian Sea ; Sakalin Id. ; Kuril Ids. ; Kamchatka (southern 
extreme) ; the Aleutian Islands and the Vvhole coast southward to 
Monterey and the Santa Barbara Islands, California. Usually found 
just below tide-marks, and often cast uj) on the beach in great numbei's 
by severe gales. Collected abvindautly at Unalashka and Sitka, also at 
Monterey ; Dall ! 

This the largest and in many other respects the most remarkable of 
all Chitons is readily recognized by its wholly covered valves, no indi- 
cation of which is evident, even under the skin, in fresh examples. It is 
covered with cells, each holding a fascicle of small spines, which, when 
dry, have an urticating effect upon the skin of those who may handle 
them. The foot and softer parts are used as food by the Aleuts and 
Indians ; they are eaten in the raw state. The back is of a fine ferru- 
ginous red when fresh ; dried specimens are usually more or less dis- 
torted and mauled ; one of those figiu-ed by Eeeve appears to have been 
partly rotten. 

There is a good deal of variation in the size and relative proportions 
of the valves in ditierent individuals, and the fissures arc sometimes 
partly abortive or abnormally multiplied. 

The soft parts of this species have formed the subject of an extensive 
monograph by Dr. Middendorf in his first part of the Beitr. Mai. Eos- 
sica. To that work the student is referred for details. 

Genus KATHERIXA Gray. 

JSatherina Gray, F. Z. S. 1847, p. G5. Typo K. tunicata Wood. 

Lorica parva; zona Iffivis, in suturas valde expansa; laminae valde 
antice projectce, v. post, ssepe lobatoe; sinus altissimus, spongiosus; 
branchiiE ambientes. 

This is an aberrant genus. In the smallness of the exposed portion 
and smoothness of the girdle it resembles PJiacelloplcura ; in the extreme 
anterior projection of the plates, and in the deep spongy sinus, it is most 
like N'tittalJlna, of which it might be regarded as an exaggeration with 
a smooth girdle ; but the tail-plate has most afSnity with the Mopaloidea. 
Specimens may be found with many lobes Yika Phacdloplcura ; but on 
comparison of many individuals it will bo found that the normal ai'- 
rangement is a mopaloid slit on each side, with ah angular sinus at the 
tail, and that the extra slits arc extremely irregular and secondaiy. In 
NuftaUin-a, the i^lan, on the contrary, is i)erfectly regular, and Pliacello- 


pleura appears to be of tlie regular type. Middendoi'fs figures of the 
plates are inaccurate, and Gray's description in tlie Guide differs from 
his more correct account in the Proc. Zool. Soc. (Cpr. MS.). 

In the sole si^ecies of this genus, the ovary is convoluted and suigle. 
The ovarian openings are found on each side between the line of the 
hranchiic and the side of the foot. They are placed in the vicinity of 
the fifth hranchia from the i)osterior end of the row. There are no slime 
glands. The organ of Uojanus appeared to he represented by a glandu- 
lar deposit on the floor of the visceral cavity behind. The muzzle is 
l^lain, drawn down to corners behind on each side, but without fla]>s. 
Veil narrow, thin, plain, x)roduced in a flai) on each side of the muzzle. 
Mantle-edge narrow, plain. Branchiae about sixty on a side in a ro^^' as 
long as the foot, xinus papillate, median, with a ridge extending eacli way 
from it. Soft parts yellowish to deep orange, girdle shining blue black. 

Katherina tunicata. 

Chiton tunicatus\\(xoA, Gen. Conch, p. 11, fol. 2, f. 1, 1815; Ind. Test. Cliiton, 

pi. 1, f, 10, 1828 ; lb. ed. Haul. 1856.— Sowerby, Beecliey's Yoy. Zool. p. 

150, t. sU, f. 15, 1839.— Reeve, Conch. Icon. Mon, Chiton^ f. Gl (good), 1847. 
Chiton {Phccnochiton, Hamachiton, riatysemus) tun ica ttis Midd. — Mai. Ross, i, p. 

98, t. s, f. 1-2, 1847. 
Katherina tunicata Gray, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 69; lb. Guide, p. 185, 1857. — Cpr. 

Suppl. Rep. Br. As. 1863, p. 648. 
Katherina Dotif/lasiw Gray, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 69. 
Katherina tunicata H. & A. Adams, Geu. Roc. Moll. :, p. 479, iii, pi. 54, f. 6, 


K. t. extus, valvis postice fere rectangulatis ; area jugali longissimu, 
antice inter lam. sutur. projecta, tenuissime punctulata; area centr. 
rotuudatis, quincuncialiter fortiore punctata; ar. lat. hand definitis, fere 
obsoletis ; mucrone subpostice mediano, elevato ; intus, v. post, laminis 
ad caudam angiilatim sinuatis, prsecipue utr. lat. unifissatis, sed inter- 
dum in lobas ii'regulares ^, -J, |, f, i fiss.; v. centr. 1-, ant. 7-fissatis; 
laminis prcelougis, antice valde projectis, acutis, extus striatis, fissuris 
parvis, suftultis, ad subgrundas solidas, curtissimas valde spongiosas, 
sulcis continuis; sinu altissimo, angusto, spongioso; lam. sutur. seiiara- 
tis, prffilongis; zona nigra, supva valvis tenui, omnino lievi. Lon. 50, 
Lat. 20 mm. 

Hah. — Kamchatka (Cpr.); the entire Aleutian group; on the nortli 
side of the peninsula of Aliaska to Port Moller, and on the south side 
east to Cook's Inlet, and south to Catalina Island, California ; low water 
(chiefly), to 20 fathoms. Several hundred specimens examined. 

This unmistakable shell, characterized, when fresh, by its broad shin- 
ing black girdle and almost covered valves, is eaten raw by the natives 
of the northwest coast, and is said to act as an aphrodisiac. The sup- 
posed second species of Gray is merely a result of an irregular drying 
of the girdle. The soft parts are of a salmon color in northern speci- 


mens. The less important details are very variable in difierent indi- 

In taking leave of the Irregular Chitons, a few notes on exotic species 
of this section may be properly incorporated. 

In Chitonellus fasciatus, the representative of the most highly devel- 
oped type of Chiton, the gill-rows are confined to the posterior quarter 
of the foot, but the separate branchiiie of which they are comjiosed are 
very large, twenty-six or eight in number, and rather long. There was 
no well-marked crop, as in ordinary Chitons. The muzzle was inconspic- 
uous, augulated at the posterior corners, with no veil. Mantle hardly 
visible. There seemed to be two oviducts leading from a single ovary 
(compounded of two !) to small orifices, one on each side of the anus. 

In Cryptoconclms monticularis Quoy, which much recalls the northern 
Katlierina, the girdle varied from black to light brown. A veil was 
present, but narrow and simple, while the mantle-edge was hardly per- 
ceptible. Gill-rows one-third as long as the foot, containing each about 
eighteen branchiae. Muzzle very transverse, with flaps at the posterior 
corners. Ovisac single. 



Leptochiton Gray, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 127 ; Guide, p. 182, 1857. 

< Leptochiton H. & A. Adams, Geu. Rec. Moll, i, p. 473, 1834. — Clienu, Man. Conchyl. i, 

p. 381, 1859, etc. 

< Lepidopleurus Risso (ex Leach MS.), 1826. — Sars, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norvegise, p. 110, 


Lam. insertionis nullis; zona minutissune sabulosa; sinus Itevis; hand 
laminatus; branchite breves. Type i. aseZZws Lowe. 

The diagnosis of Gray determines the genus, but he includes in the 
examples cited C. alhus L., which is a Trachydermon. Two out of twenty- 
five species cited by the brothers Adams are real Leptochitons ; the 
example cited by them as typical is not a Lejitochiton, neither is the 
example cited by Chenu. The other Leptoid genera are as follows : 
Hauleyia Gray, Guide, p. 186, 18.57. 

Anterior valve witli an unslit iusertion-plate ; other valves without even the 
plates. H. debilis Gray. 

Hemiarthrum Carpenter, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. iii, p. 44, 1876. 

Insertion-plates present on all the valves, hut entire without slits. H. setulosum 
Cpr. 1. c. 

Deshayesiella Carpenter MS. 

LoricS. elongate ; valva curvatre, autice tendentes; mucro planatns, zon^ spicu- 
losa; lam. insert, uullia ; lam. sut. triangulares, extantibus. D. {Leptochiton) 
curvatus Cpv. 


Microplax H. Adams. 

KesembliDg Chitonellus externally ; submerged lamina} unslit, entire, fused in an 
undistinguisliable manner witli tlie parts whicli usually constitute the sutural 
lamina?. M. Grayi Ad. Sc Ang. 

The paleozoic HelmintJiochiton Salter, Priscochiton Billings, GrypJio- 
chiton Gray, and several unpublished names of Dr. Cari)enter, all belong 
to the Leptoidea. A large number of the fossils described as Chitons 
(for instance Sulcocliiton Grayi Eyckholt) are not moUusks; many of 
them being valves of Balani or fragments of isopod crustaceans. 

Iieptochiton cancellatus. 

Chiton cancellatus Sowerby (as ? of Leach MS.), Conch. 111. f. 104-5, 1839. 

Chiton alhiis Pulteney, nou Lin. fide Hauley. 

Chiton cancellatus Reeve, Conch. Ic. pi. lix, f. 152, 1847. 

Chiton asellus Midd. Mai. Ross, i, p. 122, 1847, not of Lowe. 

Chiton cancellatus Forbes & Hauley, Brit. Moll, ii, p. 410, pi. lix, f. 3, 1853 

(outlines inverted in figure). 
Leptochiton cancellatus H. & A. Adams, Gen, Rec. Moll, i, p. 473, 1854. 
Chiton cancellatus Jeffreys, Brit. Conch, iii, p. 217, 1865; v, p. 198, pi. Ivi, f. 1, 

Chiton alveolus Jeffreys, 1. c. iii, p. 218, 1865 ; not of Sars. • 
Chiton Bissoi auct. not of Payraudeau. 
Lejndopleurus cancellatus Sars, Moll. Reg. Arc. Norv. p. Ill, t. 7, f. 6 a-h, 1878, 

dentition t. I. f. 8, (imperfect). 
f Lepidopleurus arcticus Sars, 1. c. p. 112, t. 7, f. 7 a-h. 
? = Chiton islandicus Gmelin, S. N. 3206, 1788.— Schroter, Einl. iii, p. 509.— 

Dillwyn, Rec. Shells, i, p. 10, 1817. 

L. t. minima, elongata, valde elevata, regulariter arcuata ; jugo nullo ; 
aurantia plus minusve cinereo tincta, interdum albida; valvis angus- 
tioribiis, haud rectangulatis, apicibus nullis ; mucrone centrali, valde 
elevato, sculptura ut in L. asello, sed granulis parum majoribus ; areis 
centr. jjarum divergentibus, areis lat. satis definitis, \ix elevatis ; intus, 
laminis sut. minimis, triangnlaribus ; sinu latissimo, marginibusque 
valvarum a sculptura externa pauUulum crenulatis; sond, angusta, 
squamuliis teniiibus, haud imbricatis, haud striulatis, dense obsita. 
Lon. 6, Lat. 3 mm. Div. 80°. 

Hah. — British seas; ]S"orwegian coast in 50-100 fms.; Greenland; 
Gulf of Lyons (Jeffr.); Lofoten, 300 fms. (Sars); Vigo, Spain (McAn- 
«lrew); Dalmatia (Brusiua); Alaska, at Unalashka, Shumagins, Port 
Etches, and Sitka Harbor, 0-100 fms. Dall ! Ninety-four specimens ex- 

This species "without careful inspection will usually be confounded 
with small specimens of Trachydermon cdhus, but a glance at the scidp- 
ture is sufficient to separate it. From several other species of LeptocM- 
ton it is less readily distinguished, and a magnifier is indispensable. 
The differential characters are as follows : 

The pustules which constitute most of the sculptiu-e are arranged 
like overlapping coins or a solid-linked chain in lines which in the dor- 


sal area are nearly parallel with the longitudinal axis of the animal. 
The lateral areas are distinct, and the pnstules npon them are arranged 
in rather indistinct lines radiating toward the lateral ends of the valves, 
at nearly right angles to the lines on the dorsal area. The sculpture on 
the mncro is more delicate than elsewhere. The ajiex of the posterior 
valve is not sunken, and is not so sharp as in other species compared 
with it here ; the gh'dle is scaly, with also some small spinose transpa- 
rent scales near the margin. There are five gill-plumes on each side, 
prominent and near the vent. There appear to be two fenestra on eacli 
side. The lateral areas and other jiortions of the valves are nearly 
always colored with blackish or ferruginous patches, but these, as with 
Tracliydermon albus, seem to be really composed of extraneous matter. 

In L.faliginatus Ad. & Eve., the x>ustules are much smaller, and wiiile 
having a general longitudinal arrangement on the dorsum, do not form 
regularly defined rows or chains. The areas are not raised above the 
dorsum. The shell is much larger and more elevated, with a somewhat 
sunken and quite sharj) j)osterior mucro. The other mucrones are not 
raised, but about them the sculpture is more regularly aligned than 
elsewhere. I have compared the. valves of a typical specimen from 
Korea collected by Belcher. Eeeve's figure of the sculi^ture is very bad, 
as are most of his details. L. alveolus Sars is a very distinct species, 
though it has been confounded with this. Its sculptiu-e is composed of 
larger and rather more sx>arse, isolated pustules, absolutely irregular in 
distribution and of the same size on the mucro and elsewhere. Nowhere 
do they form lines. The arch of the back is peculiarly round, the lateral 
areas not raised and barely distinguishable. The girdle seems similar. 
I have compared typical examples. 

L. concinnus Gould, fi-om the types, is of a different color, and has a 
nruch stronger and different sculpture, like lines of rope. 

L. internexus Carpenter and var. rugatus Cpr. are more like concinnuft, 
but distinguished from either by the peculiar girdle covered with sub- 
equal scales. 

i. nexus Carpenter more nearly resembles cancellatus, but the sculp- 
ture is of separate, not lapping, rounded-rhomboidal imstules; the mu- 
crones are much more pronounced, and the white ground is prettily 
marbled with black and gray inherent coloration. 

The name cancellatus is a misnomer, since it is only in certain lights 
that any trace of reticulation can be observed faintly. The young aie 
flatter than the adults. It bears no resemblance to L. asellus, with which 
Middendorf united it, probably without a comparison. 

X. arctmis of Sars seems to be a finely grown variety of this species, 
if one may judge from the figures ; at least no difierential characters are 
given which seem to be of a permanent character, and not subject t() 
variation within the limits of a species. 

The specimens of this species obtained by me in Alaska were at first 
• referred to fuliginatus by Dr. Carpenter, and some specimens were dis- 
tributed under that name, or the name of fuUginosiis, before I had the 


opportunity of making the correction, wliich, had Dr. Cari^cntcr survived 
to finish his work, he would undoubtedly have done himself. 

In the hiu-ry of field-work, the specimens were confounded vv'i(»h younj^ 
T. alhus, and hence no observations on the living' animal were made. 
Had attention been drawn to it, it might, doubtless, have been obtained 
tlu'oughout the Aleutian chain, but no specimens occurred in the collec- 
tions from more noi-theru localities. Jeffreys states that the under edge 
of the girdle and the soft parts are yellowish white, tinged with flesh 
color; also that littoral specimens from Herm are larger than those found 
in deeper water. In Alaska it has been obtained only with the dredge. 

The gills occupy a space corresponding to the posterior quarter of the 
foot; there are about eight or ten on each side. The mantle- edge is 
])lain and thick. The veil is plain. The muzzle is rounded, v/ith a little 
papilla at the i^osterior corner on each side. 

Leptochiton alveolus. 

Lcptocldton alveolus (Sars MS.) Lov6n, lud. Moll. Lit. Scaiid. -p. 27, 1846. 

Not of Jeifrcys, etc. 
Lcpidoplcurus alveolus G. O. Siirs, Moll. Reg. Arc. Nor. p. 110, t. 7, f. 3 a-i; t. 

I, f. 7 (good), 1878. 

Hah. — Bergen, Lofoten, Finmark, 150-300 f. (Sars); Gulf of St. Law- 
rence, in 220 fathoms, between Cape Eosier and the S. W. point of Anti- 
costi Island, Whiteaves ! St. G eorge's Bank, Gulf of Maine, 150 t;athoms, 
IT. S. Fish Com., 1872 ! 

This extra -limital species is inserted here because of its possible rela- 
tions with the next species, and also to call attention to the addition to 
our Northeast American fauna made by Mr. WhiteaACS. It is a remark- 
ably distinct species, and if typical examples had been examined by the 
authors who have referred it to L. cancellatus, it would seem unlikely 
that it would have been so referred. 

Leptochiton Belknapi. 

Leptochiton Belknapi Dall, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. p. 1, Jan. 1878. 

L. t. elongata, valde elevata, dorsaliter angulata; albidii plus minusve 
cinereo et nigrotincta; valvis elevatis, apicibus distinctis; mucrone cen- 
trali conspicuo ; sculptura ut in L. alveolo, sed granulis in areis dorsalis 
sparsim et quincuncialiter dispositis. Yalva postica sub apice concavu, 
postice sinuata. Zona minima, spiculis tenuibus versus marginem mu- 
nita. Lon. 10.0, Lat. 3.0 mm. Div. 90°. 

Rah.— North Pacific Ocean, in lat. 53° 08' X, lon. 171^ 19' W., at 
a depth of 1006 fathoms; bla(;k sand and shells. Brought up in the 
sounding-cuj) by Capt. Geo. E. Belknap, U. S. IS"., on the sounding ex- 
])edition of IT. S. S. Tuscarora in 1871, bottom temperature 35°.5 F. 
(Specimens obtained by II. M. S. Challenger in Balfour Bay, Eoyal 
Sound, Kerguelen Id., Southern Ocean, in 20-00 fms., for examination 
of which I am indebted to the courtesy of Eev. E. J. Boog Watson, arc 
apparently identical with Capt. Belknap's species.) 


This specimen much resembles L. alveolus, to which I at first referred 
it. A careful microscopical examination, however, shows differences 
which I am disposed to consider specific; but I have but one si^ecimen, 
and others might show modifications in these particulars. 

The differential characters are as follows : In alveolus the pustules are 
distributed evenly, closely, and in no pattern whatever, all over the sur- 
face. In Bellnapi, they are more widely separated, and arranged in quin- 
cunx on the dorsum, the spaces seeming to radiate from the median 
dorsal hue. In alveolus, the lateral areas are barely perceptible ; in Bel- 
Jcnapi, they are raised, concentrically rugose, and the pattern of the pus- 
tidar arrangement is different and more irregular than that on the dorsum. 
In BeUcnapi, also, the girdle is very thin, narrow, and sparsely set witli 
small pellucid spicules near the margin. The posterior mucro, or apex of 
the posterior plate, in BelJcnapi, is prominent, overhangs a shallow con- 
cavity, and from its point there diverge anteriorly four depressed lines, 
the outer two to the anterior lateral angles of the plate, the inner two 
equidistant from each other 'and the outer hues. Between these lines 
the plate is swelled, forming three rounded ridges, extending forwaj'd 
like the leaflets of a trefoil or clover. Nothing resembhng this has been 
observed on any of the other species which have come under my notice. 

The soft parts, in spirits, appear to resemble the other species com- 
pared with it. It is evidently adult. 

It was certainly unexpected that a stone-clinging moUusk like a Chiton 
should reach such great depths as those from which this was obtained. 
In the same region, and at about the same depth, a Cyliclina and a 
Natica, both api)arently identical with certain Arctic species, were also 
obtained in the same way. Its enormous range in latitude, as indicated 
by the Kerguelen specimens, reminds one of the range of species in 
earlier geological times, and points out how relatively modern our httoral 
marine faunie may be. It is not the only form common to the southern 
and northern oceans. 

Extra-limital Species. 
Leptocliiton asellus. 

Chiton asellus (Chemn. Spengl.) Lowe, Zool. Joum. ii, p. 101, pi. v, f. 3, 4, 1825. 

Chiton cinereus Montague, Tiirton, and others, not of Linn6. 

? Lcpidoplcurus cinereus Sars, 1. c. j). 112, j)l. 7, f. 8 a-h, 1878; as of Liun6. 

Rah. — Northern seas of Europe; Lofoten Ids.; Greenland? (Morch); 
not New England, as erroneously stated by authors. The cinereus of 
Linn(5, from his type, was a Trachydermon. 
Leptochiton fuliginatus. 

Chiton fuUginatus Ad. & Rve. Conch. Icon. pi. xxvi, f. 174, 1847. 
Sal). — Korea, Belcher. 
Leptochiton conciunus. 

Leptochiton concinnus Gld. Otia, p. 117, 1860. 
Hah. — Hakodadi, Japan ; Stimpson. 


Leptochiton nexus. 

L. nexus Cpr. Suppl. Kep. Br. As. 1863, p. 650. 
Hah. — California, Cooper. 

Leptochiton internesus and var. rugatua. 
L. internexus Cpr. MSS. 

Jlab. — California, CooiJer, Canfield and Hemphill. 

Hanleyia meudicaria. 

Chiton mendicarius Mighels & Adams, Boston Jouru. N. H. iv, p. 42, pi. iv, 

f. 8, 1842. 
Hanleyia mendicaria Cpr. N. Engl. Cliitons, 1. c. p. 154, 187.3. 

Hah. — Casco Bay; Grand Manan, Stimpsou; Portland Harbor, Me.,' 
U. S. Fish Commission. Deep-water specimens much larger than those 
from shallow water. 

Hanleyia debilis. 

Hanleijia debilis Gray, Guide, p. 183, 1857. 

Chiton Ranleji Beau, Brit. Mar. Coucli. p. 232, f. .57, 1844. — Sars, 1. c. p. 109, 
pi. 7, f. 5 a-i, 1878. 

Hah. — British seas northward; Mageroe near North Cape, 25-300 f., 
Sars. Stellwagen Bank, Mass. Bay, 38 fathoms, gravel; U. S. Fish 
Com., 1878. Tj^Q, of the subgenus. A recent addition to oiu^ North- 
east American fauna. 

Hanleyia (?) abyssorum. 

Chiton abyssorum M. Sars, MSS. — G. O. Sars, 1. c. p. 109, pi. 7, f. 4 a-c, pi. I, 
f. 6 a-c, 1878. 

Hal). — Bergen, Norway, 150-200 fathoms, Sars, 1. c. 

The teeth of this species as figured by Sars agree pretty well with 
those of H. mendicaria., but neither Prof. Sars' figures nor his descrip- 
tion afford means for determining its generic position. The valves of 
the two specimens figured exhibit rather remarkable dift'erences, and, 
this variation admitted, the question arises. Is this more than a gigantic 
form of the preceding ? 

Hanleyia tropicalis. 

A large and beautiful species from the deep waters of the Gulf of 
Mexico is the only other recognized species of the genus, and will be 
described by the writer in the Eei)ort on the Deep-sea Dredgings made 
under the supervision of Prof. A. Agassiz, on tlie U. S. Coast Survey 
steamer Blake, in 1878. 



Trachjdermon Cpr. Suppl. Eep. Br. As. 1863, p. 649, as a subgenus of lachnochiton, type 

Chiton ci7iereus Lowe. 
Lepklopleurus sp. auct. 
> CraspcdocMlua G. O. Sars, 1. c. j). 114. 


Lophyrns sp. G. O. Sars, 1. c. p. 114, not of Toll. 
<BoreocMton G. O. Sars, 1. c. p. 115. 
Leptochiton sp. auct. 

Char. — Laminse inserentes acutiB, Iseves; valvfe extns ct intus Iscli- 
nochitoui exacte simulans; zona non porifera, squamulis mimitissiiuis 
lai\abus coufertissime graniilata; branchiae breves. 

This name was originally proposed as a subgenus of Ischnochiton to 
include Gray's second section, "mantle scales minute, granular" (P. Z. S. 
1847, p. 147; Guide, p. 182, 1857). In 
all other conchological characters, the 
group accords \vith that genus, but the 
animal differs in having the gills either 
entirely jiosterior or reaching forward 
from the tail only to about the middle 
of the foot, while in Ischnochiton and 

. . Pig. E. — Toeth of Trachi/dcrmon cinercus 

Chiton they travel to its anterior ex- Lowe; after Loveu. 

tremity. These characters indicate a transition between the Ischnoid 
and Leptoid Chitons by means of Trachydermon and Tonicella. Guilding 
called the radulaof Chitons "Trachy derma"; but as the name has not 
been adopted, no inconvenience is likely to ensue. (Cpr. MSS.) 

The genus is chiefly northern in its distribution. Chiton marginatm 
of authors (Pennant's species being indeterminable) and C. cinereus (Linn.) 
Lowe, are identical, according to Dr. Carpenter, the best authority on 
the subject, as well as Hanley and others. The '■'■ Lepidoplcnrus'''' cinereua 
of Sars is not the Linnean species, which is the type of Trachydermon, 
l)ut a Leptochiton. His C rasped ochilus marginatus (whether the Chiton 
marginatus of Pennant or not) is a Trachydermon, and not improbably 
the true cinereus of Linne, which has been recognized, not from the 
insufficient description in the Syst. Xaturae, but from his typical speci- 
mens, through the invaluable labors of Mr. Hanley. 

Trachydermon ruber. 

Chiton ruher lAvrn. S. N. oil. xii, p. 1107, 1766. — Lowe, Zool. Jonrn. ii, p. 101, 

pi. 5, f. 2, 1825.— Gould, Iiiv. Mass. p. 119, f. 24, 1841.— Forbes & Hanley, 

Brit. Moll, ii, p. 399, pi. lix, f. G; AA, f. 6, 1853.— Hauloy, Shells of Lin. 

p. 17, 1855.— SoTvorby, Conch. III. Chiton, f. 103-4, 1839.— Reeve, Conch. 

Icon. Mon. Chiton, pi. 23, f. 175, 1847.— Jeffreys, Brit. Conch, iii, p. 224, 

1835; V, p. 199, pi. Ivi, f. 4, 18G9.— Binney's Gould's Inv. Mass. p. 280, f. 

523, 1870. 
Chiton ci)iereusO. Fabr. Faun. Gronl. p. 423, 1780; not of authors, nor of Linn. ; 

lb. Dillwyn, Cat. Eec. 8h. p. 12, 1817. 
Chiton minimus Spengler, Skrift. Nat. Selsk. iv, 1, 1797, fide Loven, not of 

Gmelin and Chemnitz. 
Chiton Icevis Lov^n, Ind. Moll. Lit. Scand. p. 28, 1846; not of Montague, 

Forbes and Hanley, etc. 
Chiton Iccms Pennant (i^robably), Brit. Zool. ed. iv, vol. iv, p. 72, pi. 36, f. '.\, 

nil (bad). 
Chiton latus Leach, Moll. Brit. p. 231, 1852, Doc, fide Jeffiroys; not of Lowe, 



Trachydermon ruber. 

Chiton i)itniceus Coutliouy (MS.)« — GIA. Otia Conch, p. 5, 1846 (probably). 
Leptochiton ruber H. & A. Adams, Geu. Eec. Moll, i, p. 473, 1854. 
Chiton {Lciiidopleurus) ruber Jo^&eys, Brit. Moll, lii, p. 210, 1865. 
Trachydermon ruber Carpenter, Bull. Esses Inst, x, p. 153, 1873. 
Boreochiton ruher G. O. Sars, Moll. Eeg. Arc. Norv. p. 116, t. 8, f. 4 a-1, t. II, f. 
3 a-c (imj)erfect), June, 1878. 

Tr. t. mucrone mediaiio, satis elevator intus, r. post. 9-11-, ant. 8-11-, 
centr. 1-flss. lajvi; dent, interdiim solidioribus, interdum i)ostice rugii- 
losis; subgrimdis modicis; siiin lato, i)lanato; zona normali; branchiis 
submedianis. Lou. 25, Lat. 8 mm. 

Hab. — Northern seas, widely distributed; whole coast of Norway, low 
water to 40 f. (Sars); Arctic and northern seas of Europe; Adriatic? 
(Olivi!) ; Spitzbergen, Iceland and Greenland, Ne^ England, Gulf of St. 
Lawrence and Labrador coasts ; Tartary (Lischke) ; Kamchatka ; and in 
Alaska from the Pribiloff Islands westward to Attn and southward to 
Sitka, low water to 80 fathoms, on stones and shells; probably also to 
Bering Strait northward. Two hundred specimens examined. ? Orange 
Harbor, Patagonia, as C. piiniceus. 

This shell is apparently smooth, as described by Forbes and Hanley, 
but under a high j)ower appears finely reticulated, as observed by Jef- 
freys. Its color is very variable, being usually marbled red and whitish, 
like Tonicella marmorea, but the valves may be uniform dark red or nearly 
imre white. I have one specimen with the four central valves dark red 
and the rest white; one valve in a specimen is often dark red, while all 
the others are marbled. It is most likely to be confounded with Toni- 
cella marmorea and some varieties of T. Jineata, both of which have 
leathery girdles, while this species can almost always be determined by 
its farinaceous girdle, dusted with alternate red and whitish patches, the 
latter nearly opiiosite the sutures. 

The identity or locahty of Dr. Gould's specimen, described as G. puni- 
ceus Couthouy, and supposed by Dr. Carpenter to be probably the same 
as our northern species, seems questionable. 

This species has been much confused by European authors, who have 
persisted in referring the Linuean name to T. marmorea Fabr., and resur- 
recting the indeterminate figure of Pennant for this species, though Mr. 
Hanley has determined the identity of the Linnean specimen with this 
species, and he did not possess the marm o rea. The synonymy here quoted 
is only such as certainly belongs to this species. 

Though not collected in a fresh state by me north of the Pribiloff Islands, 
I have little doubt that broken valves found in bird-dung at Plover Bay, 
near Bering Strait, are properly referable to this species. It is one of 
the most abundant Alaskan Chitons, and grows to the length of an inch. 

The gill-rows extend forward for three-quarters the length of the foot, 
each row containing twenty to twenty-five branchioe. The mantle -edge 
is very narrow and -plum ; there is no veil, and the muzzle is i^lain, some- 
Proc. Nat. Mus. 78 21 Feb. 14, 18 79. 


y/liat produced beliiiid iuto two corners. The eggs in part of the ovisac 
were well developed, and resembled the figure of the youngest stage 
given by Loveu. Anus median, inconspicuous, close to the mantle-edge. 
On each side of it, midway between it and the posterior ends of the gill- 
rows, is a fold containing the ovarian fenestra?. The number of openings 
varies from three to six in dilierent individuals. They are linear, oblique, 
and close together. They are more strongly marked in this species than 
in any other Chiton I have examined. 

Trachydcrmou albus. 

Chiton albus Liu. S. N. ed. xii, p. 1107, No. 8, 1766. — Lowe, Zool. Journ. iii, p. 80, 

1826.— Fabricius, Faun. Groul. p. 422, 1760.— Sowerby, Couch. 111. Chitou, f. 

99, 100, 1839.— Gould, luv. Mass. p. 150, f. 21, 1841.— Lov^n, lud. Moll. Lit. 

Scaud. p. 27, 1846.— Middcudorf, Mai. Ross, i, p. 120, 1847.— Forbes &, Hau- 

ley, Brit. MoV. ii, p. 40.'), pl.lxii,f.2, 1853.— Hanley, Shells of Liu. p. 17, 

1855.— Stimpsou, Sh. of New Eugl. p. 28, 1851 ; lb. Mar. luv. Graud Mauau, 

p. 22, 1853.— Jeffreys, British Conch, iii, p. 220, 1865; v,p. 199,pl.lvi,f.3, 

1869.— Biuuey's Gould, p. 263, f. 525, 1870. 
? Chiton oryza Speugler, Skrift. Nat. Selsk. Bd. iv, Hft. 1. 1797 (fide Jeffreys). 
Chiton aselloidcs Lowe, Zool. Journ. ii,p. 103, t. 5, f. 3, 1825. — Wood, lud. Test. l,f. 9, 1828. 
Chiton sa(/rinatu8 Couthouy, Am. Journ. Sci. xxxiv, p. 217, 1838; lb. Bost. 

Journ. Nat. Hist, ii, p. 82, 1838. 
LeptochHon aJbus H. & A. Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, i, p. 473, 1854. 
C. (LepidojjJenrus) albus Jeffreys, Brit. Conch, iii, p. 210, 1865. 
Traclujdcnnon albus Carpenter, New Engl. Chitons, Bull. Essex lust, v, p. 153, 

C. {Lcptochiton) albus Morch, Moll. Greenl. 147, 1875. 
Lophyrus albus G. O. Sars, Moll. Reg. Arc. Norv. p. 114, t. 8, f. 2 a-b (probably 

not t. I, f. 9 or-b), June, 1878. 
fLophijrus exaratus G. O. Sars, 1. c. p. 113, t. 8, f. 1 a-k, t. ii, f. 1 (bad). 
? C. minimus Gmel. S. N. p. 3205, 1788. (Bergen.) 

Tr. t. mucrone mediano, parum elevato ; intus, v. post. 10-, ant. 13-, 
centr. l-fiss.j dent, acutissimis, posticis interdum serratis; subgrundis 
spongiosis; sinu modico, undulato, hand angiilato, laevi; zona squamu- 
lis solidioribus ; branchiis medianis. Lon. 10, Lat. 5-G mm. Div. variable. 

Hal). — Arctic and boreal seas, Atlantic and Pacific. British seas 
south to the Isle of Man ; Scandinavian seas, 10 to 100 fathoms (as e.r- 
omf?(s to 200 fathoms); Spitzbergen; Iceland; Greenland, White Sea; 
Gulf of St. Lawrence; Massachusetts Bay; on the Pacific from the 
Arctic Ocean south to the Shumagins and west to Kyska and probably 
to Attn, low water to 80 fathoms, on stones and shells. Two hundred 
and forty-eight specimens examined. 

The synonymy of this species might have been much enlarged under 
the old name of Gliiton albus, but to no particular purpose. It is a well- 
known and characteristic Arctic shell. American and particularly deep- 
water Alaskan specimens are larger, finer, and better display the scales 
of the girdle than European specimens. Sars' exaratus would seem to 
be probably of this description. 

It seems also to be more common to the westward. Its chief pecu- 


liarity is tliat tlie ceutral i>lates of the tail-valve arc broken by serra- 
tions, and tliat the scales are large and gravelly. 

The gills ai-e twenty to twenty-live in number, the rows extending" to 
the head. Mantle-edge narrow, plain. There is no veil, and the semi- 
eircular muzzle is also i^lain. Anns terminal, papillate. Ovarian open- 
ings single, on each side, the posterior end of the gill-row i)assing be- 
hind them. The OAidncts, as in some other species, could not clearly be 
made out. The ovisac or ovary is irregularly shaped and single. 

The figure (pi. I, f. 9 a) strongly suggests that Prof. Sars, by inadvert- 
ence in selecting a specimen for examination of the radula, got hold of 
one of the exti'emely similar Leptochitons, shice it does not resemble the 
radnla of T. alhus, of which I have examined both American and Euro- 
pean specimens. On the other hand, the not particularly commendable 
figure of the radula of L. exaratus Sars looks more like alhus than any- 
thuig else. 

? Trachydermon lividus. 

Chiton lividus MidiL Mai. Eoss. i, p. 124, i)l. xiii, f. 3 a-g, 4, 1847. 

Hah. — Sitka, Alaska Territory. 

This species (and C scrohicidatns Midd. from California) probably be- 
longs to this genus, but the descriptions and figiu-es are not sufficiently 
clear to have admitted of their identification up to the present time. 
The character most emphasized by Middendorf in C. lividus is a key- 
stone-like projection filling the anterior sinus between the two sutiiral 
laminte. The specimen on which the description was based was a very 
small and perhaps immature creature, with faint sculptiu-e, somewhat 
recalling 2Iopalia 'Hindsii. 

EMra-limital Species. 
Tracliydermon cinereus. 

Chiton cinereus (Lin.) Lowe, Zool. Joum. ii, j). 99, 1825. — Forbes & Hanley, 

Brit. Moll, ii, 402, pi. Iviii, tig. 1, 1853 (not of Sars). 
Trachydermon inarginatus Cpr. New Engl. Chitons, 1. c. p. 153, 1873. 
Craspedochilus marginatus Sars, 1. c. p. 115, t. 20, f. 16 a-h, t. II, f. 2, 1878. 

Hah. — British and Scandinavian seas, north to Lofoten, south to Vigo 
Bay, between tides and to the Lamiuarian zone. Tyjie of the genus. 

Trachydermon dentiens. 

Chiton dentiens Gld. Otia, pp. 6, 242, 1862. 

Ischnochiton (Trachi/dermon) pseudodentiens Cpr. Suppl. Rep, 1. c. p. 649, 1863. 

Hah. — Puget Sound and Vancouver Island. 

The fact that the "teeth" are merely peculiar color-marks does not 
render it necessary to dispense with the original name of Dr. Gould. 

Subgenus Trachyradsia Cpr. MSS. 
Tracliydermon, valvis centralibus bi- sen pluri-fissatis. Tyx)e Chiton 
fulgcfrum Reeve. 

Trachyradsia aleutica. 

T. aleiUica Dall, Proc. Nat. JIus. p. 1, Jan. 1878. 

T. t. parva, rufocinerea, oblonga, fornicata, jugo acutissimo ; mucrone 


siibmediano, cpicibus promiueutibns ; ar. lat. inconspicnis ; tota super- 
ficie qnincuiicialiter miiiute reticulata ; inhcs, v. ant. 16. post. 11^ ceutr. 
2-tissata 5 dent, parvis lierspougiosis, late separatis ; subgrundis spon- 
giosis, Curtis 5 siuu parvo; zona squamulis minutis obsita. Lou. 6, Lat. 
3 mm. 

JTal). — Kyska Harbor, Kyska Id. Constantine and Kiriloff Harbors, 
Amchitka Island, and i^azan Bay, Atka, m the Western Aleutians, at 
low- water mark, under stones on the beach, Dall ! Fifteen examples. 

This modest little species is of a dull livid piu-plish red, with an ashy 
tinge, especially on the narrow gudle. Except for the well-marked 
ridges of growth, it appears smooth, but possesses (like all Chitons) a 
line reticulation, only visible under a magnifier. The lateral areas are 
not distinct, the back is very much rounded, and the valves well hooked 
in the median line. The substance of the valves from within ai^i^ears 
remarkably spongy, as if rotten, or even like vesicular pumice, espe- 
cially under the eaves. The anterior slits are marked by i^diating lines 
of holes, though the teeth between them can hardly be made out. The 
posterior valve, however, has not this aid to coimting, and in the general 
sponginess it is almost impossible to say how many teeth or denticles 
exist. It bears no marked resemblance to any other species of the re- 


Tonicella Cpr. Bull. Essex lust, v, p. 154, 1873. Type T. maivnorea Fabr. 

Tonicia sp. Adams, Gray, Cpr. aud others. 

< Boreochiton G. O. Sars, Moll. Ref^. Arc. Norv. p. 116, Juue, 1878. 

YalvjB, mucro, laminte et sinus plerumque ut in Ischnochitoue ; zona 
ut in Tonicia, coriacea, la?vis, seu subLTvis : branchire media?. 

The genus Tonicia Adams and Gray, to which the species of Tonicella 
have often been referred, has pectinated insertion-plates and ambient 
gills like the typical Chitons, while Tonicella has sharp plates and short 
rows of gills. The two groups also <lilier in their dentition. The major 
lateral of Tonicella is strongly tridentate ; in Tonicia the cusp of the 
major lateral is scoop-shaped, rounded, with a plain edge, and the radula 
recalls that of Chiton (typical) and Gorephium. Prof. Sars appears to 
have been unaware of Dr. Carpenter's publication on the New England 

Tonicella marmorea. 

Chiton marmoretts Fabricius, Fanu. Griiul. 420, 1780. — Jlidd. Mai. Ross, i, p. 103, 

1847; Sib. Reise, 182,, 1851.— Forbes & Hanley, Brit. Moll, ii, p. 414, pi. 

Iviii, f. 2, pi. lix, f. 4, 1853.— Jeffreys, Brit. Couch, iii, p. 227, 18G5, v, p. 

199, pi. Ivi, f. 7, 1839. 
CUton ruler Speugler, Skrift. Nat. Selsk. iv, p. 92, 1797.— Lov6u, lud. Moll. 

Scaud. p. 28, 184G ; uot of Liuue. 
Chiton Iwvigaius Fleming, Ediu. Encycl. p. 113, t. vii; Brit. An. p. 290, 1828.— 

Reeve, Couch. Icon. Chitou, pi. 27, f. 179, 1847. 
? Chiton inmctatus Strom (Jeffreys)?, Acta Nidr. iii, p. 433, t. vi, f. 14. 


Tonicella marmorea, 

Chiion latus Lowe, Zool. Jom'u, ii, p, 103, 1)1. 5, f. 6-7, 1825. — Sowerby, Couch. 

111. Cliiton, f. 113, 1H39. 
Chiton fulminatus Couthouy, Bost. Joum. Nat. Hist, ii, p. 80, pi. 3, f. 19, 1838.— 

Gould, Inv. Mass. i, p. 148, f. 3, 1841. 
CliUon pktus Beau, Thorpe's Brit. Mar. Conch, ix 264, pi. — , f. 56, 1844. 
Chiton Flemingius Leach, MoU. Gt. Brit. p. 230, Dec. 1852. 
Tonicia onarmorea H. & A- Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, i, ]). 474, 1854. 
Tonicella marmorea Carpenter, Bull. Essex Inst, v, p. 154, 1873. 
BoreocMton marmoreus G. O. Sats, MolL Reg. Arct. Norv. p. 110, t. 8, f. 3 a-I, 

t. II, f. 4 (not good), 1878. 

T. t. elongata, valvis lit iu " Ti-acliydermon ruber" picturata; zona 
coriaeea, exiiausa, la?vi; iutus, v. post. 8-0, v. ant. 8-10, v. centr. 1-fis- 
sata; siim angusto, altiore, la^vL Lou. 40, Lat. 24 mm, 

j£al). — Aleutian Islands, 8-10 fins., rare j east coast of IsTortli America 
from Massachusetts Bay northward to Greenland; every part of the 
Xortli Atlantic north of Great Britain, and as far south as Dublin Bay 
on the west and the shores of Holkind on the east ; in 5-100 fathoms, 
according- to temperature. 

This -well-known species has almost exactly such a color-pattern as 
Trachi/dermon ruber, and in dry specimens the pilose girdle of the latter 
is the most convenient means of distinction. A comparison of European 
with Greenland specimens shows that the latter are usually more ele- 
vated, and the posterior valve has usually seven slits instead of eight or 
nine. This form, of comvse, is the typical one ; those from Eiu-ope may 
perhaps retain the varietal name of T. latus Lowe. The Alaskan speci- 
mens, as is often the case with mollusca of this region, are more like 
European than East American specimens, and in the fresh condition ex- 
hibit a very broad, smooth, yellowish girdle, sometimes as wide on each 
side of the valves as the whole width of the shelly part. Otherwise they 
agree with Norwegian specimens. The measiu'ements given above are 
for the very largest ; they average about an inch in length. It doubtless 
extends to the Arctic Ocean on the shores of Alaska, though all om- 
specimens happened to come from the Aleutians. 

Jeffreys states that this may be identical with C. pimctatus Strom, but 
the name would be an evident misnomer, as it is iu no way punctate, 
and the identiiicatiou requires further confirmation. 

Middendorf found a variation in the number of anterior slits, being 
five to seven, and in i)osterior slits six to nine, in all, in the specimens 
he examined, which came fi*om the White Sea and Arctic coast of Eussian 

An attempt has been made to identify this species with C. ruber Lin., 
but the examination of the Linnean Chitons by Mr. Ilanley has left this 
theory no sound foundation, and it hardly recpiires further notice. 

The gill-rows of this species extend forward three-quarters the length 
of the foot, and each contains twenty to twenty-five branchiae. Mantle- 
edge i^lain, inconspicuous, very narrow. The margin of the muzzle is 


puckered up in front, with tlio posterior corners produced into lajipets. 
There is no veil. Oviducts not clearly made out. The ovarian openings 
are simple and close on each side of and a little behind the aims, from 
which a ridge extends in front of them on each side. But there appear, 
also, to be two openings in the vicinity of the fourth or fifth branchia 
from the posterior end of the gill-rows, olie on each side. The contracted 
condition of the specimens, from the effect of the alcohol in which they 
were preserved, prevented a satisfactory confirmation of these appear- 
Tonicella lineata. 

Chiton Uneatus Wood, Gen. Concli. p. 15, pi. 2, f. 4-5, 1815. — Midd. Mai. Eoss. 
i, p. 109, t. xii, f. 8-9, 1847. — Keeve, Coucli. Icon. Mon. CMtou, j)L vii, f. 
33, 1847. 

Tonicia lineata H. & A. Adams, Gen. Eec. Moll, i, p. 474, 1854. 

Chiton {Hamachiton, Stvnosemus) lineata Midd. Mai. Eoss. i, p. 34. 

Tonicella lineata Carpenter, MS. 

T. t. mucrone antice mediano, satis elevato; intus, v. ant. 9-12-, v. 
post. 8-10-, V. centr. l-fissataj dent, obtusioribus (t. jun. acutis), posticis 
curtioribus, vix iiiterdiun rugulosis; subgrundis curtis, spongiosis ; sinu 
angusto, alto, Isevi, angulato; branchiis mediauis; testa externa subele- 
vata, tegmentum Iseve, areis lateralibus vix distinctis; flavum aut fiis- 
cum, Uneolis albis pictum, zona coriacea, oculo nudo la?vis. Lon. 30, 
Lat. 15 mm. Div. 120^. 

Sal). — Prom Bering Strait south, on both coasts j westward to Japan 
and the Okhotsk Sea; eastward to the Bay of Monterey, Cahfornia, and 
including the whole Aleutian chain; low water to CO fathoms. Two 
hundred and eighty specimens examined of the typical form. 

The painting of this very characteristic species is very variable, even 
on different valves of the same individual. Xothing can apj^ear more 
distinct than the coloration of tyjiical specimens of some varieties, but 
in a large series the differences do not hold equally good. The number 
of slits is also somewhat variable, occasional abnormal or injured speci- 
mens having only six or seven shts in the tail- valve. But fine and nor- 
mal specimens of both varieties show no more than individual variations. 

Middendorf, while pointing out the distinctions between the following- 
species and T. marmorea, appears to have overlooked the connection be- 
tween the former and T. lineata, and his description does not always 
agree with his figures. 

From Tonicia lineolata Sowerby, from South America, beside the in- 
ternal generic characters, the exterior differs by the absence of punctures 
and raised granules at the sides. 

T. mhmarmorea is further distinguished from lineata by the somewhat 
raised Uiteral areas, Avhich are hardly perceptible in the present form. 
It is one of the handsomest Alaskan Chitons. The southern specimens, 
especially those from Monterey, generally have the yellow and brown 
lines marginated with blue, which produces a peculiar color-effect. 


The gill-rows extend forward two-thkds the length of the foot. They 
contam about twenty-seven branchiiie on each side, fhe mantle-edge is 
very narrow, hardly distinguishable around the head. There is no veil. 
The edge of the muzzle is marginated all aroundj and draAvu into flails 
at the posterior corners. 

Tonicella submarmorea. 

Chiton siibmarmoreus Midd. Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg, i\', No. 8, 1846; 
MaL Ross, i, p. 98, 1847; lb. Sib. Eeise, p. 178, pi. xiv, f. 7-10, xv, £ 7-8, 
Cliiton insignia Reeve, Conch. Icon. Mon. Chiton, pi. xxii, No. 149, f. 148, 1847. 

T. t. ut in forma prsecedente, sed testa externa ex rosea flavoque alba, 
maculis tlammulisque sed rufis, sed albis picta; tegmentum zoniB la3vius- 
culum, nitidulum, iiavum aut fuscum pictum. 

Hal). — Japan and the Okhotsk Sea, Aleutian Islands to Sitka and 
Fuca Strait. It has not been found north of the Aleutians or south of 
Washington Territory. 

In the description of this form, JMiddendorf, in disting-uishing it from 
T. marmorea, seemed to overlook its relations to T. Umata^ from which, 
for some time, I was indisposed to specifically separate it. The peculiar 
color of the valves is reproduced sporadically on some valves of T. linc- 
ata in occasional specimens 5 though these may be due to hybridization. 
The dentition, elsewhere figured, indicates, however, that the two forms 
are specifically distinct. The soft parts are very similar to those of T. 
marmorca in every respect except that the openings near the anus were 
absent. The specimen was a male, and the structure of the spermsac 
recalled that of Acmcca. Some of these differences maybe sexual; at 
all events, the subject requires investigation irom Uvmg specimens. 

Tonicella saccharma. 

Tonicella saccharina Dall, Proc. Nat. Mus. p. 2, Jan. 1878. 

T. t. parva, oblouga, tota superficie saccharina rufo et albescente picta; 
mucrone submediauo, inconspicuo ; ar. lat. inconspicue elevatis, ar. dors, 
sanguinosis, aeque quincuncialiter lente reticulata; v. ant. 10-11-, v. 
j)ost. 8-10-, V. centr. 1-flssata ; dent, parvis, spongiosis ; sinu parvo ; sub- 
grundis spongiosis, mediocris; zona coriacea ut in Toniccllcc aliis. 
Branchiis mediis. Lon. C.5, Lat. 4 mm. 

Hal). — Aleutian and Shumagin Islands ; Kyska, Unalashka, and Koni- 
ushi, 3 to 13 fathoms on stones! St. Paul, PribUoff Ids., 15 fathoms. 
Seven specimens examined. 

This interesting little species has the lustre of rock -candy, througli 
which the microscoi^ic reticulation is barely i)erceptible. It is marked, 
in all the specimens obtained, by the red wine colored dorsal areas con- 
trasted with a waxy white color of the lateral areas, rendering its rec- 
ognition easy. The girdle is dark, leathery, narrow, slightly i:>ubescent, 


and fiirnislied at its extreme margin with a fringe of fine spiny hairs or 
spicules, as in T. marmorea. 

? Tonicella Sitkensis. 

Chiton Siikotsis Midd. Bull. Acad. Sci. St., p. 121, 1846; Mal.Eoss. 

i, p. 112, t. xiii, f. 1-2, 1847. 
Totiicia Sitkensis H. & A. Adams, Geu. Rcc. Moll, i, p. 474, 1854. 
Not Chiton Sitlccn&is Reeve, Couch. Icou. sj). 55, 1847. 

?T. t. externa cTepressa; tegmentum loB^ausculum, areis lateralibus 
iudistinctis, sub leiite sj^arsim granulosum, rubicundum; limbi lievius- 
culi epidermis zonalis submicroscopio stroma exhibet spinulis latenti- 
bus erectis munitum; v. ant. 8-, v. post. 10-, v. centr. 1-fissata; brancliioe 
postica?,, parcfe, no. circ. 24. Lon. 10, Lat. 6 mm. Div. 130°. 

Sab. — Sitka, one specimen (Midd.). 

The above species described by Middendorf, if not a variety of one of 
the others, has not yet been identified or collected by any other natural- 
ist. His description differs very nuich from his figures, while the ante- 
rior teeth are figured as grooved outside; if correct, an unusual charac- 
ter. It is said to be nearest to T. mhmarmoreus^ and may well be a 
j'oung specimen of one of its numerous varieties. 


ScMzoplax Dall, Proc. Nat. Mus. p. 2, Jan. 1878. 

Tonicia sp. H. & A. Adams. 

Schizoplax Cpr. MS. (subgenus of Tonicella). 

Testa et zona Tonicellse simulans ; valvfe centrales sulco jugali medi- 
ano, antico argute incisoe ; branchice subambientes. 

For this remarkable form, which is distinguished from all other known 
Chitons by the median slit in all the central valves, I propose to adopt 
the MS. name suggested by Dr. Carpenter on Middendorf 's figures, rais- 
ing its value, however, to the rank of a genus. The specunens obtained 
by us api^ear to be the first obtained by any one since the original spe- 
cimens of Middendorf. 

Schizoplax Brandtii. 

Chiton Brandtii Midd. Bull. Acad. Sci. St. P^tersb. vi, p. 117, 184G; Mai. Ross, 

i, p. 128, 1847. 
Chiton (Hamachiton, Stenosemus) Brandtii Midd. Sib. Reise, p. 174, t. xv, f. 

1-6, 1851. 
Tonicia Brandtii H. & A. Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, i, p. 474, 1854. 
Schizoplax Brandtii Dall, Proc. Nat. Mus. p. 2, Jan. 1878. 

S. t. ovali, lougiori, aug-ustiori, satis elevata; jugo rotundato; oliva- 
ceo-fusca, caeruleo sen strigata, sen maculata sen nebulosa; sfepeirregu- 
laiiter castaneo; mucrone centr. irregulariter subplanato; v. post, om- 
iiiuo satis regulariter excurvata; ar. jug. noimisi colore definitis, ar. lat. 
vix definitis, tota superficie Iseviore, sub lente conspicue quinc. granu- 


lata; zona angusta, olivaceo-cinereo maculata, confertini spinulis minutis 
ornata, oculo undo subLevis 5 submicroscopio epidermis dorsalis piibes- 
ceus, stroma si)imdis rarioribiis latqjitibus erectis; mucro indistinctis 
iu siimma tameu linea mediaua valvanim intermediarum superne sulcus 
deciirrit linearis, longitudiiialis, argute iucisus; siuu jugali modico, alto, 
baud lamiuato, conspicue spougiosa, subgruudis minimis, maxime spon- 
giosis; V. ant. 11-, post. 11-, centr. 1-liss. Brancbiai circ. 22, subambi- 
entes. Lon. 16, Lat. 5 mm. Div. 140°. 

Hah. — Sbantar Bay, Okbotsk Sea, Midd. ; Aleutian Islands eastward 
to Sitka Harbor, low water to 12 fatboms on stones and sbells; Dall! 
Niuety-tbree si^ecimens examined. 

Tbis very remarkable species is very prettily marbled witb olive, 
cbestnut, and blue; tbe girdle generally dark obve, dasbed witb asby 
spots and in fine specimens baving a pubescent appearance. Tbe slit 
is occupied by a cartilaginous substance of a dark brown color, most 
visible from witbin. Tbe brancbiae appear to reacb nearly to tbe bead. 
It is quite possible tbat it may reacb as far soutb as Puget Sound. 

Tbe soft parts are yellowisb wbite. Tbe gill-rows exteud tbree-foui'tbs 
of tbe lengtb of tbe foot forward from tbeii* posterior termination, and 
eacb contains about twenty-two brancbiaj. Mantle-edge tbick, plain ; 
veil small, plain. Muzzle small, plain, witb two large squarisb lappets 
at tbe posterior corners. Tbe supx^osed oviducts open on eacb side 
tbrougb a small rounded papilla in tbe vicinity of tbe tbird or fourtb 
brancbia counting forward, and between tbe line of tbe gill-row and 
tbe side of tbe foot. 

Genus CH.^TOPLEUEA Sbuttlewortli. 

CliwiopJeura Slitittlew. Bern. Mittli. Jaui 1853. Tj-pe Chiton Penirianus Lam. 
<^Clia',topleara H. & A. Adams, Gen. Eec. Moll, i, p. 475, 1854. 
<^Acantliopleura Gray, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 67. 

Testa Iscbnocbitoni similis; zona plus minusve pilosa. Brancbiae 

Chaetopleura Hartwegli. 

Chiton Eartwegii Carpenter, P. Z. S. 185.5, p. 231. 

Trachydermon Hartwcgii Cpr. Suppl. Eep. Br. Assoc. 1863, p. 649. 

C. t. colore olivaceo, cinereo sen rufo-fusco seu cupreo-"viridi, saepe 
eleganter maculoso; intus, intense Cieruleo-viridi; mucrone mediano 
satis elevato; valvis smgulis tumentibus, eleganter arcuatis, apicibus 
conspicuis, suturis marg. distinctis; ar. diag. baud nisi costis tumenti- 
bus subobsoletis discernendis ; tota superficie super granulis minimis, 
sub lente solum distinguendis, granis parvis ubique sparsis ; sui)er ar. 
diag. et v. term, granis majoribus irregulariter verrucosis ; intus v. post. 
9-12-, ant. 10-11-, centr. 1-fissatisj dent, solidis, obtusis, interdum subru- 


giilosis, valde separatis; subgrundis spongiosis, parum extantibns; siim 
alto, lato, planato, spongioso, hand laminato; pagina interna callosa; 
zona fusca, minntissime grannlosa, inter grannlas setis pellucidis mini- 
mis line et illuc decurreutibns. Lon. 25, Lat. 16 mm. (Cpr. IMS.) 

Hah. — Columbian Arcbipelago, probably reacliing the southern bor- 
ders of Alaska, and southward to Magdalena Bay, Lower California. 
Forty specimens examined. 

This species having been originally described from imperfect speci- 
mens, I insert Dr. Carpenter's amended diagnosis. It has not occurred 
in our collections, but being abundant in the Yancouver region, doubt- 
less occurs in Southeastern Alaska. It is an aberrant species, and at 
some time may require to be separated from the genus to which Dr. Car- 
penter and myself have x^rovisionally referred it. 

Chagtopleura Nuttallii. 

Chiton mittaUU Cpr. P. Z. S. 1855, p. 231. 

Track ydennon Nuttallii Cpr. Supj)l. Eep. Br. Assoc. 1863, p. 649, 

C. t. mucrone satis planato; intus v. post. 11-, ant. 8-, ceutr. 1-fissata; 
aliter ut in C. Hartwegii formata. 

Hab. — With the last, also probably in Alaska. 

All the specimens examined appear to differ from C. Sartwegil in the 
broad non-sweUing valves, squared at the sides, and not beaked or waved. 
It may yet prove merely a variety. The characters of the mantle and 
interior are aberrant, as in the last species. 

Genus ISCHNOCniTO:N". 

IsclmocUton Gray ^*, P. Z. S. 1847, pp. 123-7. 
Lepidoplcurus Ad. Gen. Eec. Moll, i, 471, 1854. 

Testa tenuior ; lam. insert, regulares, acutte, nee pectinatae nee serra- 
tai; subgrundiB majores; sinus i)lerumque laivis; zona squamosa, squa- 
misplerumquestriatis; branchiae elongatie. (Q)r.) Type J. longicymha 

The main character of this genus, which includes by far the largest 
number of species of any single group of Chitons, consists in the row of 
sharp smooth insertion-teeth, surrounded by more or less projecting 
eaves, as first described by Di\ Carpenter in the Mazatlan Catalogue 
(p. 191), and in the scaly girdle. Dr. Carpenter has divided the group 
by its minor characters into the following subgenera: 

1. Stcnoplax Cpr C. limaeiformis Sowerby. 

Body elougatc. Scales elougate, chaflfy, striated, irregular, aud crowded. 

2. Stcnoradsia Cpr C. magdaJcnensis Hinds. 

Lilie Stcnoplax, -with numerous side-slits. 

3. Iscluioj)lax Cpr C. pcctinatns Sowerby. 

Like Stcnoplax, but with occasional large scales rising above the rest, aud a mul- 
titude of sliort striated bristles. Mucro raised, subposterior. 


4. Hetcrozona Cpr H. cariosa Cpr. 

Body elongate ; two kinds of ratlier solid, striated scales. 

5. Ischnochiton (restricted) Cpr C. longicymha Quoy. 

Scales transverse, flattened, somewliat imbricated, generally striated. 

6. Isclmoradsia Cpr. ex Shuttlewortli , C. dispar Sowerby. 

Scales striated. Central valves with many slits. 

7. Lepidopleurus Cpr ■. Ex C. JicrfcHsi Midd. 

Scales solid, imbricated, smooth. 

8. Lepldoradsia Cpr ,C austraVis Sowerby. 

Similar to the last, with many slits in central valves. 

The only Alaskan species of tbe restricted subgenus, so far as known, 
is the following form. 

Ischnochiton interstinctus. 

CUton interstinctus Gould, Moll. U. S. Expl. Exp. p. 322, pi. 27, f. 423, a, 1, 1852. 
C. (Leptochiton) interstinctws Gould, Otia, p. 230, 242, 1862. 
Callochiton interstinctus H. & A. Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, i, p. 471, 1854. 
Trachydermon interstinctus Cpr. Suppl. Eep. Br. As. 1863, -p. 649. 
Ischnochiton interstinctus Cpr. MS. 1871. 

I. t. mucrone antice inediano, satis elevato; intvs v. post. 12-, ant. 10-, 

centr. 1-fiss. ; dent, acutis ; subgrundis modieis ; sinu lato, plauato; some 

squamulis subovalibus, tenuissime striatis. Lon. 17, Lat. 7 mm. Div. 


Hah. — Sitka Harbor, 12 fathoms, mud and gravel! south to Monterey 
and the Santa Barbara Islands, California. Eighty-seven specimens 

This is a modest little species of a dark red color, mottled with light 
about the jugum. The riblets are somewhat broken into tubercles b}' 
the lines of growth. It appeared to be very abundant at Sitka in the 
locality where it was found. There are no other species likely to be con- 
founded with it in this district. 

The giU-rows are nearly as long as the foot. The muzzle is X)roduced 
into lappets at the corners. Ko data in regard to the fenestras could be 
obtained from the dry specimens. 

Ischnoradijia trifida. 

Trachydermon trifidus Cpr. Suppl. Eep. Br. As. 1853, p. 649; Proc. Phil. Acad. 
Nat Sci. 1865, p. 60. 

I. satis magna, satis elevata, regnlariterovali; rufo-castanea, pallidiore 
et intensiore maculata; jugo acutiore, gothico; mucrone mediano, pla- 
nato ) tota superficie vix miuutissime granulata ; ar. centrali lineis trans- 
versis, jugo perpendicularibus circ. YIII altissime puuctatis; ar. lat. 
valde definitis, costis obsoletis II-IV, interdum ad interstitiis puuctim- 
depressis; intus, pagiua interna albido-carnea, radiis II rufo-purpureis 
ab umbonibus plauatis divergentibus; v. post. 13-, v. ant. 13-, centr. 2- 
fissatis, dentibus acutis interdum ad margines serratis, interdum extus 
striatis sed interdum normalitcr laivibus; subgrundis consi)icuis sub- 


spongiosis; simi miiiore, lainiuato, lamiua atroqiie latere et iuterduin 
iu medio flssata; zona squamulis peri^arvis, solidioribus, irregulariter 
instructis Itevibus, iustructa; braucliiis fere ambieutibus, per valvas 
VI posticus contiuiiis. Lon. 40, Lat. 26 mm. Div. 135°. 

jlah. — Sitka, Port Etches, 9-18 fms., gravel, rare; south to Puget 
Souud. Six specimens examined. 

This rare and fine species is not i^articularly handsome, being of dull 
and livid colors, but is peculiarly characterized by the straight trans- 
^•erse ribs on the dorsal areas, with spongy interspaces, and by the 
pretty regular division of the lateral areas into three well-marked radi- 
ating costre, which are separated in the insertion-plate by two fissures. 
IsTo other species of the region resembles this in sculpture. Muzzle with 
a pectinated margin in front j)roduced into rounded lappets at the 
corners. Gill-rows as long as the foot, containing each 28-35 branchine. 
Veil absent. Mantle-edge plain, narrow. There is a small spherical 
lump on each side of the girdle just behind the posterior ends of the 
gill-rows, which are turned out toward the girdle and widely separated 
behind. The anus is large, median, and crenate, opening on the upper 
part of the hinder end of the foot. I^o ovarian openings could be 
detected, and the species presents some peculiarities which call for 
fiu'ther research with more material. 

Subgenus Lepidopleurus s. s. Cpr. 

Lepidopleunis Mertensii. 

Chiton Mertensii Midd. Ball. Ac. Sci. St. Petersb. vi, p. 118, 1846. 

Chiton (PhwnoGhiton, Ramachiton, Stenosemus) Mertensii Midd. Mai. Ross. p. 34, 

125, pi. xiv, f. 1-3 a-h, 1847. 
Leptochiton Mertensii H. & A. Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll, i, p. 473, 1854. 

L. t. colore rubido, interdum intensiore nebuloso; mucrone subcen- 
trali, hand elevatoj intus v. term. 9-12-, centr. 1 fiss.; dent, acutis; sub- 
grundis majoribus; sinu lato, planato, hievi; zona rubida sen pallidiore, 
squamis ovoideis, nitentibus, lievibus vix regulariter confertissime im- 
bricata. Lon. 20, Lat. 6 mm. Div. lOOo. 

Hah. — Sitka and vicinity, south to Monterey, Cal. Many specimens 

Middendorf 's description and figures of this shell do not agree well 
together. Its fine red color, sliarx) and prominent sculpture, usually 
free from erosion or nullipore, and beautifully shiniug-and regular scales, 
render this one of the most attractive and easil}" recognized of the 
Alaskan Chitons, There are no others in that region hkely to be con- 
founded with it. It rarely shows a white valve or a dash of white on 
some of the valves. 

The Soft parts of this species are whitish. The anus is on a papilla. 
Mantle-edge narrow, grauulose, forming on each side behind the last 
branchia a rounded lump or tumor. Near this the ovarian openings 
were thought to be detected. Muzzle semicircular, cornered behind on 


each side. No veil. Gill-rows three- quarters as long as the foot, each 
containiug- about forty branchiiie. 

(lu Lepidoradsia austmlis, the giU-rows were found to extend the 
whole length of the foot, and to contain forty-seven branchice in each. 
Mantle-edge plain, thin; muzzle i)lain, semicircular, without a veil; 
the ovarian openings situated close ou either margin of the anus.) 


Lorica elongata, valvis antice projectis; mucro posticus, elevatus; 
laminpe acutiB, hieves, (nisi v. post.) elongatse; v. centrales bifissatoB; 
sinus hand laminatus, planatus ; zona spinosa. 

From AcantJiopleura this genus differs in the sm.oothness of the sharp 
teeth, in their great length and Eadsioid slitting ; in the thrown-back 
mucro, which often projects beyond the margin ; in the throwing forward 
of the rest of the shell, as in Katherina, and in the deep spongy flat 
sinus which interrupts the sutural laminie. The name is given in honor 
of the late Thomas I^^uttall, Esq., once professor of natural history at 
Harvard College, and the original discoverer of the typical species, as 
well as many others of the shells and plants of California. (Cpr.) 

Nuttallina scabra. 

Chiton scaber Reeve, Conch. Icoia. Mou. Chiton, pi. xvii, f. 103, 1847. 
Chiton caJifornicus (Nutt. MS.) according to Carpenter. 
Not Chiton calif ornicus (Nutt. MS.) according to Reeve. 
Acanthoplcura scabra Cj)r. Suppl. Rep. Br. Assoc. 1863, p. 649. 

!N". t. mucrone postico, sed hand terminali, maxime trans marginem 
posticum elevato; v. post. 7-8-, v. ant. 10-11-, centr. 2-fissatis; dent, 
acutis, Icevibus, (nisi postice) prselongis, antice valde projectis; valvis 
centralibus dent. post, minoribus; subgrundis parvis, hand sulcatis; 
sinu altissimo, lato, plauato, spongioso, hand laminato; zona lata crassa; 
spinis testaceis curtioribus densissime obsita. Lon. 3G, Lat. 10 mm. 

Hah. — Vancouver district, south to California, probably in the south- 
ern islands of Alaska ,• at and above high-water mark, in crevices of the 
rocks ; at Monterey abundant. 

This singular species, not yet obtained from Alaska, but which will 
probably be found there, like some Litoriuas, seems habitually to prefer 
positions where it can at most be reached by the spray in storms, on ex- 
posed headlands, where the breeze comes in damp and cool from the sea. 
The pointed valves overlap each other so much that when the creature is 
curled up they project from the girdle, giving a pectinated outline, un- 
usual in Chitons. The valves are almost always eroded, even the prom- 
inent mucro is often hollowed out, and the sculi)ture can rarely be seen 
except in young specimens. The color is grayish or brownish, with 
whitish streaks ; the girdle has the aspect of dead brownish-black moss, 
sometimes with ashy spots at the sutures. 




Family LEPETID^. 

Genus LEPETA Gray. 

Lepeta Gray, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 168.— Dall, Am. J. Conch, t, 1869, p. 140. 

Subgenus Lepeta Dall ex Gray. 

Lepeta Dall, Mou. Fam. Lepetidaj, Am. J. Concli. v, 1869, p. 141. 

Lepeta caeca. 

PateUa cccea O. F. Miiller, Prodr. Zool. Dan. 1766, p. 237 ; lb. Zool. Dan. i, 

p. 12. 
Lepeta cwca Gray, P. Z. S. 1847, p. 168.— Dall, 1. c. p. 141, pi. 15, f. 4. (Tyiio.) 

Sal). — In Alaska, in 23 fathoms, off the Sea Horse Islands, near 
Point Barrow, Arctic Ocean north from Bering Strait (Smith! 3 
specimens). Elsewhere, northern seas of Europe and Eastern ]S"orth 
America generally, 10-100 fathoms (Sars); Massachusetts Bay north- 
ward, in America. In Europe northward from Danish waters ; on the 
Norwegian coast j the Hebrides, etc. 

This species has not been found, though reported, erroneously, south 
from Bering Strait on the Pacific side. Such references refer to L. (C.) 
concentrica. Jeffreys found it in six hundred and ninety fathoms off 
Holsteinborg in Greenland, and it ranges from that depth to a few 
fathoms. That it has a curved, nearly spiral, deciduous nucleus when 
very young, was announced by me in 18G9, and is confirmed by Dr. Jef- 
freys in his Report on the MoUusca of the Valorous Expedition. It is 
the PateUa Candida of Couthouy, P. cerea of Moller, and probably the 
Lepeta Franklini of Gray MSS. 

Subgenus Cryptobranchia Dall ex Midd. 

CrtjptohrancMa Midd. (pars). Sib. Eeisc, p. 183, 1851. — Dall, Mon. Lepetidse, 1. c. 1869, 
p. 143. 

The name Cryptohrancliia was previously used by Gray, Fleming, and 
Deshayes for different groups of mollusks of family or greater value, but 
has in none of these cases been used or adopted by other naturalists, and 
hence was not preoccupied for the grouj) of Middendorf. 

Cryptobranchia concentrica. 

Patella (Cryptobranchia) cwca, var. (3 concentrica, Slidd. Sib. Eeise, p. 183, pi. 

xvi, f. 6, 1851. 
CnjpiohrancMa concentrica Dall, 1. c. p. 143, pi. 15, f. 2 a-f. 
Lepeta ccccoides Cpr. Snppl. Eep. Br. As. 1863, pp. 603, 651. 

Sal). — ]N'orth Japan, Stimpson! Schrenck!, eastward throughout the 
Aleutians, along the southern coast of Alaska (Dall!), British Columbia 


(Fisher!) to Piiget Somid, W. T. (Swau and Kennerly!). Abundant 
from low water to eighty fathoms on stones and shells, sometimes attain- 
ing the length of an inch, but usually about four-tenths of an inch long. 
Five hundred and twenty-seven specimens examined. 

This is the largest and most abundant species of the family. In it, 
beside differences in dentition, the apex is simply pointed or blunt, not 
deciduous, as in the tyi)ical Lepeta. The sculpture is usually faint, but 
sometimes raised in beautiful concentric frills, from which the name was 
derived. Small specimens from slight examination have been quoted as 
L. ccvca by authors. It has not yet been found north of the Aleutians. 

C. concentrica var. instabilis. 

f CryptohrancMa instalilis Dall, 1. c. p. 14r), pL 15, f. 6, 
I am now con\inced that the provisional name which I applied to this 
singular form is only of varietal value. It seems, from later specimens, 
to be a form which, fiom living on the stalk of Nereocystis, has become 
peculiarly arcuated and greatly thickened, much like Acmari insfahiUs, 
which has the same habit. It has only been foimd at Sitka in small 
numbers, dead, in 10-15 fathoms. 

Cryptobranchia alba. 

C. alba Dall, 1. c. p. 145, pi. 15, f. 3 a-d, 1869. 

I];ah. — Plover Bay, E. Sib., DaU! Seniavine Straits, Stimpson! 
Akutan Pass, Aleutian Islands, DaU ! Dead on beach. Alive at six- 
teen fathoms, gravel. Twenty-four specimens examined. 

This species appears to fill the gap between the distribution of L. 
cccca and G. concentrica. It is easily distinguished from the latter by its 
smooth surface and rounded apex and back, beside anatomical charac- 
ters. It rarely reaches nearly an inch in length, and is of the purest 


Extra-limital Species. 

Subgenus Pilidium Forbes. 

Pilidium Forbes, Athenaum, Oct. G, 1849, p. 1018.— Forbes & Hanley, Brit. Moll, ii, 
p. 440, 1849 ; not of Middeudorf, Sib. Eeise, p. 214, 1851.— Dall, 1. c. 1869 
(synonymy, etc., in full). 

lothia Gray, not Forbes, 1854 (cf. Dall, 1. c. 1869). 

Teciura Jeffi-cys, 1865, not of Gray (1847), nor of authors. 

SaitcUina Chenu (pars), Sars, not of Gray, 1847. 

Pilidium fulvum. 

Patella fitha 0. F. Miiller, Prodr. Zool. Dan. p. 227, 1776. 

Pilidium fulvum Forbes, Athenreum, 1, c. Oct. 6, 1849.— Dall, 1. c. 1869. 

Pilidium ruhellum Stm. Checklist Sh. N. Am. E. Coast, No. 312, 1865. 

lecturafulva Jeffreys, Br. Couch, iii, p. 250, 1865. 

Patella farhesii J. Smith, Worn. Soe. Mem. viii, p. 107, pi. ii, f. 3. 

Scutcllinafulva G. 0. Sars, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv. p. 122, 1878. 

Sab. — Xorthern and Arctic seas of Eastern America and Europe; 
doubtfully re]3orted from the Adriatic, where, if it be correctly identified, 


it is probably tlie remuant of a polar colony, like that in the Gulf of 
Lyons. It ranges from five to one hundred and fifty fathoms. 

This species, like Cryptohranchia, has a rounded non-spu'al apex. 
When the Arctic shores of Alaska are more carefully searched, it may 
turn up there ; but it does not seem to be a common species anywhere. 

The name Pilidkim has been used for a stage in the larva of certain 
invertebrates, but not as having an assured standing in systematic 
nomenclature. I see no reason, therefore, why it should be replaced by 
any other. It is hardly necessary to i)oiut out that it does not belong 
even to the same family as the Tectura of most authors, though erro- 
neously called Tectura by Adams and others. It was sent by Morch, 
under the name of Patella rubella Fabr., to Dr. Stimpson, which led him 
and the writer to erroneously unite that species (which is an Acmcca) 
with the present one in 1865 and 1869. To Prof. Sars is due the credit 
of pointing out the true place of the P. ruhclla. Clark speaks of find- 
ing the fry entangled in the mucus of the foot, but this can hardly be 
more than an accident. 

Family ACM^ID^ Cpr. 

Acmaklw Dall, 1. c. j). 237, 1S71. 

Genus ACM^A Eschscholtz. 

Acmcea Esch. Appendix to Kotzebue's New Voyage around the World (Dorpat, 1828), 
Loudon reiirint, vol. ii, p. 350, 1830. — Dall, 1. c p. 237, 1871. Type A. 

Having shown by evidence which cannot be successfully controverted, 
that the name of Acmwa has precedence iu time of application over 
Tecture Aud. {Tectura Gray), no apology is necessary for following the 
lead of Forbes, Woodward, Hauley, Philippi, and Carpenter, in adojit- 
ing the prior designation. Its very extensive synonymy will be found 
in my paper above quoted. 

Subgenus Acm.<ea Dall ex Eschscholtz. 

Acmwa Dall, Am. J. Conch, vi, ^. 241, 1871. Type A. mitra Esch, 
Erf/huts Jeffreys, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. Mar. 1877, p. 231. 
Tectura Sars, Moll. Eeg. Arct. Nor^% p. 121, 1878. 

Acmaea mitra. 

A. mitra (Esch.) Rathke, Zool. Atlas, v, p. 18, No. 1, pi. xxiii, f. 4, 1833.— 
Dall, 1. c. p. 241, 1871, pi. 14, f. 1. 

Hah. — Pribiloff Islands, Bering Sea, westward to Kyska in the Aleu- 
tians, and eastward and southward to Sitka, Oregon, and the coast of 


California as far south as the Santa Barbara Islands, from low-water 
mark to eighty fathoms, Ball ! Seventy-four sijecimens examined. 

I showed in 1871 that this species has nothing in common with the 
genus Scurria, to which it has often been referred, except a very suiier- 
ticial resemblance of form of the shell. It is not very abundant any- 
where. The partially striated variety tenuisculpta Cpr. has not been 
found in Alaska. A. mitra Agarics from white to pink or green, and is 
frequently covered with regular nodules or pax)illae of nullipore, when 
it is A. mammillata of Eschscholtz. It is the most unmistakable shell 
of the genus, the members of the restricted subgenus Acmcca presenting 
a singular contrast with one another in respect to theii' shelly covering. 

Acmaea insessa. 

Paldla insessa Hinds, An. Nat. Hist, x, p. 82, pi. vi, f. 3. 
Acmcca insessa Dall, 1. c. p. 244, pi. 14, f. 3. 

ffab. — Sitka Harbor (one specimen), southward to San Diego, Cali- 
fornia, Dall! Thirty specimens, mostly from the beaches. It seems 
very rare in Alaska. 

Acmaea instabilis. 

Patella instahilis Gould, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, ii, p. 150, 1846. 
Acmwa (?) instaiiUs Diill,^ ^ y. 245. 

Hab. — Sitka, Fort Wrangell, very rare; southward to Vancouver 
(abundant), and Monterey, Cal. (rare) ; dead on beaches. 

This species, like the last, lives on the stems of the giant fuci com- 
mon to this coast, and I have never seen a fresh specimen with the soft 
parts. But a radula extracted from one by Mr. H. Hemphill, and kindly 
sent to me, enables me to say with confidence that it is a typical Acmcea.. 

JExtra-Umital Species. 
Acmaea rubella. 

Patella rubella Fabr. Fanna Gronl. p. 386, 1780. 

Pilidium fiilvum (pars) Dall, Am. J. Coiich. v, part iii, 1869. 

I'ectura (Erginns) ruhella Jeffreys, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. p. 231, Mar. 1877. 

Tectvra rubeUa G. O. Sars. 1. c. p. 121, pi. 8, f. 5 a-b, pi. ii, f. 11, 1878, 

^Tflfft.— Greenland, Fabr., Moller, Jefireys; Norway, in Finmark, Sarsj: 
5 to 40 fathoms. 

The shell is generally of a much more brilliant orange color than the 
Pilidium, with which it has been confounded. I am not sure that some 
very young and minute specimens of Limpets found in the Aleutian 
Islands may not belong to this species, but they are too small to deter- 
mine their relations with any certainty. 

It is unfortunate that Prof. Sars, while recognizing in part the char- 
acters which I used to separate this subgenus from Collisella in the 
genus Acmcca in 1871, should have applied the name Tecfura to the true 
Acmfcas, and used Acmwa for Collisella^ in his very valuable worlc on the 
Arctic Mollusks of Norway; thus exactly reversing the original arrange- 
ment and inadvertently transgressing the law^s of nomenclature. 
Proc. Nat. Mus. 78 22 Feb. 14, 1 879. 


Acmoea virg^inea. 

Fatella rirginea Miiller, Prodr. Zool. Dan. p. 237, 1776. 
Acmiva vircjinea Haiiley, Br. Marine Conch, p. xxxii, 1844. 
Teciura virginm of authors. 
Acmwa virginca Dal], Am. J. Conch, vi, j). 243, 1871, q. v. 

This species extends from Iceland and Nortliern Norway south to the 
Azores, but does not reach the shores of America. It ranges from low- 
water mark to sixty fathoms. The Ancylus Gussoni of Costa, which has 
been united with this species, belongs to the Siphotmriidce. 

Subgenus Collisella Dall. 

CoUisclla Dall, Proc. Best. Soc. Nat. Hist. Feb. 1871. {Acmosa jtelta Esch.) 
Acmcea Sars, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv. j). 120, 1878. 

This group is distinguished by shght but constant external differences 
and by dental characters from the typical Acmseas. It comprises most 
of the Alaskan species as well as many from other parts of the world. 

Acmaea (Collisella) pelta. 

A. pelta Esch. Rathke, Zool. Atlas, v, p. 19, 1833.— Dall, 1. c. p. 246, pi. 14, f. 

6, 1871. 
Tectura mssis von Martens, Malak. Bliitt. xis, p. 98, pi. 3, f. 9-10, 1872. 

Hah. — Aleutian Islands and the southeni' coast of Alaska south and 
east to the Santa Barbara Islands, Cal., between or near tide-marks. 
Five hundred and ninety specimens examined from my own collection 
and many thousands in the field. 

The numerous names which the variations of this species have re- 
ceived, and some account of its varietal forms, have been given by me in 
the paper alluded to. Only one of these forms, A. pelf a var. nacelloides 
D. (1. c.) seems sufdciently constant to deserve a separate name. In the 
examination of hundreds of these most variable shells, one's notions of 
the characters sufScient among them to constitute a species or variety 
become so enlarged as to receive little sympathy from those who know 
the gToup in question from a few specimens on a museum tablet. Con- 
stant field and museum experience for more than twelve years has 
only confirmed my conviction of the piopriety of the views of Dr. Car- 
,])enter, on the west coast species, which have been exjiressed in his 
various publications. It is true that in selecting from simultaneously 
published names, if he had known at first all that we now know, perhaps 
a different selection might have seemed more judicious ; but I agree with 
Dr. V. Martens that any change, now that those selections have become 
history, would be most objectionable, aiul not to be countenanced. 

The strongly ribbed variety of A. pelta, which Dr. v. Martens has so 
well figured, and has identified with the cassis of the Zool. Atlas, api)ears 
to be the same. However, the Martensian shell (which I have rejjre- 
sented by some magnificent examples) is so closely connected, specimen 
by sjiecimen, with others nearly smooth, that I cannot admit that it re- 
quires or should receive a sejiarate name, even if the identity were 


proven. Other varieties, almost without number, might be selected from 
the series before me, which taken singly seem quite as distinct, and ic 
seems x)referable to err, if at all, in the matter of naming mere varia- 
tions, on the side of conservatism. 

Acmaea (Collisella) persona. 

Acmwa persona Eschsclioltz, RatWce, 1. c. p. 20, pi. xxiv, f. 1-2, 1833. — D<ill, 

1. c. p. 250, pi. 14, f. 8. 
Tectura difiitalis von Martens, 1. c. p. 93, t. 3, f. 3-4. 
Tectura persona lb. 1. c. p. 95, f. 5, 6. 

Hah. — Adakh Id., Aleutians (one specimen), Shumagins, Cook's Inlet 
(Martens), Port Etches, and southward to California as far as the Santa 
Barbara Islands, between and sometimes above tide-marks. One hun- 
dred and twenty-eight specimens collected. 

The varieties of this shell are often very beautiful, and, taken by them- 
selves, apparently w^ell marked ; but in a large series these diiierences 
disappear in the general interchange of characters in a way which is 
impossible to fully realize without a very large series. The synonymy 
will be found in my jiaper above cited, and contains several variations 
much more striking than those separated by von Martens. 

Acniaea (CcUisella) testudinalis. 

Paidki testudinalis Miill. I'r.ocb-. Zool. Dan. ji. 237, 17G6. 
CoUiseUa t. Dall, 1. c. p. 249, pi. 14, f. 13, 1871. 

This well-known form was supi^osed by me to be pretty easily sepa- 
rable from G. patina Esch. in 1871, but the result of several years' addi- 
tional study of the region about the Aleutian Islands has rudely shaken 
that cherished belief. There is a pretty constant difteience in the rela- 
tive size and proportion of the teeth on the radula of large and fully 
grown specimens ; but of other characters (with seven hundred and thirty 
specimens before me of all sizes, ages, and localities) I liud it im.possible 
to formulate any. Dr. Carpenter at one time thought them distinct, but 
a re-examination by him resulted in his confessing his inability to dis- 
tinguish one species from the other by the shells, and I can confidently 
assert that the exterior of the animals aftbrds no characters whatevei-. 
Indeed, some of the varieties of what we have called typical patina are 
more different from the type than testH(Jl)iaUs can possibly claim to be. 
Specimens of adult patina from Sitka and the Aleutian Islands are 
indistinguishable from sj)ecimens of testudinalis of the same size from 
Eastport, Maine. It has been found impossible to rightly assort a mixed 
lot by every one who has tried it. I am therefore forced to divide the 
species as follows : 

Collisella testudinalis var. testudinalis. 

Hah. — In Alaska from tlie Arctic Ocean southward (on both sides of 
Bering Sea) to Sitka. On the eastern coast of America from Long 
Island Sound to the Arctic Ocean, Cumberland Gulf (Kumlein), and 
South Greenland. In Europe, it extends from the English Channel 


northward to Finmark. In Asia, according to Sclirenck, it reaches Yesso 
and the Tartarian coast. "Mexico" is quoted, ex B. M. tablet, by Jef- 
freys; of course due to ballast or some mixture of specimens or labels. 
North of the Pribilofl* group, in Bering Sea, it appears to be the sole 
form of the genus. 

C. testudinalis var. patina. 

Acmwa patina Esch. Eathke, 1. c. p. 19, pi. xxiv, f. 7-8, 1833. 

C. patina var. nomialis sive j)iniadiim (Gld.) Dall, 1. c. p. 247, pi. 14, f. 4, 1871. 

Tectura patina Martens, 1. c. p. 9.3, pi. 3, f. 7-8, 1872. 

Hab. — Aleutian Islantls, eastward and southward on the Alaskan side 
to San Diego, California. Six fathoms to high- water mark; usually 
between tides. 

The characters assigned to patina by most naturalists are those of 
southern specimens (which were described as Patella pintadina by 
Gould), nineteen-twentieths of the specimens in museums having come 
from California. 

In northern waters these distinctions are more or less obsolete, but 
on a comparison of Californian with Massachusetts Bay specimens it is 
very easy to draw the line between them, and this holds good for indi- 
viduals as far as the Aleutians, but not for the generality. 

C. testudinalis var. alveus. 

Hah. — Sitka northward and elsewhere with the typical form in At- 
lantic seas, a variety formed the residence of the individual on a narrow 
frond of seaweed or Zostcra. Tectura alveus of authors. 

C. testudinalis var. Cumiugii. 

Patella Cumingii Reovo; Dall, 1. c. p. 248. 
Hah. — From the Pribiloff Islands southward with var. patina. Com- 
monest toward Cook's Inlet, rare at the northern extreme of range and 
southward of Vancouver Island. Usually near low- water mark, and 
most frequently in isolated rocks washed by the surf. 

C. testudinalis var. ochracea. 

Dall, 1. c. as var. patina;, p. 249, pi. 17, f. 35. 

*Hitherto found chiefly in California, but reported from Vancouver 
Island by Hepburn ; rare. 

My largest specimen of var. patina is two and three-quarters inches 
long; another is an inch high. Every imaginable fluctuation in color, 
elevation, smoothness or striation, width in proportion to length, «&c., 
may be found somewhere in tlie series before me. Yet, after uniting 
patina to the older form, there is a certain fades which distinguishes the 
species from any other with tolerable readiness. It is the commonest 
of all the species in Alaska and over the whole northwest coast of 


Acmaea (CoUisella) peramabilis. 

A. peramahilis Dull, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. iv, p. 302, Dec. 1872. 

Hah. — Sliumagin Islands, low water to six fathoms. Six specimens. 

This most lovely species is most like some reddish varieties of 2)atina, 
but none of them approach it in color, while numerous other features 
testify to its distinctness ; which I have, as yet, seen no reason to doubt. 
It appears to be exceedingly local and rare, but all the specimens pre- 
sent a very uniform appearance. 

Acmaea (CoUisella) sybaritica. 

CoUisella syharitica Dall, Am. J. Concli. 1. c. vi, p. 257, pi. 17, f. 34 a-c, 1871. 

Huh. — Pribiloff Islands southward on the west to Hakodadi, Japan 
(Stm.!), throughout the Aleutians, and on the southeast to Chirikoif 
Island, and perhaps Kadiak ; from lowest water to twenty-tive fathoms. 
One hundred and ninety specimens examined. 

This beautiful little species, of w^hich only a few specimens were 
known when it was described, has since been found over a very large 
area, and usually in rather deep water for the genus. It seems to rep- 
resent Acmcea virginea on the Pacihc side, though not very similar to it 
in appearance. The largest specimen found is an inch in length, but 
they are always very much flattened. 

Acmaea (CoUisella?) triangularis. 

Nacella {fpaleacea var.) triatigularis Cpr. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. iii, p. 213, 18Gf). 
CoUisella ? triangularis Dall, 1. c. p. 254, 1871. 

Hah. — Sitka to Monterey, Cal. ; dead on beaches. 

This species varies from narrow, high, and elongated to rounded and 
rather flat, according to the i)lace of its growth, as on a frond or leaf of 
some marine plant like Zostera, or on a flat unlimited surface. It ap- 
pears very rare in Alaska, only one specimen ha\ing been collected 
there, but is tolerably common on the coast of California. I have never, 
however, been able to get it in the living state, so as to definitely de- 
cide its generic place. 

Acmaea (CoUisella?) apiciiia n. s. 

Testa parva, conica, tenui, rotundata, plus minusve elevata; albida 
seu isabellina, apice erecto, luteo ; intus luteo, albido, sen fusco, Levi ; 
extus stiiulis incrementis subobsoletis munito. Lat. 5 mm., Lou. G mm., 
Alt. 4 mm. 

Hah. — Pribiloff Islands on the north, the Aleutians from Amcliitka 
eastward, extending to the Sliunuigins ; twenty -two specimens, all dead 
except two, one of which was found at low water and the other dredged 
in seventy fathoms. 

Among other small shells obtained from time to time on the beach or 
in the dredge, occasional specimens occurred which at first were sup- 
posed to be the young of A. mitra or j)ale specimens of A. sybaritica. 


After eliminating- some of tliese, there remained, after careful study, a 
lesidue, wliicli do not appear to coincide in character with any described 
species. They are small, thin, conical, with a blunt, erect apex marked 
by a light yellow spot, the rest of the exterior white or faintly yellowish, 
marked by obsolete lines of growth, smooth, or nearly so, but not pol- 
ished. AYithin, fresh specimens are yellowish, whitish, or orange-col- 
ored, and quite i^olished. The outside is almost always covered with 
nullipore. The chief characters are the rounded base, regularly conical 
and yellow spotted apex, with a thinner shell than young A. mitra. 

Genus i^ACELLA Schumacher. 

Nacella (Schum.) Dall, 1. c. p. '274, 1871. Type X mytilina Gm. 

Nacella? rosea. 

Nacella? rosea Dull, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. iv, p. 270, pi. 1, f. 2, Oct. 1872. 

Hah. — Dead on exi^osed ocean beaches at Kyska Island, Aleutians, 
and Sijneonoff Island, Shumagins. Alive onfuci off shore? Forty-five 
spe(;imens obtained, all dead. 

This exquisite little rose-leaf of a shell exactly resembles the type of 
the genus Nacella in form, and is the only one of the so-called Nacellw of 
ihe northwest coast which has not been proved to be an Acmceid. It 
is only provisionally referred to this family, and may prove, like the 
others, non-i)atelloid when the animal becomes known. 

In tliis connection it may be of interest to quote the words of Esch- 
scholtz in describing th^ genus Acma'a,* words Avhich at one time were 
partially discredited, but which the march of science has proved literally 
true: — "Here" (at Sitka) are found "six species of a genus which from 
its simple unwound shell would be immediately taken for a Patella ; the 
creature, however, closely resembles the Fissurella, with the difference 
that only one gill is visible in the fissure over the neck. It is remark- 
able that on the whole northwest coast of America, down to California, 
no Patella, only annuals of the genus Acmwa were to be met with." 

It Avill be noticed from the preceding' documents that in the Alaskan 
region fourteen si^ecies of Limpets, not counting the innumerable varie- 
ties, and twenty-six or seven species of CMtonidw, are known, most of 
which have rewarded our researches, and a part of which are absolutely 
new. Additional species may be expected to recompense additional 
and more minute research ; but that the chief members of these groupw 
uati^'e to this region have been determined there is little reason to doubt. 

* From the Englisli rei)rint, piiblislied in the spriug of 1830, but dated by the author 
at " Dorpat, Jau. 7, 1828." I found the first edition in the Eoyal Library at Stock- 
holm. It i)assed the censor in March, 1829, was issued in the winter of 1829-30, and 
is dated on the titlepago 1830. 

Extra-Umital Species. 
Genus PATELLA Linne. 

Patella Lin. S. N. eel. x, 1758.— Dall, 1. c. p. 266, 1871 (full synonymy). 
Patella vulgata. 

F. vulgata Liu. Syst. Nat. ed. xii, p. 1258.— Dall, 1. c. p. 268, pi. 15, f. 23, 1861. 

British and North European seas from the MediteiTanean to the 
Northern Lofoten Islands, between tides. Type of the genus. 

Genus PATINA Leach. 

Patina Leacli, MSS. 1819 ; Moll. Gt. Brit. 1852, p. 223.— Da^l, 1. c. p, 279, 

Helcion Jeffreys, not Montfort. 

Nacdla H. & A. Adams, Sars, not Schumacher. 

Patina pellucida. 

Patella pellucida Lin. S. N. ed. xii, p. 1260. 

Patina peUucida Leach, ]. c. p. 224, 1852.— Dall, 1. c. p. 280, pi. 16, f. 20, 1871. 

British and North Eurox)ean seas, northward to Lofoten; in most 
cases living on the stalks and fronds of large fuci. 
December 16, 1878. 


Plate I. 

1. Leptocliiton cancellatus Sby., Alaska: a, major lateral from above. 

2. Hanleyia mendicaria Mighels & Adams, Casco Baj^, Maine. 

3. Tradujdermon ruber Lowe, Greenland: «, major uncmus from below. 

4. Tracliydcrmon albus Lin., Alaska. 

5. Tonicella Uneata Wood, Alaska. 

6. T. marmorea Fabr., Greenland. 

7. T. submarmorea Midd., Alaska. 

8. ScMzoplax Brandtii Midd., Aleutian Islands. 

9. Cliatopleura (jemma Cpr., California. 

10. C. f Hartwefjii Cpr., California. 

Plate II. 

11. Maugerella conspicua Cpr., California. 

12. Stenoradsia magdalenensis Hinds, California. 

13. Stenoplax limaciformis Sby., west coast of Mexico. 

14. IscknocMton regularis Cpr., California. 

15. Ischnocliit/)n Cooperi Cpr., California. 

16. Jaclmoclnton interstinctus Gld., Alaska. 

11 .■sLschnKyradsia trifida Ci)T., Alaska: a, cusp of major lateral from above. 

18. Lepidoplcnrus Mcrtcnsii Midd., Alaska: a, rhachidian in situ. 

19. Lepidoradsia australis Sby., Port Jackson, Australia. 

20. CallistocJiiton palmiilatas CiJr., California. 

Plate III. 

21. PallocJiiton lanuginosus Cpr., California. 

22. Chiton arlicidatus Sby. : a, side view of rhachidian tooth. 

23. Ischnoplax pectinatua Sby., West Indies. 


24. Chiton SU)kesii Brod., Peru: a, major uncinus from below. 

25. Chiton Cinningn Frembly, Chili. 

26. Chiton assimilis Reeve, West Indies. 

27. Tonieia elcgans Frembly, Cbili. 

28. AcanthopUura sjnnigera Sby., Aden. 

29. Lucia confossa Gld., Patagouia: a, minor lateral ; h, major uncinus. 

30. Corcphium ecMnalum Sby., South America. 

Plate IV. 

31. Nuttallina scdbra Reeve, California. 

32. PhaceUopleura porphjritica Reeve. 

33. Placiphora CarmichacUs Gray, South America. 

34. Mopalia WossnesscnsMi Midd., Alaska. 

35. Mopalia ciliafa Sby., Alaska: a, minor lateral. 

36. Placiphorella velata Cpr., California: a, minor lateral from inner side. 

37. Eathcrina tunicata Wood, Alaska. 

38. Acanthochiton avicula Cpr., California. 

39. Acantltochiion spiculosus Rve., West Indies. 

40. Macandrellus {costatus ? Ad. & Angas), Australia. 

Plate V. 

41. Cryptoconchus monticularis Quoy, New Zealand. 

42. Amicula Pallasii Midd., Alaska. 

4.3. Amicula resfita Sowerby, Massachusetts Bay. {Emcrsonii Couth.) 

44. Cryptochiton Sielleri Midd., Alaska. 

45. ChitoneUus fasnatns Quoy, Caspar Straits: a, minor lateral from outer side. 

46. Viewof the anterior end of a Chiton from below: a, muzzle; 6, veil; c, fringe or truo 

mantle-edge; d, lower surface of girdle; e, end of row of "ambient" branchiae; 
/, lower surface of foot. 

47. Developement of larval Chiton, Trachydermon cinereus Lowe (T. marginatus JeiFreys), 

after Lov^n: a, cml)ryo, in the egg; h, dorsal view of larva, showing the com- 
mencement of the grooves for the valves ; c, lateral view of the same ; d, larva 
further advanced, the valves beginning to be formed; e, the same, from beneath, 
showing the foot and eyes at the sides of the head ; /, dorsal view of an older 
individual, showing the diminished size of the anterior tuberculate lobe or head. 

Note. — The figures of dentition are diagrams, not portraits, designed 
to indicate the form of the individual teeth rather than the superficial 
appearance of the undisturbed radula. While the photographic relief 
process, by which tliese plates were obtained ti-om the original drawings, 
has not been as satisfactory in its results as was at first hoped, it is be- 
lieved that, inartistic as they may appear, the figures are more charac- 
teristic than if they had been redrawn and subjected to the artistic 
modifications of a professional draughtsman unacquainted with the sub- 




In October, 1864, Prof. Gill described a remarkable new genns of 
pleuronectoids under the name of Euchalarodus,* from specimens sent 
to him from Salem, Massachusetts, by Prof. F. W. Putnam, which has 
ever since been considered an anomaly among flat-fishes. Euclialarodus 
Piitnami is little known except through the excellent description of its 
founder, the few specimens collected being shared by only two museums — 
that of the Peabody Academy, Salem, and the U. S. National Museum. 
In contrasting Euclialarodus with other American genera of Pleuronec- 
tinsb, Prof. Gill says:t "From the American genera Pseudopleuronectes^ 
Blkr., Hopsetta^[\] GiU, Myzopsetta, Gill, and Limanda, Gottsche, it is at 
least distinguished by its squamation, oculo-scapular ridge, nostrils, 
dentition and structure of the dorsal and anal fins. It is most nearly 
related to Pleuronectes,[§] with which it agrees in the free tongue, but 
the more perfect union and the triangular form of the wholly united 
lower iiharyngeal Ijones, the want of an anal spine, and, above all, the 
movable teeth and scarcely iierforate anterior nasal tubes will especially 
distinguish it, not only from that genus, but from any other known one. 
So anomalous indeed are the characters of dentition and nostrils, that 
only after I had felt each tooth could I be convinced that they were 
really normally movable, and that the condition was not the effect of 
disease, an idea which, impi'obable as it was, occurred to me. The re- 
maining genera of the subfamily of PleuronectiiiiE — Platiehfhys, Grd., 
Paroplirys^ Grd., Lepidopsetta, Gill, Glyptocephalus, Gottsche, Mlcrosto- 
nms, Gottsche, Pleuroniehthys, Grd., Hypsopsetta, Gill, Hcteroprosopon, 
Blkr., and Clidoderma, Blkr. — are equally or still more distinct than 
those alreadj^ mentioned." 

From the above and from an examination of the types it is evident 
that we should comi)are Euclialarodus with Pleuronectes. This I have 
done, enqiloying for the purpose the types of the description of Euclia- 
larodus Putnaini, Gill, and specimens of Pleuronectes ylaber, (Storer) Gill, 
and Pleuronectes platessa, Linn. My investigations force me to the con- 
clusion that these are all members of one and the same genus, Pleuro- 
nectes, since they XJOssess in common the characters of that genus as 
defined by Bleeker, as well as those by which Euclialarodus was differ- 
entiated from Pleuronectes. Euchalarodus, by the way, lias an anal spine. 

* Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 18C4, pp. 221 and 222. 

t Op. cit. p. 222. 

[t] The Platessa glabra of Storer, for the accommodation of wliich this genus was 
proposed, has since been referred to the genus Pleuronectes (Art.) Bleeker, by Prof. Gill. 

[ ^ ] Pleuronectes (Art. ) Bleeker, Verslagen en Mededeelingeu der koninklijke Akadcmie 
van Wetenschappen, Deel xiii, Amsterdam, 1832, pp. 427, 428. 


(?and9- Salem, Mass. C.F. Putnam. (Teeth movable.) 

(7 young*). Bucksport, Me. 
(half-grown). Portland, Me. 

C. G. Atkins. (Teeth tixed.) 
Summer, 1872. (Teeth fixed. ) 

Talve the most salieut cliaracters of tlie genus EucJialarodus — the mov- 
able teeth and scarcely perforate anterior nasal tubes — the same condi- 
tions may be observed in Pleuronectes glaber and P. platessa. Eucliala- 
rodus Piifnami, in fact, is the male of Pleuronectes glaber, and differs from 
it only in having more of its scales ciliated. The young are like the 
adult male in this respect. Had all the exam]iles of Pleuronectes platessa 
exhibited movable teeth, it would have led to the belief that Euclialarodus 
after all might be ai^plied to the species of Pleuronectes with movable 
teeth, but one of them has the teeth firmly fixed, another has some in 
the upper jaw movable, and a third has all the teeth reclining and freely 
movable. The explanation of this condition is yet to be sought. 
The materials used in this examination are as follows: 

.5368. Types (2) of EuchalarodtiH Putnami. Salem, Mass. Putnam. (Teeth of larger 

movable. ) 
20910. Plcnronccies (jlaher, $ . Portland, Me. Tarleton H. Bean. (Teeth movable.) 
20920. „ 

20954. „ 

14857. „ 

14G59. „ 

14GG2. „ 

14666. „ 

14667. „ 
14669. „ 

14673. „ 

14677. „ 

14678. „ 

14679. „ 
14381. „ 
14682. „ 
14G83. „ 
14G84. „ 
14G85. „ 
14658. „ 
14G61. „ 
14G63. „ 

14664. „ 

14665. „ 
14671. „ 

14674. „ 

(adult 9). 


(1 $ and 2 9). 
(3 spent 9 ). 

„ „ Dec. 

Bucksport, Me. Mar. 

15, 1877. 
4, 1878. 

(Teeth mov- 
able. ) 
(Teeth transi- 
tional. ) 

It will be seen that the teeth of the adult male and female are freely 
movable only during the breedmg season, and that those of the young 
are tixed. 

Vi02d. Pleuronectes platessa. Kiel. Dr. Mobins. (Teeth fixed.) 
100^1- » „ Christiania, Norway. E. Collett. (Teeth movable.) 
^^^'*^- „ „ France. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. Paris. . (Some teeth of upper 
jaw movable.) 

' The longest of these is 140™"' in length. All have rough scales. 


As before remarked, Euchalarodus Putnami is not even specifically 
distinct from Fleuroncctcs glaherj a species well distinguished from Pleu- 
ronectes platessa by its more continuous and jH'onounced oculo-scapular 
ridge, its radial formula, and other characters. The synonymy of Pleii- 
ronectes gldber is as follows : 

Pleuronectes glaber, (Storcr) Gill. 

Flate^sa f/lahni, Storei:, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hisi. i, 1843, p. 130; Mem. Ainer. 

Acad, viii, '393, pi. xxsi, tig. 1; Hist. Fislies Mass. 1667, p. 199, pi. xxxi, lig. 1. 

— PuTXAM, Bull. Essex Inst, vi, 1874, p. 12. 
Liopsetia glahra, Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1864, p. 217. 
Pleuronectes (jlahcr, Gill, in Eep. U. S. Com. Fish and Fisheries, 1873, p. 794. — 

GooDE & Bean, Amer. Jour. Sci. and Arts, xiv, 1877, p. 476; xvii, Jan. 

1879, p. 40. 
Euchalarodus Putnami, Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pldla. 1864, pp. 216 and 221; 

in Rep. U. S. Com. Fish and Fisheries, 1873, \^. 794. — Putxaji, in Storer, 

Hist. Fish. Mass. 1867, p. 279. — Goode &, Bean, Amer. Jour. Sci. and 

Arts, xiv, Dec. 1877. 

The smooth plaice, PleuronectcH glaber^ (Storer) Gill, was described by 
Storer from the coast of Massachusetts. Specimens from Salem Harbor, 
ISTovember 15, 1872, are in the Museum of Peabody Academy. The 
U. S. Fish Commission found it very abundant, during the summer of 
1872, in Bluelight Cove, Casco Bay, Maine, and they seined the young at 
Salem in August, 1877. Mr. C. A. Putnam of Salem took specimens 
at Beverly Bridge in January, 1858, — the specimens which formed the 
types of Euclialarodus Putnami. I add the following from my notes : 

December 15, 1877, ten specimens were fonnd among the flat-fishes 
(Pseudoplcuronectes americanus) in Washington Market, which had come 
from Portland, Me., by way of Fidton Market, Xew Yorl;. Xine of these 
were gravid females, and one wat? a male, which was smaller than the 
average of the females, and hyd rougher scales. 

December 18, 1877, thirteen specimens were again taken from among 
the flat-fishes, nearly all of them fi'om one stand. All were females, 
most of them gravid. The weight of the largest was 23 ounces avoirdu- 
pois; of its spawn, 7 ounces. The ovary of the blind side extended from 
the origin of the ventral to the end of anal (7| inches). The ovary of 
the eyed side was G-^ inches long. The eggs were one-thirtieth of an 
inch in diameter. The length of the fish was 13 J inches. The smallest 
of the thirteen weighed 3| ounces, and contained eggs about as large as 
those of the preceding. There is considerable variation in the extent of 
the ventrals. 

January 10, 1878, two fresh specimens were received through ifr. C. 
F. Putnam, from Salem, Mass., a male and a graAdd female. The weight 
of the male is 5 ounces; of the female, 21. They are called "fool-fish" 
in Salem, because they will bite even at a rag. It is said that they ap- 
pear about Christmas in numbers, and remain only a short time. They 
l)robably come into the harbor to spawn. There is no record of the oc- 


currcnce of the species farther south than Salem, though from the exter- 
nal resemblance of the male and the young to Pseudopleuronectes ameri- 
camis, it might easily be overlooked. ''Christmas-fish" is another name 
for the smooth plaice at Salem. 
U. S. NATIOX.^x Museum, Deceniber 31, 1878. 



In 1848, Dr. David Humphreys Storer described a gadoid fish from 
Massachusetts Bay, to which he gave the name Motella caudacuta* In 
18G3, a special genus, RJiino)iemus,\ was framed for it by Professor Gill, 
and the species has since been called Bkinonemus cmidacuta (Storer) Gill. 
After a critical examination of Eiu'opean and American specimens, we are 
convinced that this species is separated by no valid characters from that 
described by Linnseus under the name Gadus cimbrius.X A specimen 
of the latter in the National Museum from Christiania, Norway (No. 
10058, K. Collett), agrees precisely with specimens of R. caudacuta., so- 
called, from Massachusetts Bay (collected in 1877 and 1878 by the U. 
S. Fish Commission), in proportions of body and fins, shape of head, 
numbers of fin-rays, and coloration. The radial formula is misstated by 
Storer, who gives it D. 53, A. 48, and this evidently misled Professor 
Gill, who noted that Rliinonemus caudacuta was "very closely related to 
the Motella cimhria of Europe," but who evidently had at the time of 
naming the genus never seen a specimen of the species from either side 
of the Atlantic. Storer's description of color, cited by Gill as separating 
his species from that of Linnix'us, applies very well to the latter: "the 
posterior margin of the second dorsal and anal fins, as well as the edge 
of the caudal fin of a dark slate color." 

The radial formulae of four specimens studied stand as follows: 

10058 (Christiania). D. 50. A. 44. P. 16. V. 5. 

21918 (Massacliusetts Bay). D. 49. A. 43. P. 16. V.5. 

21919 (Massachusetts Bay). D. :>1. A. 44. P. 16. V. 5. 
21919 a (Massachusetts Bay). D.52. A. 45. P. 16. V. 5. 

The genus Motella was not proposed in proper form until the publica- 
tion of the second edition of Cuvier's Regne Animal in 1829, although 
in its French form— ies Musteles— it was applied by Cuvier to the genus 
in 1817. The name of Eisso, pubUshed in his "Europe Meridionale" in 
1827, must therefore be used as Professor Gill has indicated.§ 

* Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, iii, 1848, p. 5. 
t Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1863 (Sept. ), p. 230. 
t Systema Natune, eil. 12, 1768, p. 440. 
§L.c.p. 241. 


Tlie sole character whicli separates BMnonemus from Onos is the pres- 
ence of a nasal cirrus, a character to which we are unwilling to allow 
more than a subgeneric value. We believe that the species should be 
called Onos cimbrius (Linn.), but are willing to accept provisionally the 
name Rldnonemus cimbrius. We have examined numerous specimens 
which jiurported to belong to Giliata argentata (Reinh.) Gill, and have 
found them in every case to be the young of this species, for small indi- 
viduals of R. cimbrius are found swimming at the surface, although the 
adult fishes inhabit only the deeper parts of Massachusetts Bay. Eng- 
lish ichthyologists now regard Oiliata as the larval form of "Motella," 
and if this be not the case, we doubt if this genus has ever been ob- 
served in the Western Atlantic. The National Museum has specimens 
of Onos mustela (Linn.), Onos tricirratus (Bloch), and Onos maculattis 
(Risso); the specific individuality of the latter two seems very doubtful, 
as well as that they are distinct from Onos ensis (Reiuh.) Gill, described 
from the coast of Greenland. 

The synonymy of Onos cimbrius is given below. 

Onos (Rhinonemus) cimbrius (LinnsGus) Gooclo & Bean. 

Gadus cimirius, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. xii, 1766, p. 440. — LACKPi;DE, Hist. 

Nat. Poiss. ii, 1801, p. 442. 
Motella cimhria, Bell, Canadian Naturalist and Geologist, iv, 1859, p. 209. — 

GuNTHER, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus. iv, 18G2, p. 367. — Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. 

Sci.Phila. 1833,p.241. 
Encliehjopu8 eimbricus, Schneider, Bloch's Systema Iclithyologia;, 1801, x>. CO, 

pi. ix. 
Motella cimirica, 'NiLSSOTi, Prodr. Ichtb. Scand.ii. 48; Skand. Fauna, iv, 1855, p. 

587. — Yarrell, Hist. Brit. Fishes, 2d cd. 1841, ii, p. 274. 
Motella vaudacuta, Storer, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, iii, 1848, p. 5; Mem. 

Amer. Acad. Sci. 1867, p. 411 ; Hist. Fishes Mass. 1867, p. 183. 
BMnonemus caitdacuta, Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pliila. 1803, j). 241; Cat. 

Fishes E. Coast N. Am. 1873, p. 18. — Goode & Beax, Am. Journ. Sci. and 

Arts, xiv, Dec. 1877, p. 476. 
Washington, December 31, 1878. 




After completing the exploration of Grenada, Mr. Ober left there the 
fore part of April and visited the island of Tobago, where he remained 
for more than two months, and did not arrive in Martinique until the 
beginning of July, remaining there until the latter part of August, llis 
collection was made "from July 9th to August 20th." It consists of 
ninety-one specimens. 

He gives an interesting account of the island, which, with his other 
observations, are mdicated by quotation-marks. 


" Slcetcli of Martinique. 

"Martinique is the largest of the Lesser Antilles, being about 50 
miles in length and containing, it is estimated, about 380 square miles. 

"The surface is ver\^ uneven, the interior being one grand region of 
hills and mountains. The highest of these is Mount Pelee, northwest of 
the principal town, St. Pierre, and in the northwestern part of the island. 
It is over 4,000 feet in height; it is a volcano, and has emitted smoke 
and ashes within thirty years; now, however, there are no signs of an 
eruption. There are in all 5 or G extinct volcanoes. Here may be seen 
in great perfection those picturesque pitons, or peaked mountains — coni- 
cal peaks. One group in the interior shows itself in great beauty from 
Fort de Fi-ance. Mineral and warm springs occur in various parts of 
the island, and some of the rivers are of good size. 

"To one glancing at a map of the island — with its high mountains, 
dark ravines, gloomy gorges, tracts of elevated table land, numerous 
bays and streams — this would seem the promised land for birds. Situ- 
ated, too, midway the volcanic chain, it should possess birds that no 
other island could boast. Yet I have found it otherwise, and in Domin- 
ica, only 30 miles of latitude further north, I obtained more species and 
fouml birds in greater profusion. This is owing to at least two causes — 
the hand of man being manifest in both — 1st, the dense population (the 
islaud having a population of not less than 130,000) ; 2nd, to the thorough 
cultivation of aU cultivable land. From the coast to the hills, and even 
up the mountain sides, cane is grown ; and when that is not practicable, 
are the provision grounds of the negroes. The rest is pasture land, 
trees, and rocks. I found great difficulty in getting a place of abode 
outside the city, and it Avas a week or two after my arrival before I could 
get even a floor to sleep upon. There are no hotels outside of St. Pierre 
and Fort d(^ France, save at the two warm springs, and no inns or hos- 

" Had it been practicable, I would have made a camp in the mountains; 
l)ut this I could not do, as I did in Dominica and St. Vincent. Notwith- 
standing all this, I secured a roof and a rocmi in a little hamlet in the 
mountains called Morne Eonge, and from there made excursions to 
Morne Calebasse, Morne Balisier, JMountain Pelee, and Champ Flore. 
Birds were unusually scarce from the incessant persecution they are 
subject to from boys and men ; later on, after returning to St. Pierre, I 
went to Fort d§ France. After losing several days there, I crossed the 
bay of Fort Eoyal to Trois Islets— where I had great difficulty in getting 
shelter. Fortunately I found a host in the proprietor of an estate near 
Trois Islets; the estate was none other than 'Inhabitation de la Page- 
ric , where the Emjjress Josephine was born and passed her earlier years. 

" Finding lodgings in the negro barrai^ks, and ])rocuring sustenance 
at the house of my friend the i)roprietor, I passed some time, obtaining 
there nearly all the birds that I secured at all in the island. 

"Trois Islets is about 20 miles south of St. Pierre, on the Caribbean 


side. From there I scoured the hills and valleys to 'Ance du Diamaut' 
on the southern point, near the famous Diamond Eock, and thoroughly 
canvassed that historic ground, trodden 100 years ago by the leet of the 
beautiful Empress of the French. In the Jardin des Plantcs, in the sub- 
urbs of St. Pierre, I had permission to shoot, through the courtesy of 
the directeur, Monsieur Chs. Belanger. But though these gardens are 
extensive and beautiful, crowded with trees and shrubs of the Tropics, 
secluded and forbidden to the ordinary chasseur, I found very few spe- 
cies and no great numbers of any one species. 

"Throughout the island there exists such a dread of the 'serpent', 
the Iron lance {Trigonocephalus lanccolatus), that I found it impossil)leto 
obtain a good boy, to assist me in finding the haunts of birds. More 
than once I have been startled by the cry of 'serpent' and found that 
my coloured brother had absconded. 

" Though at first inclined to believe in the oft-repeated stories of deaths 
from snakebites, I soon found that the number of serpents was either 
grossly exaggerated, or they took good care to keep out of my way, for 
in all my tramps I saw bnt two large ones. 

" There are, however, numerous deaths from these noxious reptiles 
during the cane season. The serpent prefers the cane fields, where he 
hunts the numerous rats ; and, as my ground for hunting is any but the 
cane, for birds, this may be the reason we met so seldom. I cannot say 
that I was anxious to find one, howcA'er ; though I did not let the possi- 
ble i^resence interfere with my regular work. 

" My thanks and those of the Institution are due to Capt. W. A. Gar- 
field, U. S. Consul; Monsieur Chs. Belanger, directeur du Jardin des 
Plantes, and Monsieur Louis Hartmann." 


1. Margarops hemiinieri (Lafr.). 
" ' Grive a pieds jaunes.' 

" Eare, owing to the persecution of hunters." 

2. Margarops densirostris (Vieill.). 
'"Gros Grive.' 

"Not common, being the chief bird sought by the hunters in the hunt- 
ing season, consequently shy." 

3. Margarops montanus (Vieill.). 
" ' Grivette.' Iris yellow. 

"Length, <?, 10 in.; alar extent, 14; wing, 4 J. 

"Like the same species of Dominica, it prefers the higher hills and 
mountains, the deep woods and their borders, and detached wood with 
deep shade. As numerous apparently as in Dominica." 

4. Cinclocerthia gutturalis (Lafr.). 

" ' Trembleur.' Eesident. » 

"Length, (?, 0.^ in.; alar extent, 13; wiug, 4^. 


"This Trembleur, knovm also as the 'Grive trembleuse ', is not found 
so easily and frequently as in Dominica. This I attribute wholly to the 
fact that it is pursued here with greater vigor than in the other island. 
So dense is the population of Martinique, that nearly every bird is con- 
sidered as lit for food, and anything above a sparrow is classed as game. 
Even the sparrows, the 'peres noires', are caught with snares and shot 
with blowguus, by the little negroes of the country. In fact, they would 
always await my return from an excursion to obtain the mutilated birds 
that I would discard as useless. 

"It is not strange that 'Le Trembleur', with all his queer ways and 
familiar habits, should now commence to disappear; not many years 
hence he will not be found in Martinique." 

5. Ramphocinclus brachyunis (Vicill.). 
'"Gorge blanc' Iris hazel, in some red. 
"Length, ^, 8-| in.; alar extent, 12 ; wing, 4. 
"Length, 9, 8| in.; alar extent, 12; wing, 4. 

" Obtained several specimens at Trois Islets in August. I saw one 
also in the Jardin des Plantes, at St. Pierre. Mr. Semper found it in 
St. Lucia. Not found in the other islands. The first I have seen I shot 
in this island. It seems confined to Martinique and St. Lucia. Loves 
deep woods and the borders of streams ; is easily attracted bj" an imita- 
tion of its note. That is the reason I am able to record the captiu-e of 
so many specimens." 


6. Myiadestes genibarbis, Sw. 
" ' Siffleur Montague.' 

"Length, J, 7^ in.; alar extent, lOi; wing, 3 J. 

" Length, 9 , 7^ in. ; alar extent, 11 ; wing, 3|. 

"The fittest place in which I could have discovered my old favorite 
of Dominica, was in a charming ravine through which flowed a limpid 
stream, at ' Champ Flore '. He was clinging to a liane on which grew 
numerous wild pines, and whistling exactly the same as his Dominica 

" i rom the appearance of the female and from my observations in 
Dominica I think they breed late." 


7. Thryofiorus martinicensis, Scl. 

"Wreu. 'Eossignol.' 

"Len->th, <?,5Hn.; alar extent, 7A ; wing, 2|. 

"An inhabitant of the woods; I have not seen it near houses or sugar 
mills, oaly in the forests of the hills, and along the borders of streams 
where the bushes are thick." 

Mr. Ober sent but a single specimen of this species : its dimensions are 



somewhat larger tliau given by Mr. Sclater. Compared witli T. rufes- 
ccns, tlie bill is longer; the color above is duller, being brownish; the 
under surface is very much paler ; in riifescens the bands on the tail are 
more numerous and better defined. 


8. DendrcBca ruligula, Bainl. 

'•Yellow Bird. 'L'Oiseau Jaune.' 
"Length, (?, 5 in.; alar extent, 7^-; wing, 2|. 

"■Is generally distributed throughout the island. In the old fields 
once cultivated for cane, and now suffered to return to pasturage, where 
generally the guavas are abundant, this bird will be found, searching 
about the stems and leaves of the shrub for insects. These same guava 
bushes are also the chosen hiding places of the venomous spiders — the 
Tarantula, and many a hairy monster came to grief, while myself and 
little black assistants were beating the bushes for birds. It is a most 
thorough exterminator of the small insects of the island." 

This species is surely the one referred to Sylria rnficapiUa, Lath. 
{MotaciUa ruJicapiUa, Gm.), by Yieillot (Nouv. Diet, xi, 1817, 228), sup- 
posing it to be the same. They differ very materially, the entire head 
and throat being rufous in the Martinique bird, and so described by 
Vieillot ; whereas in D. rvJlcapiUa, the crown only is stated to be rufous. 
Martinique is the locality given, also, for J>. ruJicapiUa, which prob- 
ably was the cause of Yieillot being misled. 

As the name of rtificapilla belongs to another species. Prof. Baird 
(Rev. of Amer. Birds, p. 204) applied to Yieillot's species that of riiji- 
gula. He then speaks of a specimen in the Museum of the Philadelphia 
Academy of Sciences, labelled ";S'. nificapiUa,''^ without indication of 
locahty. He says : '' It agrees very well, especially in the greater exten- 
sion of the rufous of the throat, with the Sylvia ruJicapiUa of Yieillot, 
from ]Martinique ; and it may be reallj' a West Indian species." 

Since then, in " Xorth American Birds," p. 217, under I). rnfujuJay 
there being under examination a bird from Panama, which it was 
thought might be the species described byA^ieillot, he has in a footnote 
the followiug remark : " Should Yieillot's species be really from Mar- 
tinique, in all probability tlie present biid will be found to be different, 
and therefore not entitled to the name here given." 

It now being established that Martiriique is the true patria of this 
form. Prof. Baird's name of I), riifigula nuist be used for it. The 
male agrees with the description given by him of Yieillot's si>ecies, viz, 
in having "the rufous of entire head extending down the neck to jugu- 
him." The measurements of the wing and tail aie just the same as 
given by Prof. Baird, i. e., wing, 2.25 ; tail, 2. 

There is but one specimen of the female in ^h\ 01>ers collection, in 
Proc. l!^at. Mus. 78 23 Mar. I O, I S 79o 


very poor conditiou ; it has tlie upper plumage olivaceous, and on the 
crown is of a rather deeper shade. 

9. Setophaga ruticilla (Liuu.)- 
^'' Le Gobe-monclie aiirore.^ 
" ]S^ot often seen." 


10. Vireosylvia calidris v;u. domiiiicana, La^Yl■. 
'' • Qucc: 

Fam. lilRUXDINID^. 

11. Progne dominicensis (Gm.). 

••Flying- above the sea near the elitits between St. Pierre and Fort de 


12. Certhiola martinicana, Eeirh. 
'• • Hitcrler.' 

" Length, S , 4 J in. ; alar extent, 7f| ; wing, 2i. 

"Not so abundant as in Dominica, l>nt in greater numbers than in 
St. Vincent and Grenada. The Jardin des Plautes, near the city of St. 
Pierre, is the only place in which I ha^e seen it j)lentiful. In the trees 
overhanging the suburbs of the ciry it i.s not an infrequent ^-isitor, espe- 
cially to the tamarind tree. 

'• As it lives for a while contentedly in a cage, many ai'c caught by the 
negro and colored boj's, with bird lime, and by the use of the blowgun. 
Hence their scarcity f I have walked some days for several miles with- 
out seeing tliis or any otber l)ird. along the shore of the west coast." 


13. Ei'phonia flavifrciis (Spanju). 
'• ' Pcyroiichc' 

'•Length, ,?, 5 in.; alar extent, 8; wing, 2.^. 

'•Xowhere is this bird abundant. I liave already chronicled its dis- 
covery in Dominica, St. Vincent, and (rrenada, but in no island is it 
numerous. I might set it down as rare, did 1 not thinlv it possible that 
it may occur in greater numbers tliau my researches have led me to sup- 
pose, from the liK.'t that its .sec^luded habits and its peculiar food cause 
it to betake itself to the tops of the highest trees, where it might be 
passed a hundred times without discovery. Though undoubtedly gen- 
erally as.sociating in small tiucks, Ihave not as yet (with one exception), 
found it otherwise than ahme. Its stomach always contains a peculiar 
viscid green flat seed, the name of which I cannot at this time recall." 

14. Saltator guadeloupensis, Lafi. 
" ' Gros-hec.^ 

"Length, S, 8| in.; alar extent, 12; wing, L 
"Length, 5, 8 in.; alar extent, 12 ; wing, S?. 


" Prefers the skirts of woods and open fields, utters a sharp Avhistle, 
not very loud, and flits from bush to tree in low flight. Rather abun- 
4laut at Trois Islets on the hillsides. More numerous than I found it in 
Dominica ; even plentiful in the low scrub, or second growth, that cov- 
ered the hillsides upon old plantations." 


15. Loxigilla noctis (Liuu.). 
^' ^ Fere jwir.' ' Jloisson.'' 

"Length, <?, 5i in.; alar extent, 9; wing, 3. 

" Length, 9 , 5 in. ; alar extent, 8J ; wing, 2f . 

" In the French islands and in those in which the patois is spoken, 
the names of this bird are the same; the male is called the ^ Fere noir\ 
the female the ' moisson\ 

" They are as abundant here as any species and confined to the open 
fields and cultivated districts without regard to altitude." 

16. Phonipara bicolor (Liuii. )■ 

'• 'Maugeur des herbes.' 8eed-eater. 

"Length, 2, 4i in.; alar extent, CJ; Aviug, 2. 

" The most common species, I think, in the island. Feeds principally 
upon the seeds of grass and noxious weeds, and hence cannot be other- 
wise than of great benefit to the island." 


17. Icterus bonana (Liuii.). 

"Length, ^, 8 in.; alar extent, 10}; wing, oh. 

'■Length, 9, 7i- in.; alar exrent, 10; wing, 3 J. 

"I saw my first specimen of this bird at ^lorne Ilonge, another half- 
May up rhe volcano of Montague I^elee ; but did not obtain one until 
my A'isit to Trois Islets, south of Fort de France. It is not in abun- 
dance that one sees it; separately and in pairs. I found it chiefly in 
clearings on the hills and elevated i)laius. It prefers the vicinity of 
gardens and hedges, and shuns thick Avoods; though I have found it in 
dense scrul). Upon the hills near Trois Islets I secured it in such a 
situation. I was reclining beneath the shade of a low tree, one very hot 
day in August, looking out over the beautiful bay of Port Royal, when 
1 was suddenly brought to my feet by the shock of an earthquake, 
which, repeated twice, startkd the birds as well as myself. Then I 
noted for the first time this bird in the scrub beneath the trees." 

18. Quiscalus iuflezirostris, Sv,-. 

"'Le Meile.' Iris, <?, hazel; 9, pale yellow. 
"Length. (^,10^- in.; alar extent, 15; wing, 5. 
"Length, 9, 9 in.; alar extent, 13y; wing, 4}. 


"This is the first island in wliicli I saw this bird, nnless the black- 
bird of Grenada and the Grenadines be the same. It is abnudant in 
the Jardin des Plantes and very unmerons at Morne Eonge. Its notes 
are entirely diiferent from the 'Bequia sweet' of the Grenadines; bnt 
that may be owing to the difference in season. The savannas of this 
high region contain many in paities of from 3 to 5. 

"At Trois Islets they were in abundance and there I got many, show- 
ing the different changes in plumage from young' to adult. There they 
built their nests in a tall silk-cotton tree. They love the fronds of the 
palm as a retreat, doubtless feeding upon the berries that hang beneath 
the overarching boat-shaped spathes in large bunches. Their cry is not 
like those of the Grenadines, nor like that of the north, the Q. versi- 
color — but has notes in it reminding me of both. Gregarious." 

I have followed Mr. Sclater in referring this bird to Mr, Swainson's 
species; he says (P. Z. S. for 1874, p. 175): "In order to avoid giving it 
a fresh name I call it Q. inflexirostris, Sw., thougb the bill certainly does 
not quite agree with Swainson's figure (An. in Menag. p. 300)." The 
specimens before me differ from Swainson's figure of the bill spoken of 
above in being apparently shorter and stouter. Swaiuson says, 1. c. : 
"Size and colour precisely like Q. Itigiibris; but the great difference iii 
their bills induces me to consider them quite distinct. In this tbe bill 
is longer and much more slender," &c. 

A comparison with Q. lugiihrls shows the present bird to closely re- 
semble it in coloration: it is, however, somewhat larger, the bill longer 
and more curved, but proportionately not more slender. 

Mr. Cassin in his Study of the Icteridw (Proc. of Acad. ISTat. Sci. of 
Phila. 18(JG, p. 407) refers a specimen in the Museum of the Academy to 
Q. injlcxirostrisy Sw.; he says: "One specimen only in the Acad. Mus. 
seems to be this species, but which is, unfortunately, without label 
stating locality. The bill is exactly the length and otherwise very 
nearly as given by Mr. Swainson as cited above, though somewhat 
thicker. It is the oidj- specimen that I have ever seen in which the com- 
missure is an uninterrupted curve or arc of a circle, — not straight nor 
sinuated as in all other species knowai to me (excex>t Q. nUjcr of St. 
Domiago) and described in this memoir." 

The dimensions given by Mr. Cassin are about the same as those of 
specimens from Martinique, but the bills differ; he gives, "chord of up- 
per mandible about one and four fifth inches." In the present bird it 
measures but one and a quarter inches. 

A specimen of Q. niger from St. Domingo, presented by Prof. Gabb, is 
of about the same size, and differs in coloration only in having the breast 
and abdomen without lustre — the bills though are very different, that 
of (J. niger is wider at the base, longer, straighter, and narrower at the 
end ; the commissiu^e is nearly straight, and the ridge of the upper man- 
dible is percei)tibly flattened. The locality of Mr. Swainson's type is 
unkiiovv-ii, ;uid possibly it may not he the Antilliau species referred to 


it; but for the present, it is ilo]il)t]oss best to let it remain as Mr. Swain- 
son's species. 

On looking- at my Q. hDinnosus from Grenada, I find it lias a longer 
and more curved bill than the Martini(pie bird; the chord of the upper 
mandible measures one and a half inches. But with its highly lustrous 
and more violaceous plumage, together with the decided bright green 
color of the wings, it does not agree Avith the descrii)tion given of Q. 

In the account of Q. Juminosits I stated that it was the only West 
Indian species of Qui.wahis I knew of in which both sexes were not 
black; but the female of the present bird is brown also. Of that sex, 
Mr. Ober sent but one adult exam^de ; the ui^j)er i)lumage is of a smoky- 
brown, the feathers of the crown edged with fulvous; the tail-feathers 
have their inner webs black, the outer webs are brown; sides of the 
head and the throat light ashy-gray; the breast and upper part of the 
abdomen are brownish-ash; lower part of abdomen, flanks, and under 
tail -coverts dark smoky -brown; thighs dull fulvous-l>rown; bill and feet 


19. Eiainea niartinica (Linu.)- 
"Flycatcher. 'Gobe mouche.' 

"Length, ^, 7 in.; alar extent, 9J; wing, 3^. 
"Length, 9, 6} in.; alar extent, 10; wing, 3^. 

" Veiy few of this species to be seen; frequents the high hills, espe- 
cially' the wooded hollows and ravines." 

20. Myiarchus sclateri, Lawi. 

The upper plumage is deep dark olive, the head above blackish-bro^vn. 
Unfortunately, the only feathers left^n the tail are the outer four on one 
side; the outermost two are dark brown and without rufous edgings on 
the inner webs ; the other two feathers are brownish-black, with their 
inner webs edged with light rufous for about one-quarter their width; 
quills dark brown, their iiuier webs bordered with pale salmon-<!olor; 
>Adng-coverts edged with dull white; under wing-coverts light ash, with 
just a tinge of yellow; throat and breast of a clear cinereous gray; ab- 
domen and under tail-coverts dull pale yellow; sides cinereous; bill and 
feet black. 

Length (fresh), 7i in.; wing, Sf; tail, 3^; tarsus, 1; middle toe and 
claw, \%; hind toe to end of claw, -^. 

The single specimen sent is of about the size of ilf. eryflirocercus, Scl., 
but the plumage of the new species above is dark, with no a])pro;uih to 
the earthy-brown color of the other; below the\ do not differ so much, 
but in M. sclafcri the yellow is duller and more restricted; they difler 
materially in the rufous markings on the inner webs of the tail-feathers; 
in M. crythrocercus this color occupies about one-half the web on the 


outermost two feathers, and on the others two-thirds or more; the new | j 
species diifers conspicuously in its much longer and stronger tarsi and I ' 

Named in compliment to Mr. P. L. Sclater. , 

21. Tyrannus rostratus, Scl. 
"'Piperee.' liesident. 

"Length, ^, 9 J in. 5 alar extent, 14f ; wing, 4f. 

"Length, 9, 10 in.; alar extent, 15|; wing, 4f. 

"These two specimens are the only ones I have seen. Though un- 
common, in Dominica, it may be considered rare here. Its local name, 
' Piperee,' is in use throughout the islands, and is derived from its cry." 


22. Eulampis jugularis (Liun.). 
" ' Colibri gorge rouge.' 

"Length, ^, o^ in.; alar extent, 7^; wing, 3. 

"Leugtli, 9, 54 in.; alar extent, 7; wing, 3. 

"The most abundant of the humming-birds in the mountain districts,, 
but of rare occurrence in the lower portions of the island. ISTot so abun- 
dant, however, as in Dominica." 

23. Eulampis holossriceus (Liun.). 

"Length, ^, 4j| in.; alar extent, 0; wing, 2^-. 

" Length, 5 , 4^- in. ; alar extent, G^ ; wing, 2^. 

"This species is found in the mountains as well as in the valleys of 
the lowlands. It is found in the Jardin des Plantes, and on the elevated 
plateau of Morne Eonge and Champs Plores. In the elevated districts 
it is not in the numbers of JE. jiKjularu.''' 

24. Orthorhynchus exilis (Gju.). 


"Length, ^j, oh in.; alar extent, 4^; wing, 2. 

"Length, 9, oh in.; alar extent, 4f ; wing, IJ. 

" This little gem is found all over the island, though not in such profu- 
sion as I found it in Dominica. In the Jardin des Plantes it is the most 
numerous species, perhaps. At Morne Eonge and at Trois Islets, I found 
it occasionally. 

"As in the other islands where the French and French patois is spoken, 
this little bird is known to the common people as ' fou fou ', or crazy crazy, 
from its eccentric motions while in flight. 

" They have also a superstition that if you eat its body it will make 
you crazy, and in their ignorance they believe it is used by the physi- 
cians in some mysterious medicine — hence its vulgar name in the English 
slands of 'Doctor Bird'." 



25. "Chaetura. Seen. 

"Apparently the same a.s my Dominica specimens." 


26. Ceryle alcyon (Liun.). 
"Seen; rare and shy." 


27. Coccyzus minor (Gm.). 
'^ '(Jloucon manioc' 

"Length, $,14, in.; ahir extent, 17; wing, 6. 
"Length, 9, 13 J in.; ahir extent, 10 J; wing, 6. 

I "I found this species abundant, if one can say that any species is 
abundant in an